Presentation on theme: "Adapting to the Geography of New Orleans in 18 th & 19 th century How the climate and land affect architecture- before there were air conditioners and."— Presentation transcript:
Adapting to the Geography of New Orleans in 18 th & 19 th century How the climate and land affect architecture- before there were air conditioners and heaters.
Why were houses built differently? No air conditioning No fans No pumping stations to pump the rainwater out of the swamp / city. No drainage canals to drain out the swamp.
To Keep Cool: Manipulate Nature Creatively Sunlight Shade Wind Air circulation
Getting rid of hot air (clue: hot air rises) Ceilings were extra high Up to 16 feet! Skylights opened up to release air
Allowing air to pass- without fans to push the air around, hope for wind. Homes had open floor plans (Walls block air and blocked air is HOT!) No closets Doors open Floor to ceiling doors and windows allow as much air as possible into and out of the house.
Typical Shotgun House -air passes all the way through the house (Why was it called a Shotgun house?)
Allowing air to pass Little windows above doors, or transoms, can open or close to keep heat in a room or spread cool air throughout. Windows and doors are directly across from each other to help push that air around.
Dealing with the sun Outside was oftentimes cooler than inside. Verandahs were great for outdoor living Shady courtyards expanded living space in cool open areas. Outdoor hallways, called galleries, surrounded homes. Hallways would block the air. Galleries keep everything open but shaded.
Louvered Shutters These allow air to pass through. Protect the room against too much sun, without cutting off all of the light. You could have your window open with shutters closed to keep the rain out but cooler air coming in.
Dealing with the rain Most houses have covered porches / galleries surrounding them, allowing for outdoor living- without getting soaked. Windows facing the street are not floor to ceiling. The reason is because the streets used to be made out of dirt. After a rain, the horses and carriages passing by would splash mud into house. Shorter windows protect the interior of houses. The brick buildings were covered with stucco to protect the bricks from eroding away. Because we have so much rain here- and no solid rocks- our bricks erode easily. As you walk through the French Quarter, notice how many houses are covered with a plaster stucco over them.
Dealing with the rain Sloping porches allow rain to fall off. What would happen if porches were flat? Large, above ground wells, or cisterns, were used to collect rain water. Then, they realized standing water was a breeding ground for MOSQUITOES! Mosquitoes carried Yellow Fever. Cisterns are now illegal in the French Quarter.
Dealing with the swamp Houses were raised up a few feet off the ground. This kept them dry if the streets flooded. It also helped with air circulating under the house to cool it off. Built on pilings of bricks Sidewalks called banquettes or footbridge because they are raised up off street.
Banquettes with Bridges Can you see the bridge going from the sidewalk to the street?