9 3. CONTACT with INFECTED ANIMALS/ INSECTS. 4. CONTACT with ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES.
10 BODY’S DEFENSES: 1. PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES A. SKIN – largest organ on the bodyPores are exitsSecretes sweat – which is poisonous to germsSecretes oil – called Sebum
11 Body’s Defenses (cont.) PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES B. MUCOUS MEMBRANES – protective liningSecretes mucus; traps pathogenChemicals within it kills pathogenCilia – tiny hair like structures* removes pathogens
12 Body’s Defenses (cont.) PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL DEFENSES C. Saliva and Tears – washes away pathogensD. Digestive System – removes/excretes pathogens
13 Body’s Defenses (cont.) 2. INFLAMMATION:BODY’S RESPONSE TO ALL KINDS OF INJURYDamaged cells release chemicals that cause blood vessels to enlargeAllows more blood flow – carries nutrients and white blood cells to areaPhagocytes – white blood cells
14 Body’s Defenses Infected area becomes red, swollen and sore Pus – white liquid that is an accumulation of fluids, white blood cells and dead cells.
18 Three lymphatic structures LYMPH – the fluid that flows through the lymphatic systemLYMPH NODES – small stations that houses different white blood cellsLYMPHOCYTES – specialized white blood cellsSome patrol the bodySome are dormant in the lymph nodes
19 3 TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES 1. B LYMPHOCYTES – B CELLS 2. T LYMPHOCYTES – T CELLSA. Helper TB. Killer TC. Suppressor T3. MEMORY CELLS
20 1. B LYMPHOCYTES B CELLS – produces antibodies ANTIBODIES – are Y-shaped proteins that attach themselves to pathogensForm memory cells
21 2. T LYMPHOCYTES (T CELLS) A. HELPER T CELLSProduces chemical that regulates the activity of the other white blood cellsInterferon – chemical that stimulates phagocytesB. KILLER T CELLSKills pathogens directly by destroying the infected body cells
22 T Cells (cont.) C. SUPPRESSOR T CELLS SLOWS DOWN THE RESPONSE OF THE B CELLS AND THE T CELLS
23 3. MEMORY CELLS FORM AFTER HAVING AN INFECTION FORM THROUGH VACCINATIONSARE STORED IN THE LYMPH NODES
24 Immunity The body’s ability to fight infection. Active – having infection- Vaccination – injection of of disabled or dead pathogen.Passive – immunity through an outside source
25 STAGES OF INFECTIONS1. INCUBATION STAGE – time between, when the pathogen enters the body and makes you sick.Every pathogen has a different incubation period2. PRODROMAL STAGE – when the first symptoms occurSore throat, sneezing, etc.
26 Stages of infections (cont.) 3. ACUTE STAGE – symptoms are most severe.Fever4. RECOVERY STAGE – start to feel better.Convalescence – period between end of infectionRelapse – illness returns
27 MEDICATIONS ANTIBIOTICS – drugs that kill bacteria Penicillin ErythromycinTetracyclineBixanTake it exactly as directed. Always take the exact amount that the label says to take. If the label says to take the medicine at a certain time, follow these directions.Take it for as long as prescribed.
28 Medications75% of antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections50% of antibiotic prescriptions are inappropriateMost respiratory tract infections are caused by virusesAntibiotics do not work against viruses
29 What Are Antivirals? www.webmd.com) Antivirals are medications that reduce the ability of flu viruses to multiply.The CDC considers antiviral drugs as a "second line of defense against the flu."When taken at the onset of flu, these medications help decrease the severity and duration of flu symptoms.
30 USING MEDICATION CORRECTLY Tell doctor of any medicine you are takingTell doctor of any drugs taken within 24hr.Ask how medicine should affect youStore medications correctlyRead information of label, or print outTake medication prescribed to you only
31 Cont. Tell doctor of any side effects NEVER drink alcohol with medication, this includes over the counter meds.Throw away old medications.
32 MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS PHARMACISTNEED 5 YR. COLLEGE PROGRAMAND STATE LICENSEDISPENSES MEDICINES THAT HAVE BEEN PRESCRIBED BY DOC.PHARMACOLOGISTSNEEDS PH.DWORKS IN RESEARCH LAB. TO DEVELOP NEW DRUGS TO TREAT OR PREVENT DISEASE.
33 ORGANIZATIONS: CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL - CDC WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION - WHO