2 What is the Atmosphere made of???? Mixture of :GasesSolidsLiquids
3 How was the Early atmosphere much different from today? Volcanoes produced nitrogen and carbon dioxide, but little oxygen.More than 2 billion years ago simple organisms began producing oxygen.Eventually, oxygen formed an ozone layer that protected Earth from harmful raysGreen plants and diverse life forms developed
4 GasesIncludes all of the gases in the Atmosphere.What type of mixture is the atmosphere?Atmosphere is changing with the introduction of pollutants: increasing human energy use is increasing the amount of Carbon DioxidePollutants mix with oxygen and other chemicals to form smog.
5 Include dust, salt and pollen SolidsInclude dust, salt and pollen
6 Water droplets and Droplets from volcanoes LiquidsWater droplets and Droplets from volcanoes
7 Five main Layers of the atmosphere Lower Layers:Troposphere : The layer where humans live. It extends about 10 km up, and contains most of the water vapor and gases.Stratosphere: Extending from about 10 km to 50 km above Earth. It contains the ozone.Upper Layers:Mesosphere: extends from 50 km to 85km and is the layer in which meteors are visible.Thermosphere: Thickest part of the atmosphere; from 85 km to 500km. Has high temperatures.Ionsphere: Layer of charged particles. Helps carry radio waves.Exosphere: Outer layer of atmosphere in which the space shuttle flies, has very few molecules.
8 Question time……………What is the layer of the atmosphere nearest to Earth’s surface?Which layer in the atmosphere is warmed by the heat from Earth’s surface?Describe temperatures in the thermosphere.
9 Atmospheric PressureMolecules closer to the surface or more densely packed (at higher pressure) that those higher in the atmosphere because of the mass of gases pressing down from higher in the atmosphere.
10 As altitude increases, pressure decreases Atmospheric PressureAs altitude increases, pressure decreasesWhat happens when we climb a mountain? Why?What happens when we are swimming at the bottom of a deep pool? WHY?
11 Atmospheric PressureObserving the effects of Air pressure …… Demonstration Section 1: Enrichment Lab Sheet
12 TEMPERATURE IN ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS Troposphere: warmed primarily by the Earth’s surface; temperature decreases at altitude in creasesStratosphere: Temperature increase as as altitude increases--- mainly the upper portion because Ozone absorbs energy from the Sun.Mesosphere: Temperatures decrease with altitude.Thermosphere and Exosphere: 1st to receive the Sun’s rays extremely warm
13 OzoneAbout 19km to 48 km above Earth in the atmosphere, this layer of 2-atom-oxygen molecules (O3) protects the Earth from the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation.Life depends on itPollutants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are destroying the ozone layer.Are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol sprays, and foam packaging.The ozone layer has a large hole over Antarctica
14 What is the Ionosphere and where is it located? Discussion QuestionWhat is the Ionosphere and where is it located?Where is air pressure the greatest? WhyWhy are chlorofluorocarbons harmful to the ozone?How does the atmosphere prevent some radiation from reaching Earth’s surface?