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Research Process, Research Design

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Presentation on theme: "Research Process, Research Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Process, Research Design
and Questionnaires

2 Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice
RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings In this workshop we talk about all of the steps in the research process except Data Analysis and Findings.

3 RESEARCH PROCESS – Research Problem
What is a problem? any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired state. A problem does not necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong. It could simply indicate an interest in improving an existing situation. Thus, problem definitions can include both existing problems in the current situation as well as the quest for idealistic states in the future.

4 How are problems identified?
RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Identification How are problems identified? Observation – manager/researcher senses that changes are occurring, or that some new behaviors, attitudes, feelings, communication patterns, etc., are surfacing in one’s environment. The manager may not understand exactly what is happening, but can definitely sense that things are not what they should be. Preliminary Data Collection – use of interviews, both unstructured and structured, to get an idea or “feel” for what is happening in the situation. Literature Survey – a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas related to the problem.

5 A literature survey ensures that:
RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Identification A literature survey ensures that: Important variables likely to influence the problem are not left out of the study. A clearer idea emerges regarding what variables are most important to consider, why they are important, and how they should be investigated. The problem is more accurately and precisely defined. The interviews cover all important topics. The research hypotheses are testable. The research can be replicated. One does not “reinvent the wheel”; that is, time is not wasted trying to rediscover something that is already known. The problem to be investigated is perceived by the scientific community as relevant and significant.

6 Typical Business Research Problems:
RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Identification Typical Business Research Problems: Training programs are not as effective as anticipated. Sales volume of products/services is not increasing. Balancing of accounting ledgers is becoming increasingly difficult. The newly installed information system is not being used by the employees for whom it was designed. Introduction of flexible work hours has created more problems than it has solved. Anticipated results of a recent merger/acquisition have not been realized. Inventory control systems are not effective. Frequent interruptions in production. Low employee morale. Frequent customer complaints. Installation of an MIS keeps getting delayed. Ad campaign is not generating new sales prospects.

7 What are some business problems you are aware of or have confronted?
RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Identification What are some business problems you are aware of or have confronted?

8 Problem Definition Steps:
“A problem well defined is a problem half solved!” RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Definition Problem Definition Steps: Understand and define the complete problem. If more than one problem is identified, separate and prioritize them in terms of who and when they will be dealt with. Identify and separate out measurable symptoms to determine root problem versus easily observable symptoms. For example, a manager may identify declining sales or lost market share as the problem, but the real problem may be bad advertising, low salesperson morale, or ineffective distribution. Similarly, low productivity may be a symptom of employee morale or motivation problems, or supervisor issues. Determine the unit of analysis = individuals, households, businesses, objects (e.g., products, stores), geographic areas, etc., or some combination. Determine the relevant variables, including specifying independent and dependent relationships, constructs, etc.

9 Examples of Well-Defined problems:
RESEARCH PROCESS – Problem Definition Examples of Well-Defined problems: Has the new packaging affected the sales of the product? How do price and quality rate on consumers’ evaluation of products? Is the effect of participative budgeting on performance moderated by control systems? Does better automation lead to greater asset investment per dollar of output? Has the new advertising message resulted in higher recall? To what extent do the organizational structure and type of information systems account for the variance in the perceived effectiveness of managerial decision-making? Will expansion of international operations result in an improvement in the firm’s image and value? What are the effects of downsizing on the long-range growth patterns of companies? What are the components of “quality of life”? What are the specific factors to be considered in creating a data warehouse for a manufacturing company?

10 RESEARCH PROCESS – Definitions
Variable = the observable and measurable characteristics/attributes the researcher specifies, studies, and draws conclusions about. Types of Variables: Independent variable = also called a predictor variable, it is a variable or construct that influences or explains the dependent variable either in a positive or negative way. Dependent variable = also known as a criterion variable, it is a variable or construct the researcher hopes to understand, explain and/or predict. Moderator variable = a variable that has an effect on the independent – dependent variable relationship. The presence of a moderator variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and dependent variables by interacting with the independent variable to influence the strength of the relationship with the dependent variable. Mediating variable = also known as an intervening variable, it is a variable that surfaces as a function of the independent variable and explains the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Moderator variables specify when certain effects will occur whereas mediators speak to how or why such effects occur. Moreover, mediators explain how external events take on internal psychological significance.

11 RESEARCH PROCESS – Definitions continued . . .
Measurement = is the process of determining the direction and intensity of feelings about persons, events, concepts, ideas, and/or objects of interest that are defined as being part of the business problem. As part of measurement, researchers use predetermined rules to assign numbers or labels to: (1) individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, characteristics, etc.; (2) objects’ features or attributes; and (3) any other phenomenon or event being investigated. Rules tell researchers how to assign numbers or labels; e.g., assign the numbers 1 to 7 to responses based on the intensity of an individual’s feelings, beliefs, etc. Measurement involves two processes: (1) identification/development of constructs; and (2) scale measurement. The first process involves identifying and defining what is to be measured, while the second process involves selecting the scale to measure the construct(s). Construct = also referred to as a concept, it is a abstract idea formed in the mind based on a set of facts or observations. The idea is a combination of a number of similar characteristics of the construct. Examples of constructs include: brand awareness, brand familiarity, purchase intentions, satisfaction, importance, trust, service quality, role ambiguity, etc. Scale measurement = using a set of symbols or numbers to represent the range of possible responses to a research question.

12 RESEARCH PROCESS – Constructs
Examples of Constructs Investigated in Marketing: Constructs Operational Description Brand Awareness Percentage of respondents that have heard of a designated brand; awareness could be either unaided or aided. Brand Attitudes The number of respondents and their intensity of feeling positive or negative toward a specific brand. Purchase Intentions The number of people planning to buy the specified object (e.g., product or service) within a designated time period. Importance of Factors To what extent do specific factors influence a person's purchase choice. Psychographics The attitudes, opinions, interests and lifestyle characteristics of individuals providing the information. Satisfaction How people evaluate their post-purchase consumption experience with a particular product, service or company.

13 “Role Ambiguity” Construct
Conceptual/theoretical definition = the difference between the information available to the person (actual knowledge) and that which is required for adequate performance of a role. Operational definition = the amount of uncertainty an individual feels regarding job role responsibilities and expectations from supervisors, other employees and customers. Measurement scale = consists of 45 items assessed using a 5-point scale, with category labels 1 = very certain, 2 = certain, 3 = neutral, 4 = uncertain, and 5 = very uncertain. Examples of items: How much freedom of action I am expected to have. How I am expected to handle non-routine activities on the job. The sheer amount of work I am expected to do. To what extent my boss is open to hearing my point of view. How satisfied my boss is with me. How I am expected to interact with my customers. Source: Singh & Rhoads, JMR, August 1991, p. 328.

14 “Service Quality” Construct
Conceptual/theoretical definition = the difference between an individual’s expectations of service and their actual experiences. Operational definition = how individuals react to their actual service experience with a company relative to their expectations that a company will possess certain service characteristics. Measurement scale = consists of 82 items assessed using a 7-point scale, with category labels 1 = not at all essential to 7 = absolutely essential. Examples of items: Employees of excellent companies will give prompt service to customers. Excellent companies will have the customers’ best interests at heart. Excellent companies will perform services right the first time. Employees of excellent companies will never be too busy to respond to customer requests. Excellent companies will give customers individual attention. Materials associated with products and services of excellent companies (such as pamphlets or statements) will be visually appealing . Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, JM, Fall 1985, p. 44.

15 RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings

16 RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/Practice
What is theory ??

17 RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/Practice
Theory = a systematic set of relationships providing a consistent and comprehensive explanation of a phenomenon. In practice, a theory is a researcher’s attempt to specify the entire set of dependence relationships explaining a particular set of outcomes. Theory is based on prior empirical research, past experiences and observations of behavior, attitudes, or other phenomena, and other theories that provide a perspective for developing possible relationships. Theory is used to prepare a theoretical framework for the research.

18 RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings

19 RESEARCH PROCESS – Hypotheses
Hypotheses = preconceptions the researcher develops regarding the relationships represented in the data, typically based on theory, practice or previous research. Examples: “The average number of cups of coffee students drink during finals will be greater than the average they consume at other times.” “Younger, part-time employees of Samouel’s restaurant are more likely to search for a new job.”

20 RESEARCH PROCESS – Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework = a written description that includes a conceptual model. It integrates all the information about the problem in a logical manner, describes the relationships among the variables, explains the theory underlying these relationships, and indicates the nature and direction of the relationships. The process of developing a theoretical framework involves conceptualization – which is a visual specification (conceptual model) of the theoretical basis of the relationships you would like to examine.

21 Basic Features of a Good Theoretical Framework:
RESEARCH PROCESS – Theory/Practice Basic Features of a Good Theoretical Framework: The variables/constructs considered relevant to the study are clearly identified and labeled. The discussion states how the variables/constructs are related to each other, e.g., dependent, independent, moderator, etc. If possible, the nature (positive or negative) of the relationships as well as the direction is hypothesized on the basis of theory, previous research or researcher judgment. There is a clear explanation of why you expect these relationships to exist. A visual (schematic) diagram of the theoretical framework is prepared to clearly illustrate the hypothesized relationships.

22 RESEARCH PROCESS – Conceptual Models
Price Purchase Likelihood Independent Dependent Variable Variable Moderator Variable Discount Level Restrictions Price Purchase Likelihood Independent Dependent Variable Variable

23 RESEARCH PROCESS – Conceptual Models
Mediator Variable (full mediation) Perceived Value Purchase Likelihood Price Mediator Variable (partial mediation) Perceived Value Purchase Likelihood Price Independent Dependent Variable Variable

24 Theoretical Framework – Conceptualization
Group Exercise: Use the Samouel’s and Gino’s restaurant database variables to develop a theoretical framework/conceptual model of the relationships that could be examined. Consider and evaluate several models, but be prepared to report your most interesting or thought provoking model.

25 Conceptual Models – Samouel’s Employee Database
Supervision Employee Commitment Work Groups Compensation Supervision Intention to Search Work Groups Compensation Potential Hypotheses: Commitment is positively related to supervision, work groups and compensation. Intention to Search is negatively related to supervision, work groups & compensation.

26 Description of Customer Survey Variables
GINO'S Samouel's Restaurant VS. Variable Description Variable Type Restaurant Perceptions X1 Excellent Food Quality Metric X2 Attractive Interior Metric X3 Generous Portions Metric X4 Excellent Food Taste Metric X5 Good Value for the Money Metric X6 Friendly Employees Metric X7 Appears Clean & Neat Metric X8 Fun Place to Go Metric X9 Wide Variety of menu Items Metric X10 Reasonable Prices Metric X11 Courteous Employees Metric X12 Competent Employees Metric Selection Factor Rankings X13 Food Quality Nonmetric X14 Atmosphere Nonmetric X15 Prices Nonmetric X16 Employees Nonmetric Relationship Variables X17 Satisfaction Metric X18 Likely to Return in Future Metric X19 Recommend to Friend Metric X20 Frequency of Patronage Nonmetric X21 Length of Time a Customer Nonmetric Classification Variables X22 Gender Nonmetric X23 Age Nonmetric X24 Income Nonmetric X25 Competitor Nonmetric X26 Which AD Viewed (#1, 2 or 3) Nonmetric X27 AD Rating Metric X28 Respondents that Viewed Ads Nonmetric

27 Description of Employee Survey Variables
Samouel's Restaurant Description of Employee Survey Variables Variable Description Variable Type Work Environment Measures X1 I am paid fairly for the work I do Metric X2 I am doing the kind of work I want Metric X3 My supervisor gives credit an praise for work well done Metric X4 There is a lot of cooperation among the members of my work group Metric X5 My job allows me to learn new skills Metric X6 My supervisor recognizes my potential Metric X7 My work gives me a sense of accomplishment Metric X8 My immediate work group functions as a team Metric X9 My pay reflects the effort I put into doing my work Metric X10 My supervisor is friendly and helpful Metric X11 The members of my work group have the skills and/or training to do their job well Metric X12 The benefits I receive are reasonable Metric Relationship Measures X13 Loyalty – I have a sense of loyalty to Samouel’s restaurant Metric X14 Effort – I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that expected to help Samouel’s restaurant to be successful Metric X15 Proud – I am proud to tell others that I work for Samouel’s restaurant Metric Classification Variables X16 Intention to Search Metric X17 Length of Time an Employee Nonmetric X18 Work Type = Part-Time vs. Full-Time Nonmetric X19 Gender Nonmetric X20 Age Nonmetric X21 Performance Metric

28 RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings

Research Design Alternatives – Purpose: (1) Exploratory – to formulate the problem, develop hypotheses, identify constructs, establish priorities for research, refine ideas, clarify concepts, etc. (2) Descriptive – to describe characteristics of certain groups, estimate proportion of people in a population who behave in a given way, and to make directional predictions. (3) Causal – to provide evidence of the relationships between variables, the sequence in which events occur, and/or to eliminate other possible explanations.

30 Research Design – Approaches
Two Broad Approaches: Qualitative. Quantitative.

31 Role of Qualitative Research:
RESEARCH DESIGN Role of Qualitative Research: Search of academic, trade and professional literature (both traditional & Internet). Use of interviews, brainstorming, focus groups. Internalization of how others have undertaken both qualitative and quantitative research. Use of existing questionnaires/constructs. Outcome of Qualitative Research: Improve conceptualization. Clarify research design, including data collection approach. Draft questionnaire.

32 Role of Quantitative Research:
RESEARCH DESIGN Role of Quantitative Research: Quantify data and generalize results from sample to population. Facilitates examination of large number of representative cases. Structured approach to data collection. Enables extensive statistical analysis. Outcome of Quantitative Research: Validation of qualitative research findings. Confirmation of hypotheses, theories, etc. Recommend final course of action.

33 RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings

34 DATA COLLECTION Approaches: Observation Surveys Human
Mechanical/Electronic Devices Surveys Self-Completion Mail/Overnight Delivery/Fax Electronic Interviewer-Administered Face-to-Face – Home, Work, Mall, Focus Groups Telephone

35 DATA COLLECTION Selection of data collection approach? Budget
Knowledge of issues – qualitative vs. quantitative Respondent Participation Taste Test; Ad Test Card Sorts; Visual Scaling Time Available

36 DATA COLLECTION Types of Data: Primary Secondary

37 PRIMARY DATA Primary Data Sources: Informal discussions; brainstorming
Focus groups Observational Methods Structured & Unstructured Surveys Experiments

38 Primary Data – Focus Groups
Focus Groups = bring a small group of people (10-12) together for an interactive, spontaneous discussion of a particular topic or concept. Discussion is led by a trained moderator and usually lasts 1 ½ hours. Typical Objectives: To identify and define problems. To generate new ideas about products, services, delivery methods, etc. To test advertising themes, positioning statements, company and product names, etc. To discover new constructs and measurement methods. To understand customer needs, wants, attitudes, behaviors, preferences and motives.

39 Primary Data Factors Influencing Overall Mobile Phone Satisfaction
Features 27% 21% Durability 23% 16% Physical Design 19% 28% Battery Function 16% 16% Operation 15% 19% 2004 Wireless Retail Sales Satisfaction Study Sales Staff 44% Price/Promotion 28% Store Display 14% Store Facility 14% Source: J.D. Power and Associates, 2002, 2003 & 2004. These percentages typically are determined in quantitative surveys (descriptive research). These factors typically are identified in qualitative focus groups (exploratory research).

40 Primary Data Hotel Selection Factors: Location Past Experience Recommendations or Friends and Family Brand Reputation Guest Satisfaction Factors: Guest Room Departure Process Pre-Arrival/Arrival Experiences Hotel Services Food & Beverage services Note: the first three factors account for more than 70 percent of guest satisfaction ratings. Source: J.D. Power & Associates, August 21, 2001.

41 What is the construct in this study?
Primary Data Original Equipment Tire Satisfaction Study: Product Quality % - Number of tires with a problem - Number of problems experienced - Number of original tires replaced Long-Term Performance 22% - Wear ability - Length of warranty - Overall reliability & dependability - Freedom from pull to left or right Situational Performance 19% - Traction on wet roads - Traction at fast starts - Holds road well in emergencies - Lack of vibration at highway speeds - Overall safety - Overall ride at highway speeds Design % - Road quietness - Style & appearance of sidewalls - Tread design - Size of tire matches size of vehicle Winter Traction % Source: J.D. Power & Associates, August 27, 2001.

42 PRIMARY DATA – Focus Groups
Some of my “best” experiences? Some of my “worst” experiences?

43 PRIMARY DATA – Observations
CONSIDERATIONS: Methods – human/mechanical/electronic. Useful where respondent cannot or will not articulate the answer. Cannot be used to measure thoughts, feelings, attitudes, opinions, etc.

44 Purpose of Questionnaires:
PRIMARY DATA – QUESTIONNAIRES Purpose of Questionnaires: To obtain information that cannot be easily observed or is not already available in written or electronic form. Questionnaires enable researchers to measure concepts/constructs.

45 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Steps in Questionnaire Design:
Initial Considerations – problem, objectives, target population, sampling, etc. Clarification of Concepts – select variables, constructs, measurement approach, etc. Developing the Questionnaire Length and sequence. Types of questions. Sources of questions. Wording, coding, layout and instructions. Pre-testing the Questionnaire. Questionnaire Administration Planning.

46 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Two Types of Questions: Open-ended Closed-ended
Open-ended Questions = place no constraints on respondents; i.e., they are free to answer in their own words and to give whatever thoughts come to mind. Closed-ended Questions = respondent is given the option of choosing from a number of predetermined answers.

47 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Examples of Open-ended Questions: · How do you typically decide which restaurant you will eat at? · Which mutual funds have you been investing in for the past year? ·  How are your investment funds performing? ·  Do you think airport security is better now than it was six months ago?

48 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Open-ended Questions
Typically used in exploratory/qualitative studies. Typically used in personal interview surveys involving small samples. Allows respondent freedom of response. Respondent must be articulate and willing to spend time giving a full answer. Data is in narrative form which can be time consuming and difficult to code and analyze. Possible researcher bias in interpretation. Narrative is analyzed using of content analysis. Software is available (e.g., NUD*IST).

49 Content Analysis Software:
TextSmart is a software package that enables users to view, manipulate and automate the coding or categorization of responses to narative data. The ability to automate the examination and organization of narrative data is particularly helpful when a ‘large scale’ survey is undertaken. It can be used to analyze any textual data, and its output can be exported to SPSS for further analysis. For example, you can do correspondence analysis* on a contingency table from a TextSmart analysis. For more information about TextSmart and related SPSS products visit the WWW site QSR NUD*IST stands for Non-Numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing. It is a popular computer software package used by researchers to analyze text from focus group or interview transcripts, literary documents and so on. It examines non-textual data such as photographs, tape recordings, films and so on. Users can us it to index and link several documents in a structured way to produce categorical data in a form amenable to further analysis. NUD*IST output can be exported to software programs such as SPSS and Excel. For more information about QSR NUD*IST and its related product NVIVO visit their website (

50 Closed-end Questions:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Closed-end Questions: Single Answer Multiple Answer Rank Order Numeric Likert-Type Scales Semantic Differential

51 Examples of Closed-end Questions:
Did you check your this morning? __ Yes __ No Do you believe Enron senior executives should be put in jail? __ Yes __ No Should the U.K. adopt the Euro or keep the Pound? __ Adopt the Euro __ Keep the Pound Which countries in Europe have you traveled to in the last six months? __ Belgium __ Germany __ France __ Holland __ Italy __ Switzerland __ Spain __ Other (please specify) _____________ How often do you eat at Samouel’s Greek Cuisine restaurant? __ Never __ 1 – 4 times per year __ 5 – 8 times per year __ 9 – 12 times per year __ More than 12 times per year

52 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Closed-end Questions
Typically used in quantitative studies. Assumption is researcher has knowledge to pre-specify response categories. Data can be pre-coded and therefore in a form amenable for use with statistical packages (e.g., SPSS, SAS) – data capture therefore easier. More difficult to design but simplifies analysis. Used in studies involving large samples. Limited range of response options.

53 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Broad Considerations Sequencing of questions.
Identification of concepts. How many questions are required to capture each concept. Question wording. Overall length of questionnaire. Placing of sensitive questions. Ability of respondents. Level of measurement. Open-ended versus closed-end questions.

54 Questionnaire Sequence
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Questionnaire Sequence Opening Questions Research Topic Questions Classification Questions

55 Screening or Filter Questions:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Opening Questions Screening or Filter Questions: are used to ensure respondents included in the study are those that meet the pre-determined criteria of the target population. “Tonight we are talking with individuals who are 18 years of age or older and have 50 percent or more of the responsibility for banking decisions in your household. Are you that person?” __ Yes __ No

56 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Opening Questions
Rapport Questions: are used to establish rapport with the respondent by gaining their attention and stimulating their interest in the topic. “Have you seen any good movies in the last month?” __ Yes __ No “What is your favorite seafood restaurant?”

57 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN – Research Topic Questions
Concept/construct = an abstract idea formed in the mind. The idea is a combination of a number of similar characteristics/variables that collectively define the concept and are used to measure it. Constructs are abstract/intangible and cannot be directly observed or measured because they are the mental images a person attaches to an object, such as attitudes, feelings, perceptions, expectations, or expressions of future actions (e.g., purchase intentions). Example Concept: “Customer Service” issues for a B-to-B situation Reliable delivery Technical sales Support Inside sales representatives Field sales representatives Complaint resolution Ordering/Invoicing Website design

58 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Concepts Concept Identification
Conceptual definition – e.g., Service Quality. As perceived by customers, it is the difference between customers’ expectations or desires of a vendor and their perceptions of the actual situation (their experiences). Working Definition for Concept Decompose definition into components. Search for items that are measurable.

59 Service Quality Construct:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Service Quality Construct: Research has shown the service quality construct can be indirectly represented by the following measurable components: “ The service provider’s ability to “ communicate and listen to consumers; sincerely empathize with customers in interpreting their needs and wants; be tactful in responding to customers’ questions, objections, and problems; create an impression of reliability in performing services; create an image of credibility by keeping promises; demonstrate sufficient technical knowledge and competence; exhibit strong interpersonal skills in dealing with customers.

60 Concept Development Exercise:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Concept Development Exercise: Concept = “Restaurant Service Quality” What are the components of service quality as they relate to a restaurant? How do you measure these components?

61 Preparing Good Questions:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Preparing Good Questions: Use Simple Words. Be brief. Avoid Ambiguity. Avoid Leading Questions. Avoid Double-Barreled Questions. Check Questionnaire Layout. Prepare Clear Instructions. Watch Question Sequence.

62 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Recently a survey was conducted by the United Nations using a sample from several different countries. The question asked was: " Would you please give your opinion about the food shortage in the rest of the world?" The survey was a huge failure. Why? In Africa they did not know what 'food' meant. In Western Europe, they did not know what 'shortage' meant. In Eastern Europe they did not know what 'opinion' meant. In South America they did not know what 'please' meant. And in the U.S., they did not know what 'the rest of the world' meant.

63 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Avoid Position Bias: Position Bias:
“How important are flexible hours in evaluating job alternatives?” “What factors are important in evaluating No Position Bias:

64 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Double-Barreled Questions:
Double-Barreled Questions: To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements? “Harrod’s employees are friendly and helpful.” “Harrod’s employees are courteous and knowledgeable.”

65 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Branching Questions:
Branching Questions: are used to direct respondents to answer the right questions as well as questions in the proper sequence. “Have you seen or heard any advertisements for wireless telephone service in the past 30 days?” “If ‘No’, go to question #10. “If ‘Yes’ , were the advertisements on radio or TV or both?” “If the advertisements were on TV or on both radio and TV, then go to question #6? “If the advertisements were on radio, then go to question #8.” Following questions #6 and #8 the next question would be: “Were any of the advertisements for ‘Sprint PCS’?”

66 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Issues – Self-Completion Instructions:
Issues – Self-Completion Instructions: Introducing and explaining how to answer a series of questions on a particular topic. Transition statements from one section (topic) of the questionnaire to another. Which question to go to next (branching or skipping). How many answers are acceptable, e.g., “Check only one response” or “Check as many as apply.” Whether respondents are supposed to answer the question by themselves, or can consult another person or reference materials. What to do when the questionnaire is completed, e.g., “When finished, place this in the postage paid envelope and mail it.”

67 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Issues – Interviewer-Assisted Instructions:
Issues – Interviewer-Assisted Instructions: How to increase respondent participation. How to screen out respondents that are not wanted and still keep them happy. What to say when respondents ask how to answer a particular question. When concepts may not be easily understood, how to define them. When answer alternatives are to be read to respondents (aided response) or not to be read (unaided response). How to follow branching or skip patterns. When and how to probe. How to end the interview.

68 Identify response bias for below questions:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Identify response bias for below questions: “Do you advocate a lower speed limit to save human lives?” “When you visited the museum, how many times did you read the plaques that explain what the exhibit contained?” “About what time do you ordinarily eat dinner?” “How important is it for stores to carry a large variety of different brands of this product?” “Would you favor increasing taxes to cope with the current fiscal crisis?” “Don’t you see some danger in the new policy?” “What small appliance, such as countertop appliances, have you purchased in the past month?” “When you buy ‘fast food,’ what percentage of the time do you order each of the following types of food?” “Do you like orange juice?”

69 Comments on Questions:
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Comments on Questions: A loaded question because everyone wants to save lives. Also, it presumes that lower speed limits saves lives. Too specific because respondents likely cannot remember the exact number of times. Ambiguous because don’t know if dinner is lunch or evening. Not specific enough about types of stores. Overemphasis because refers to crisis. Leading question because uses “danger” in sentence. Answers likely to relate only to countertop appliances and not all small appliances. Over generalization because does not specify time period. Ambiguous because may like orange juice for themselves, or for their kids, but really do not know.

70 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Pre-testing Questionnaires:
Objective: to identify possible shortcomings of questionnaire. Approaches – informal or formal. Can assess: No hard and fast rules. clarity of instructions cover letter clarity of questions adequacy of codes and categories for pre-coded questions quality of responses likely response rate ability to perform meaningful analyses time to complete the questionnaire cost of data collection which questions are relevant whether key questions have been overlooked sources of bias

71 Scales = the approach used to measure concepts (constructs).
Scale Development Scales = the approach used to measure concepts (constructs). Two Options: Use published scales. Develop original scales.

72 Sources of Published Scales
Organizational Behavior and Management Price, James L., Handbook of Organizational Measurement, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 18, Number 4/5/6, 1997, ISSN , Has 28 chapters with constructs measuring organizational behavior. Management Information Systems (MIS)   Marketing Bearden, William O. and Richard Netemeyer, Handbook of Marketing Scales, Sage Publications, 2nd ed., Summarizes over 130 marketing related scales. Bruner, Gordon Paul Hensel, Marketing Scales Handbook, Chicago, Ill., American Marketing Association, Includes almost 600 scales. General Robinson, John P., Phillip R. Shaver and Lawrence S. Wrightsman, Measures of Personal and Social Psychological Attitudes, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Contains over 150 published scales in 11 different areas. Buros Institute of Mental Measurement’s website – has reviews of published tests and measurements.

73 Online Questionnaire Design
Survey Builder   SurveyPro   SurveySez   WebSurveyor Decision Analyst Decisive Technology Perseus Development   Socratic Technologies SPSS  

74 MEASUREMENT SCALES Types of Scales: Metric (interval & ratio)
Likert-type Summated-Ratings (Likert) Numerical Semantic Differential Graphic-Ratings Nonmetric (nominal & ordinal) Categorical Constant Sum Method Paired Comparisons Rank Order Sorting

75 Examples of Likert-Type Scales:
MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Examples of Likert-Type Scales: “When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.” Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat Disagree “When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.” Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree

76 Summated Ratings Scales:
MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Summated Ratings Scales: A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a number of statements. A subject’s attitude score (summated rating) is the total obtained by summing over the items in the scale and dividing by the number of items to get the average. Example: “My sales representative is “ SD D N A SA Courteous ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Friendly ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Helpful ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Alternative Approach to Summated Ratings scales: “When I hear about a new restaurant , I eat there to see what it is like.” Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat Disagree “I always eat at new restaurants when someone tells me they are good.” Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Somewhat or Disagree Somewhat Disagree This approach includes a separate labeled Likert scale with each item (statement). The summated rating is a total of the responses for all the items divided by the number of items.

Numerical Scales: Example: “Using a 10-point scale, where ‘1’ is ‘not at all important’ and ’10’ is ‘very important,’ how important is ______ in your decision to do business with a particular vendor.” Note: you fill in the blank with an attribute, such as reliable delivery, product quality, complaint resolution, and so forth.

79 Semantic Differential Scales:
MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Semantic Differential Scales: A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to check which space between a set of bipolar adjectives or phrases best describes their feelings toward the stimulus object. Example: “My sales representative is “ Courteous ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Discourteous Friendly ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Unfriendly Helpful ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Unhelpful Honest ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Dishonest

80 Graphic-Ratings Scales:
MEASUREMENT SCALES – Metric Graphic-Ratings Scales: A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to indicate their ratings of an attribute by placing a check at the appropriate point on a line that runs from one extreme of the attribute to the other. “Please evaluate each attribute in terms of how important the attribute is to you personally (your company) by placing an “X” at the position on the horizontal line that most reflects your feelings.” Not Important Very Important Courteousness _____________________________________ Friendliness _____________________________________ Helpfulness _____________________________________ Knowledgeable _____________________________________

Categorical scale: Categorical scales are nominally measured opinion scales that have two or more response categories. “How satisfied are you with your current job?” [ ] Very Satisfied [ ] Somewhat Satisfied [ ] Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied [ ] Somewhat Dissatisfied [ ] Very Dissatisfied Note: Some researchers consider this a metric scale when coded 1 – 5 .

Constant-Sum Method: A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to divide some given sum among two or more attributes on the basis of their importance to them. “Please divide 100 points among the following attributes in terms of the relative importance of each attribute to you.” Courteous Service ____ Friendly Service ____ Helpful Service ____ Knowledgeable Service ____ Total

83 Paired Comparison Method:
MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric Paired Comparison Method: A scaling technique in which respondents are given pairs of stimulus objects and asked which object in a pair they prefer most. “Please circle the attribute describing a sales representative which you consider most desirable.” Courteous versus Knowledgeable Friendly versus Helpful Helpful versus Courteous

84 Sorting: MEASUREMENT SCALES – Nonmetric
A scaling technique in which respondents are asked to indicate their beliefs or opinions by arranging objects (items) on the basis of perceived importance, similarity, preference or some other attribute.

Rank Order Method: A scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several stimulus objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them with respect to a specific characteristic. “Please rank the following attributes on how important each is to you in relation to a sales representative. Place a “1” beside the attribute which is most important, a “2” next to the attribute that is second in importance, and so on.” Courteous Service ___ Friendly Service ___ Helpful Service ___ Knowledgeable Service ___

86 Practical Decisions When Developing Scales:
Scale Development Practical Decisions When Developing Scales: Number of items (indicators) to measure a concept? Number of scale categories? Odd or even number of categories? (Include neutral point ?) Balanced or unbalanced scales? Forced or non-forced choice? (Include Don’t Know ?) Category labels for scales? Scale reliability and validity?

87 Balanced vs. Unbalanced Scales?
Scale Development Balanced vs. Unbalanced Scales? Balanced: “To what extent do you consider TV shows with sex and violence to be acceptable for teenagers to view?”   __ Very Acceptable __ Somewhat Acceptable __ Neither Acceptable or Unacceptable __ Somewhat Unacceptable __ Very Unacceptable Unbalanced: __ Very Acceptable __ Unacceptable

88 Scale Development Forced or Non-Forced?
“How likely are you to purchase a laptop PC in the next six months?” Very Very Unlikely Likely __ No Opinion

89 Category Labels for Scales?
Scale Development Category Labels for Scales? Verbal Label: “How important is the size of the hard drive in selecting a laptop PC to purchase?” Very Somewhat Neither Important Somewhat Very Unimportant Unimportant or Unimportant Important Important Numerical Label: “How likely are you to purchase a laptop PC in the next six months?” Very Very Unlikely Likely Unlabeled: “How important is the weight of the laptop PC in deciding which brand to purchase?” Very Very Unimportant Important ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

90 Choosing a Measurement Scale:
MEASUREMENT SCALES Choosing a Measurement Scale: Capabilities of Respondents. Context of Scale Application. Data Analysis Approach. Validity and Reliability.

91 Assessing Measurement Scales:
Validity Reliability Measurement Error = occurs when the values obtained in a survey (observed values) are not the same as the true values (population values).

92 RESEARCH DESIGN Types of Errors:
Nonresponse = problem definition, refusal, sampling, etc. Response = respondent or interviewer. Data Collection Instrument: Construct Development. Scaling Measurement. Questionnaire Design/Sequence, etc. Data Analysis. Interpretation.

93 SECONDARY DATA Data that has been gathered previously for other purposes.

94 SECONDARY DATA Secondary Data Issues: Availability Relevance Accuracy

95 RESEARCH PROCESS Identify and Define Research Problem Theory / Practice Hypotheses / Conceptualization Research Design Data collection Data Analysis Findings

96 Data Analysis Methods: Dependence Interdependence Multiple Regression
Discriminant Analysis ANOVA/MANOVA Interdependence Factor Analysis Cluster Analysis

97 Research Design & Data Collection
Learning Checkpoint: Define a research problem to be studied. Identify the topics /concepts that will be covered to answer research questions. Identify the types of questions and/or scaling you will use. How will you evaluate the questions/scales you use? Determine the best way to collect the data. Present group suggestions; defend.

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