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Computer Systems 1 Fundamentals of Computing

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1 Computer Systems 1 Fundamentals of Computing
Health & Safety

2 Health & Safety Working with computers Effects on life Health & Safety
Social aspects Legal requirements / implications Equipment specific aspects Environmental issues Ergonomics Computer Systems 1 ( )

3 Working with computers
Risks and effects associated with computer use These are not only health related but also have social and economical implications Computers and technology encroach on many aspects of everyday life Desktop computers Laptop computers PDA’s Mobile phones Computer Systems 1 ( )

4 Working with computers
“All businesses must ensure their workplace - whether this is a factory, office or shop - meets minimum health and safety standards.” IT Related employer responsibilities: carrying out a risk assessment ensuring employees use IT equipment safely reporting accidents or dangerous incidents in the workplace to the relevant authorities UK Law ( Computer Systems 1 ( )

5 General Health & Safety
Risk Assessment All business must carry out an assessment Issues What are the potential hazards? What hazard prevention measures are in place? Five Step Risk Assessment Look for the hazards Decide who might be harmed and how Evaluate risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate or whether more needs to be done Record your findings Review your risk assessment from time to time and revise it Computer Systems 1 ( )

6 General Health & Safety
Equipment Regulations Equipment must be suitable and safe to use under the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER). All equipment must be: suitable for its intended use maintained in a safe condition accompanied by suitable safety measures such as protective devices, markings and warnings Only people who have received adequate information, instruction and training use the equipment. Computer Systems 1 ( )

7 Specific IT Regulations
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 Measures: Ensure workstations and workplace layout meet a range of minimum requirements in areas such as clarity of image, adjustable chairs and suitable lighting Ensure staff receive a Display Screen Equipment risk assessment and arising problems are resolved Computer Systems 1 ( )

8 Specific IT Regulations
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 Measures continued: Give staff regular breaks away from display screens Pay for employees' eye tests on request Provide training so staff can use their VDU and workstation safely VDU User Guide Computer Systems 1 ( )

9 Health and Safety Predominantly because of keyboard and mouse use
RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) Primarily affects the hand and arms (pain!!!) Can cause permanent damage CTS (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) Mainly affects the wrists of computer users Especially in the mouse hand Swelling of tendons, causes pressure on the nerves Computer Systems 1 ( )

10 Health and Safety VDU use VDU = Visual Display Unit Eye strain
The monitor or screen to you and I Eye strain Poor positioning of monitor Issues with electrostatic fields Skin and eye irritation Magnetic & light radiation Issues with electromagnetic fields Reduction of immune system effectiveness Computer Systems 1 ( )

11 Solutions - Overview Working environment OHSA (US) UK Health and
Occupational Health and Safety Administration UK Health and Safety Executive Computer Systems 1 ( )

12 Solutions - Overview Ergonomics Wrist supports Monitor filters
Correct posture Positioning of components Copy holders Better work environment Adjustable chair, desk, etc. Wrist supports Monitor filters Regular breaks Computer Systems 1 ( )

13 VDU Legal Requirements
Computer screens should: tilt and swivel to suit the needs of the user be adjusted to the correct height for the user show clear characters with adequate spacing show a stable image with no flickering have easily adjustable brightness and contrast controls be free of reflected glare have a screen size suitable for its intended use You should also ensure that users know: how to adjust brightness and contrast controls to suit keep the screen surface clean how to adjust software settings to make text large enough to read easily take frequent breaks Computer Systems 1 ( )

14 Keyboard Legal Requirements
Keyboards should: be tilt adjustable and separate from the screen to allow the user to work comfortably have enough space in front of them to allow the user to rest their hands and arms when not keying be legible and have a matt surface to minimise glare You should also ensure that users: adjust the keyboard to get a comfortable position keep their wrists straight when keying use the keys lightly and not overstretch their fingers take frequent breaks Computer Systems 1 ( )

15 Pointing Device Legal Requirements
If an employee uses a mouse, trackball or other pointing device for long periods, they may develop problems in their hands, wrists or upper body Minimise risk by: Train user to use the mouse with relaxed arm and a straight wrist informing the user that their fingers should rest lightly on the buttons and not press too hard limiting the length of intensive mouse sessions ensuring users take frequent short breaks ensuring the device is suitable for the task training the user in keyboard shortcuts training the user to adjust the software settings - these control the reaction time between the mouse and the cursor on the screen Computer Systems 1 ( )

16 Laptop Advice Some design features on laptops and portable computers can make them uncomfortable to use for long periods Employees shouldn't therefore use laptops where full-sized equipment is available Laptops should: be as light as possible - 3kg or under be fitted with as large and clear a screen as possible preferably detachable or height-adjustable come with a lightweight carrying case with handle and shoulder straps Computer Systems 1 ( )

17 Laptop Advice Laptops should: have a tilt-adjustable keyboard
be able to be used with a docking station have friction pads underneath to prevent sliding across work surfaces have enough memory and speed for the software used be fitted with as long a battery life as possible and have extra transformer/cable sets provided so that the user has a set in each main location where the equipment is used Computer Systems 1 ( )

18 Laptop Advice Laptops users should be aware of:
comfortable postures for using a laptop using the keyboard at the right height adjusting the screen to reduce reflection and glare the need for regular rest breaks how to report any problems that develop how to reduce the manual handling risk, eg by reducing the amount of extra equipment and paperwork to be carried how to reduce the risk from theft or mugging Computer Systems 1 ( )

19 The Workstation Desks: Chair:
big enough to allow the user to arrange the screen, keyboard, documents, etc in a flexible way have a matt surface big enough to let the user work comfortably & change position be stable and positioned so that it's comfortable and easy to use where an employee uses a document holder Chair: be stable and allow the user to work comfortably be adjustable in height have a seat back adjustable in height and tilt Computer Systems 1 ( )

20 Social Implications of Computers
Computers are everywhere! IT training becoming a necessity Everyone prone to health and safety issues with technology Stress / ‘Computer rage’ Software manufacturers fault? Information easily available and easy to share Less need for social interaction Why can’t the computer do it? Laziness? Un-sociable society? Computer Systems 1 ( )

21 CS1: Week 10 What you know now: Aspects of safety
General working requirements IT Specifics Monitors Working with computers Health & Safety Issues VDU usage Workstation Equipment safety Computer Systems 1 ( )

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