2 IntroductionPlant is a major cause of workplace death or injury in Australia.The Work Health and Safety Act 2012 and Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 have significant plant and structure safety requirements.Duties for various PCBUs have been more clearly defined, and some areas previously dealt with under Construction and Work at Heights have now been brought within the Plant chapter.
3 Definition of PlantAny machinery, equipment, appliance, container, implement and tool, and includes any component or anything fitted or connected to any of those things.Certain kinds of plant, such as forklifts, cranes and some pressure equipment, require a licence from the WHS regulator to operate and some high-risk plant must also be registered with the WHS regulator.Plant includes items as diverse as lifts, cranes, computers, machinery, conveyors, forklifts, vehicles, power tools and amusement devices.Plant that relies exclusively on manual power for its operation and is designed to be primarily supported by hand, for example a screw driver, is not covered by the WHS Regulations.The general duty of care under the WHS Act applies to this type of plant.
4 Definition of Structure Is anything that is constructed, whether fixed or moveable, temporary or permanent and includes buildings, masts, towers, framework, pipelines, transport infrastructure and underground works, any component of a structure and part of a structure.Examples includes scaffolding, shafts, tunnels, lifts, lasers, amusement rides
5 Registration and Licencing of Plant and Structures Some plant must be registered with SafeWork SA before it can be supplied (at design) or before it can be used (management or control).Some plant require the operator to hold a high risk work licence before it can be operated.Examples that must be registered at design stage include: pressure equipment, tower cranes lifts, amusement devices, prefabricated scaffolding and formwork, boom type elevating work platforms, vehicle hoists,Examples that must be registered before use and must be accompanied by a design verification statement – boilers, pressure vessels, tower cranes, lifts,.Examples of plant that require high risk work licence include crane and hoist operation, forklift trucks, scaffolding work, dogging and rigging work
6 The Principles of Safe Plant Management All hazards and risks to health and safety as a result of using plant are managed in accordance with risk management principles covering the full life cycle of plant.DesignManufactureImport / SupplyPre purchaseInstallUseDisposeCovering full life cycle of plant starting at Design, manufacture, import, supply, pre purchase, install, use and disposal. Supply includes hiring and leasing. When transferring plant between sites within DECD, DECD takes on the responsibility of a supplier.
7 PCBU with management or control of plant DutiesPrimary duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that workers and other persons are not exposed to health and safety risks arising from the business or undertaking. This includes:The provision and maintenance of safe plant; andThe safe use, handling, storage and transport of plant.PCBUAlso have a duty to:Manage the health and safety risks associated with plant.Prevent unauthorised alterations to or interference with plant.Use plant only for the purpose for which it was designed unless the proposed use does not increase the risk to health and safety.PCBU with management or control of plantDuty to exercise due diligence to ensure that the PCBU complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes taking reasonable steps to ensure that the PCBU has and uses appropriate resources and processes to eliminate or minimise risks that arise from plant used in the workplace.OfficersDuty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and must not adversely affect the health and safety of other persons. Workers must comply with any reasonable instruction and cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure relating to health and safety at the workplace.Workers
8 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS MANUFACTURERS IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS (Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
9 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS Eliminate or minimise risks at design stage where practicableComply with specified requirements eg. guardingProvide information about the plant such as hazards and risks associated with the use, testing, inspections and emergency response requirements.MANUFACTURERSIMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS(Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)Designers must also register certain types of plant and structures as outlined in Schedule 5 of the WHS RegulationsINSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
10 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS MANUFACTURERSInform the designer of any hazards identified during manufacture.If this is not possible, the manufacturer is required to eliminate or control the risk.Provide information about the plant eg. information about the hazards, to the person who is supplied the plant.IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS(Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
11 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS MANUFACTURERS IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS (includes Hirers and Leasers)Obtain information about the plant from the manufacturer eg. hazards, risk assessments , control measures, operator /user manuals and instructions, construction, installation, erection, commissioning plans, records from previous owners.Provide this information to the person who is supplied the plant eg. safety records, inspection reports, maintenance, repair and any modifications to the plant.SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
12 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS MANUFACTURERS Through sale, loan, trade-in, transfer or donation must:Identify any faults in the plant.Provide information in writing to the person who is supplied the plant about:The condition of the plant.Any identified faults.Notice that the plant should not be used until faults have been fixed.IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS(Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
13 P C B U Duty Holders DESIGNERS MANUFACTURERS IMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS (Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)A competent or licensed person installs, constructs or commissions plant and structures in accordance with information provided by the designer, manufacturer, importer or supplier of the plant or structure.INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
14 Duty HoldersRisks are manages in accordance with risk management requirements.Control measurers are implemented before installation or commissioned into use eg. guarding, e-stops.Unauthorised interference with or alteration to plant is prevented.Plant is only used for its intended purposeRisks associated with proposed use is assessed by a competent person.Guards, e-stops and warning devices are in place and operational.Safety features and warning devices are used.Plant does not create a risk to health and safety when not in use.Maintenance, inspection, repair and testing is only carried out by a competent person.PCBUDESIGNERSMANUFACTURERSIMPORTERS AND SUPPLIERS(Hirers and Leasers)SUPPLIERS OF SECOND HAND PLANT(Internal transfers within workplaces)INSTALL, CONSTRUCT OR COMMISSION PLANT OR STRUCTURESMANAGEMENT OR CONTROL OF PLANT AT A WORKPLACE
15 Duty to ConsultDesign, manufacture and use of plant may involve several PCBUs.Where several PCBUs have duties on same matter, they must consult, co-operate and co-ordinate activities with each other on the matter.Duty to consult workers who may be affected.
16 Alterations to or Interference with Existing Plant Risk assessments must be undertaken to determine potential impacts on existing operations and the health and safety of workers:Prior to any alteration or modification to existing plant.A change in the way plant is used or a system of work associated with the plant.A change in the location of the plant.Alterations or modifications, including the removal of guarding or interference with emergency stop controls or warning devices must not be undertaken without the site manager’s approval.
17 Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disposing of Plant Plant can be identified as suitable for disposal because:It is no longer required due to change in workplace, procedure, function or activity.It no longer complies with WHS legislation, Australian Standards or DECD specifications.It is beyond economical repair and is suitable for scrap or spare parts only.Plant can be disposed of in the following ways:Sold to an external organisation or individual for further use.Sold for salvage for scrap or spare parts.Loaned.Traded in.Transferred to another DECD site or Government Agency.Donated (requires Chief Executive Approval).Dumped because there is no material value for the plant or the cost of sale is greater than the return on sale.
18 Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disposing of Plant The process occurs in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and is managed by a competent person.It complies with the requirements of Regulation 204 of the WHS Regulations to ensure that any hazards inherent in the process of decommissioning, dismantling or disposal have been identified and controlled.If the plant contains materials which are likely to present a risk to the health and safety of individuals or to the environment (eg. asbestos or a hazardous chemical), the material is disposed of in accordance with relevant regulatory requirements.New Plant Management Procedure outlines in detail the processes required to be followed when decommissioning, dismantling and disposing of plantCompetent person is a person who has acquired competency through training, qualification or experience the knowledge and skills to carry out the task
19 Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Detailed information on the identification of hazards, risk assessment process and control measures are provided in:DECD Guidelines for the Safe Use of Machinery.Managing the Risks of Plant in the Workplace Code of Practice.Where a hazard has been identified a risk assessment must be undertaken using the Plant Risk Assessment Form in consultation with affected workers.Using these methods:A visual inspection of the plant and its associated environment.Auditing.Testing.A technical or scientific evaluation.An analysis of injury, incident and near-miss data.Discussions with designers, manufacturers, suppliers, importers, workers or any other relevant parties.Consideration of other factors including but not limited to, the condition, suitability, proposed location and potential abnormal situations in which the plant will be operated.
20 Control Measures Using the hierarchy of controls EliminationSubstitutionIsolationEngineeringAdministrationPPEUsing the hierarchy of controlsElimination – a permanent solution which involves removing the hazard in its entirety.Substitution – replacing the hazard with one that presents a lower risk.Isolation – reduces the exposure through the use of distance or enclosures.Engineering – physical changes to the plant or work process eg. installing machine guarding, e-stops, exhaust ventilation and ergonomic redesign of tools.Administration – reduce the potential for exposure to a hazard by depending on adherence to procedures or instructions eg. locking-out and tagging procedures, safe operating procedures, signage, training and supervision.PPE – provide a barrier between workers and the hazard and is dependant on correct election, use and maintenance of equipment eg. gloves, goggles and masks
21 Approved Codes of Practice relating to Plant SafeWork Australia has drafted a number of Approved Codes of Practices relevant to plant safety:How to manage work health and safety risksManaging risks of plant in the workplaceDraft Codes of Practice pending:Safe design, manufacture, import a d supply of plantManaging risks of plant in rural workplaces
22 Role of Approved Codes of Practice National Codes must be approved by the Minister to become ACOP.Admissible in court as evidence whether duty under the Act has been complied with.Court may have regard to ACOP:On what is known about a hazard or risk or risk control.To determine what is reasonably practicable in the circumstances.Evidence may be provided as compliance in a manner that is different from what is outlined in an ACOP – but the standard must be equal or better .
23 Reasonably Practicable Knowledge about the risks(What you know or should know)Seriousness of harm(Death or disability)Availability or suitability of ways to eliminate or minimise risksREASONABLY PRACTICABLELikelihood of hazard or risk occurringCost
24 UsePlant must used only for the purpose it was designed and is operated in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.Safe work zones are established.Guards and e-stops must not be removed or tampered with.Safety Operating Procedures (SOPS) are placed in close proximity to the plant.Personal Protective Equipment suitable to the task is used where required.When plant is not in use for 3 months or more, an OUT OF SERVICE tag must be attached and plant is locked out where possible.
25 Maintenance and Inspection Site Maintenance Schedules are to be maintained for all plant.Isolation or lock out systems to be used when inspecting, testing or performing maintenance or repairs to high risk plant in accordance with DECD specifications.Testing and tagging of electrical plant is to be undertaken in accordance with DECD Electrical Testing Procedure.Activities are undertaken by a competent person.Activities includeHazard identification and risk assessments.Inspection, testing, maintenance and repair activities.Assessment of plant damage.Assessment of plant that has been altered or modified.Operational checks.
26 Record KeepingWHS Regulations has prescriptive record keeping requirements for:Maintenance, testing records of plant subject to design or item registration with SafeWork SA - life of plant.Presence sensing safeguarding systems – 5 years.DECD requires site managers to keep records for plant in their management or controlFor the life of the plant.Or until control is relinquished.Records include:Safety integrity testsInspections, maintenance, commissioning, decommissioning, dismantling or alterations to the plantAny risks assessments