Grimsby Secondary School
Basic House Design Grimsby Secondary School
Essential Question What are some of the different house designs styles used? Which would be most effective for a person with a physical disability?
One Story Ranch Style Has all living space on one story
Is called simply a ranch house Can have a basement depending on area of the country and what the owner wants. Has a low pitched roof Can be built on a crawl space, or on a full basement.
Disadvantage of a Ranch
Usually costs more to build then other designs of similar square footage Cost more because of larger foundation and roof needed. Requires a larger lot then others designs The large “foot print” can cause heating problems in certain areas of the house because of distance from furnaces. (Electric heat does not have the problem) Maintenance cost can be more because of roof size and exterior wall surface size
One and One-Half Story This style is sometimes called a Cape Cod.
It similar to a ranch with the exception that it has a steeper roof that provides space for an attic. Dormers are used in the attic. Dormers are used to provide natural light, air circulation, and extra headroom.
Advantages The cost per unit of habitable space is low.
Attic can add about a ½ of a first floors worth of living space. Attics make more living space available. It is a versatile design Heating cost are minimized due to the smaller amount of exterior walls compared to the amount of room available Cooling can be aided with the use of Louvered Ventilators at each end and plenty of insulation
Disadvantages and Considerations
Dormers, stairs, and slightly steeper roofs increase the cost of the house. Adapting the house for Disabled person increase cost. Attics can have wasted space. When designing a house of this type you must consider the following: Ultimate how many people it will hold Designs for expansion of utilities Kitchen, living and dining rooms should be carefully considered
TWO STORY DESIGNS More economical to build
Has smaller roof and foundation but large interior space May be built on a basement, slab or crawl space Heating and cooling is relatively simple. Heat will naturally rise from the first floor to the second Cooling is made easy since there is no ceiling directly connected to the roof.
Disadvantages Exterior maintenance is more expensive because of height
Some find stair climbing to be difficult Does not allow for versatility
Split level Design
Split Level Design Split level design came about when there was to many hills or to great of a slope to a lot for a normal house to be built. Works only on extremely hilly areas. The general arrangement of split levels separate the sleeping, living, and recreational areas of a house. There is little or no need for halls in this design.
Lowest Level (basement)
This level usually contains the Basement The basement may be used to store heating, and cooling equipment, be a storage room and even possibly a shop or washroom. An appropriate sized basement is between 40 and 60 percent of the house footprint.
Basement Level A basement may not be necessary/desired in that case having a crawl space is necessary for maintenance
Intermediate Level This is the next level up from the basement. It is also usually ground level. This is where the garage and the recreational rooms are located May include patios and terraces that enhance the recreational area.
Kitchen/Living Level The Next level up is the living level
This level contains the kitchen, living room, maybe a bathroom. It also contains a foyer, mud room, and wash room
Sleeping Level This is usually the highest level. Because of its height it has the most privacy. This area usually contains all the bedrooms and the bathrooms.
Variations of the Split-Level Design
There are three types of Design Variations: Side-by-side Front-to-back Back-to-front.
Side-by-Side This is used when the lot slopes from one side to another
This design places the living level on the opposite side of the sleeping and intermediate level.
Front-to-back This variation is used with lots that are higher in the front and lower in the back. This house looks like a ranch from the front and a two story from the back The living area faces the street and the sleeping area are on the second level in the rear.
Back-to-Front This variation is used when you have a lot that slopes from the back to the front. The front looks like a two story the rear looks like a ranch The intermediate level faces the street at grade and the sleeping level is above the intermediate level.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Works well in sloped lots. Disadvantages Cost more then a ranch Heating can be a problem Usually solved with adding additional thermostats
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