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Chapter 14: Management Support Systems: Emerging Trends and Impacts

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1 Chapter 14: Management Support Systems: Emerging Trends and Impacts
Decision Support and Business Intelligence Systems (9th Ed., Prentice Hall) Chapter 14: Management Support Systems: Emerging Trends and Impacts

2 Learning Objectives Explore some of the emerging technologies that may impact MSS Know how RFID data analysis can help improve supply-chain management and other operations Describe how massive data acquisition techniques can enable reality mining Describe how virtual-world technologies can be used for decision support Describe how virtual-world applications can result in additional data for BI applications Describe the potential of cloud computing in business intelligence

3 Learning Objectives Understand Web 2.0 and its characteristics as they relate to MSS Understand social networking concepts, selected applications, and their relationship to BI Describe organizational impacts of MSS Learn the potential impacts of MSS on individuals Describe societal impacts of MSS List and describe major ethical and legal issues of MSS implementation

4 Opening Vignette: “Coca-Cola's RFID-based Dispenser Serves a New Type of Business Intelligence” Company background Problem description Proposed solution Results Answer and discuss the case questions

5 RFID and BI Wal-Mart's RFID mandate in June 2003
DoD, Target, Albertson's, Best Buy,… RFID is a generic technology that refers to the use of radio frequency waves to identify objects RFID is a new member of the automatic identification technologies family, which also include the ubiquitous barcodes and magnetic strips

6 How does RFID work? RFID system – Tags –
a tag (an electronic chip attached to the product to be identified) an interrogator (i.e., reader) with one or more antennae attached a computer (to manage the reader and store the data captured by the reader) Tags – Active tag versus Passive tags

7 Data Representation for RFID
RFID tags contain 96 bits of data in the form of serialized global trade identification numbers (SGTIN) [see epcglobalinc.org]

8 RFID for Supply Chain BI
RFID in Retail Systems Functions in a distribution center receiving, put-away, picking, and shipping Sequence of operations at a receiving duck unloading the contents of the trailer verification of the receipt of goods against expected delivery (purchase order) documentation of the discrepancy application of labels to the pallets, cases, items sorting of goods for put-away or cross-dock

9 RFID for Supply Chain BI
RFID in Retail Systems

10 RFID Data Sample RFID in Retail Systems

11 RFID for BI in Supply Chain
Better SC visibility with RFID systems Timing/duration of movements between different locations – especially important for products with limited shelf life Better management of out-of-stock items (optimal restocking of store shelves) Help streamline the backroom operations: eliminate unnecessary case cycles, reorders Better analysis of movement timings for more effective and efficient logistics

12 RFID + Sensors for Better BI
Knowing the location and health of goods (i.e., exception) during transportation

13 Reality Mining Identifying aggregate patterns of human activity trends (see sensenetworks.com by MIT and Columbia University) Many devices send location information Cars, buses, taxis, mobile phones, cameras, and personal navigation devices Using technologies such as GPS, WiFi, and cell tower triangulation Enables tracking of assets, finding nearby services, locating friends/family members, …

14 Reality Mining Citisense: finding people with similar interests
A map of an area of San Francisco with density designation at place of interests See for real-time animation of the content

15 Virtual Worlds Virtual worlds have existed for a long time in various forms - stereoscopes, Cinerama, simulators, computer games, … They are artificial worlds created by computer systems in which the user has the impression of being immersed Examples: Second Life (secondlife.com) Google Lively (lively.com) EverQuest (everquest.com) Avatars ?

16 Second Life as a DSS Advantages: Easy access and low cost
Experienced and dedicated designer/builders Tools and venues for communications-driven decision support (DecisionSupportWorld.com) A large, dedicated user base Impression management / creativity enhancement Time compression Easy data integration from real life using RSS feeds Encourages active participation and experiential learning

17 Second Life as a DSS Disadvantages: Learning time and training costs
Distractions are numerous Pranksters and spam are common Technology problems persist Chat is a very slow communication tool Resistance to use Addiction Participation in most of these virtual environments requires downloading of a "plug-in"

18 Virtual Tradeshows See iTradeFair.com

19 The Web 2.0 Revolution Web 2.0: a popular term for describing advanced Web technologies and applications, including blogs, wikis, RSS, mashups, user-generated content, and social networks Objective: enhance creativity, information sharing, and collaboration Difference between Web 2.0 and Web 1.x Use of Web for collaboration among Internet users and other users, content providers, and enterprises

20 The Web 2.0 Revolution Web 2.0: a umbrella term for new technologies for both content as well as how the Web works Web 2.0 have led to the evolution of Web-based virtual communities and their hosting services, such as social networking sites, video-sharing sites, … Companies that understand these new applications and technologies—and apply the capabilities early on—stand to greatly improve internal business processes and marketing

21 The Web 2.0 Revolution Characteristics of the Web 2.0
The ability to tap into the collective intelligence of users. The more users contribute, the better… Data is made available in new or never-intended ways. Web 2.0 data can be remixed or "mashed up” Web 2.0 relies on user-generated and user-controlled content and data (enhanced collaboration) Lightweight programming techniques and tools let nearly anyone act as a Web site developer The virtual elimination of software-upgrade cycles makes everything a perpetual beta or work-in-progress and allows rapid prototyping, using the Web as an application development platform

22 The Web 2.0 Revolution Characteristics of the Web 2.0
Users can access and manage applications entirely through a browser An architecture of participation and digital democracy encourages users to add value to the application as they use it A major emphasis on social networks and computing Strong support of information sharing and collaboration Rapid and continuous creation of new business models “dynamic content, rich user experience, metadata, scalability, open source, and freedom (net neutrality)”

23 The Web 2.0 Revolution Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
An enabling technology for Web 2.0, resulting in rich, interactive, fast-response, user-friendly GUIs Makes Web pages feel more responsive by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes (eliminated the need for reloading the complete Web page) Leads to improved Web page interactivity, loading speed, and usability. Many companies and new business models have emerged based on Web 2.0

24 Virtual (Internet) Communities
A group of people with common interests who interact with one another over a computer network, mainly the Internet Similar to typical physical communities, such as neighborhoods, clubs, or associations, but people do not meet face-to-face It is a social network organized around a common interest, idea, task, or goal Members interact across time, geographic location, and organizational boundaries

25 Virtual (Internet) Communities Elements of Interaction

26 Virtual (Internet) Communities Interesting Characteristics
Many thousands of communities exist on the Internet, and the number is growing rapidly Pure-play Internet communities may have thousands, or even hundreds of millions, of members Example - MySpace grew to 100 million members in just 1 year Two major difference from traditional purely physical communities: The exponential speed of growth, and Not being confined to one geographic location

27 Virtual (Internet) Communities Types of Virtual Communities
Transaction and other business activities Buying/selling – ausfish.com.au Purpose or interest Exchange of information – fool.com, mp3.com Relations or practices ivillage.com, seniornet.com, isworld.com Fantasy (e.g., espn.com) Social networks (e.g., myspace.com) Virtual worlds (e.g., Secondlife.com)

28 Virtual (Internet) Communities Types of Virtual Communities
Public Versus Private Communities Membership being open or close others Public: MySpace and Facebook Private: IBM's Virtual Universe Community Internal and External Private Communities Internal: limited to employees, retirees, suppliers, and customers (e.g., Pfizer, FedEx, IBM, …) External: also include business partners (e.g., Sony PlayStation 3 videogame network) There are other classifications of based on the classification of members

29 Online Social Networking – Basics and Examples
A social network is a place where people create their own space, or homepage, on which they write blogs; post pictures, videos, or music; share ideas; and link to other Web locations they find interesting The mass adoption of social networking Web sites points to an evolution in human social interaction The size of social network sites are growing rapidly, with some having over 100 million members – growth for successful ones 40 to 50 % in the first few years and 15 to 25 % thereafter

30 Online Social Networking – Social Network Analysis Software
It is used to identify, represent, analyze, visualize, or simulate networks with Nodes – agents, organizations, or knowledge Edges – relationships identified from various types of input data (relational and non-relational) Various input and output file formats exist SNA software tools include Business-oriented social network tools such as InFlow and NetMiner Social Networks Visualizer, or SocNetV, which is a Linux-based open source package

31 Mobile Social Networking
Social networking where members converse and connect with one another using cell phones or other mobile devices MySpace and Facebook offer mobile services Mobile only services: Brightkite, and Fon11 Basic types of mobile social networks Partnership with mobile carriers (use of MySpace over AT&T network) Without a partnership (“off deck”) (e.g., MocoSpace and Mobikade) Mobile Enterprise Networks Mobile Community Activities (e.g., Sonopia)

32 Major Social Network Services
Facebook: The Network Effect Launched in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg (former Harvard student) It is the 2nd largest social network service in the world with more than 200 million active users worldwide (as of April 2009) Initially intended for college and high school students to connected to other students at the same school In 2006 opened its doors to anyone over 13; enabling Facebook to compete directly with MySpace

33 Major Social Network Services
Orkut: Exploring the Very Nature of Social Networking Sites The brainchild of a Turkish Google programmer It was to be Google's homegrown answer to MySpace and Facebook Format is similar to others: a homepage where users can display every facet of their personal life they desire using various multimedia applications A major highlight of Orkut – allow to create communities and assign authority to control Also support many languages

34 Implications of Business and Enterprise Social Networks
Business oriented social networks can go beyond “advertising and sales” Emerging enterprise social networking apps: Finding and Recruiting Workers See Application Case 14.2 for a representative example Management Activities and Support Training Knowledge Management and Expert Location e.g., innocentive.com; awareness.com; Caterpillar Enhancing Collaboration Using Blogs and Wikis Within the Enterprise …>

35 Implications of Business and Enterprise Social Networks
Survey shows that best-in-class companies use blogs and wikis for the following applications: Project collaboration and communication (63%) Process and procedure document (63%) FAQs (61%) E-learning and training (46%) Forums for new ideas (41%) Corporate-specific dynamic glossary and terminology (38%) Collaboration with customers (24%)

36 Cloud Computing and BI Cloud Computing
A style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided over the Internet Users need not have knowledge of, experience in, or control over the technology infrastructures in the cloud that supports them Related terms: utility computing, application service provider grid computing, on-demand computing, software as a service (SaaS) Cloud = Internet (as it is represented in diagrams)

37 Cloud Computing and BI Fragments of cloud computing
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Platforms as a service (PaaS) Software as a service (SaaS) Data as a service (DaaS) Example: Web-based and Google Docs Cloud-computing service providers Salesforce.com, IBM, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft (Azure), Google, and Yahoo! Different service compensation models exist

38 Cloud Computing and BI Cloud computing, like many other IT trends, has resulted in new offerings in business intelligence Cloud-based data warehousing (by 1010data, LogiXML, Lucid Era) Cloud-based dashboard and data management tools (by Elastra, Rightscale) Advantage: rapid diffusion, cutting-edge technology, less investment,… Concerns: loss of control and privacy, legal liabilities, cross-border political issues, …

39 The Impacts of MSS – An Overview
Management support systems are important factors in the information, Web, and knowledge revolution Often cauterized as a cultural transformation with which most people are only now coming to terms This revolution is taking place very quickly According to Garner Group a 37.5 percent compound annual growth rate is expected Separating the impact of MSS from that of other computerized systems is a difficult

40 The Impacts of MSS – An Overview
A Generic Framework for Management Support Systems (MSS)

41 MSS Impacts on Organizations
New organizational units Organizational culture Restructuring Business Processes and Virtual Teams Simulation Modeling and Organizational Restructuring The Impacts of ADS Systems Other Organizational Impacts Increased productivity, speed, customer satisfaction, quality, and supply-chain efficiency

42 MSS Impacts on Organizations Example: Restructuring a Bank with an ES

43 MSS Impacts on Individuals
Job Satisfaction Inflexibility, Dehumanization, Stress, Anxiety Frustration with not being able to master computers as well as others Frustration with the quality of information available on the Web Frustration due to having too many online sources of information Frustration due to guilt associated with not being better informed or being informed too late Cooperation of Experts

44 Automating Decision Making and The Manager’s Job
Less expertise (experience) is required Faster decision making is possible Less reliance on experts and analysts Power is being redistributed among managers Support for complex decisions: faster/better Information needed for high-level decision making is expedited or even self-generated Automation of routine decisions or phases in the decision-making process by using ADS may eliminate some managers (?)

45 Automating Decision Making and The Manager’s Job
Can managers' jobs be fully automated? Automation of parts/some steps of the process… Different managerial levels Level of structuredness of the decision situation Other factors to consider… Can business analysts' jobs be fully automated? Can BI replace business analysts? Why; why not?

46 Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics
Legal issues ES: liability for the actions of advice provided by an intelligent machine Who is liable, if the software advice fails? Privacy Right to be left alone and the right to be free from unreasonable personal intrusions Collecting information about individuals The Web and information collection Mobile user privacy Homeland security and individual privacy

47 Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics
Ethics in Decision Making and Support Electronic surveillance Software piracy Use of proprietary databases Use of intellectual property such as knowledge Computer accessibility for workers with disabilities Accuracy of data, information, and knowledge Protection of the rights of users Use of corporate computers for non-work-related purposes (personal use of Internet while working) …more…

48 Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics
A Model of Ethical Problem Formulation

49 End of the Chapter Questions / comments…

50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice Hall


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