2 Pastry typesPastry is basically a dough made from flour, fat, salt and water which is then used as a base, cover or envelope for sweet or savoury fillings.On the syllabus we are asked to look in detail at -Shortcrust pastry andRough Puff pastryThere are more types e.g. Choux / Filo / Suet / flaky / hot water crust etc. but extensive knowledge about these is not needed.
3 Common Ingredients / Functions FlourSoft plain flour (low gluten) is used in shortcrust pastry to give a short crumbStrong plain flour (high gluten) is used in Rough Puff pastry to give an elastic doughFlour forms the structure of the dough
4 Common Ingredients / Functions FatThe fat coats the grains of flour resulting in a crumbly textureFat helps to trap air between the layers of rough puff pastryFat adds colour / flavour
5 Common Ingredients / Functions WaterBinds the dry ingredients togetherLemon juice – added to rough puff pastry – helps to strengthen the gluten to help roll / stretch the pastry(OTHER LIQUIDS can be added including milk and egg)
6 Common Ingredients / Functions SaltAdds flavourStrengthens gluten
7 Methods Short crust pastry is made by the rubbing-in method Rough puff pastry is made by making a dough from .....flour, small cubes of fat, water and lemon juiceThis is then folded and rolled several times to get layersThe edges are sealed to prevent air escapingThe pastry is cooked at a high temp causing the fat to meltThe fat is absorbed by the flour leaving pockets of airThe air expands in the heat and water converts into steam which expands – this gives the layers
8 FaultsShortcrust- Hard and/ or tough pastry Due to too much liquid, too little fat, over-handling or insufficient rubbing in- Soft and crumbly pastry Too little water; too much fat or self-raising flour used instead or plain- Shrunk pastry Excess stretching during rolling out- Soggy pastry Filling too moist or sugar in a sweet pie in contact with pastry- Sunken Pie Oven temperature too low; cold pastry put over hot filling; too much liquid in filling or too little filling- Speckled pastry Un-dissolved sugar grains in enriched pastry crust
9 Faults Rough Puff - Pastry has not flaked well Oven temp. too cool Insufficient liquidPastry folded and rolled unevenlyPastry not rested sufficientlyPastry folded too thinly- Shrinkage Dough not relaxed enough after rolling out and make-up