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Chapter 9 Section 3 Part II

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1 Chapter 9 Section 3 Part II

2 When the American Arrived
When the Americans arrived in Europe, President Wilson and General Pershing told the British and the French that they wanted Americans officers commanding American soldiers However, the 93rd Infantry Division (An African American unit) was transferred to the French and they were the first Americans to enter combat.

3 German Offensive To try and win the war, the Germans launched a massive attack and pushed deeply into Allied lines. American and French troops twice blocked German drives on Paris.

4 Counter-Attack General John “Blackjack” Pershing organized the most massive attack in American history, causing Germans to begin to retreat in September 1918. By November, the Americans had destroyed the German defenses and pushed a hole in the German lines. Finally, on November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice, or cease-fire, that ended the war.

5 Battle of the Argonne Forest (1918)
On September 26th, Allied troops began attacking the Germans under the command of French General Foch. Thanks to the presence of a million American soldiers in France by this time, the Allies made slow, but steady, progress. The German high command warned that it could no longer ensure victory and, as the German army began mutinying, it sued for peace.

6 Sergeant Alvin York Sergeant Alvin York, an American hero, who originally tried to avoid the draft, took command during the Battle of the Argonne Forest?

7 Peace Process The peace conference started in January 1919 at the Palace of Versailles in France. The resulting treaty was called the Treaty of Versailles. The main people involved, known as the Big Four, were leaders of the Allied nations.

8 Big Four President Wilson – U.S. David Lloyd George – Great Britain
Clemenceau – France Vittorio Orlando – Italy

9 Wilson’s14 Points President Wilson made a plan for peace known as the Fourteen Points. Points 1-5 wanted to eliminate the causes of war. Points 6 – 13 addressed the right to national self-determination (self rule or independent). The 14th point called for the formation of a League of Nations to keep peace and prevent future wars.

10 Punishing Germany The other Allied governments believed Wilson’s plan was too easy on the Germans; however, the Treaty of Versailles included many terms to weaken and punish Germany. It reduced Germany’s military and forced it to pay reparations, or war damages. The war led to the end of the Russian, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires and the establishment of several new nations.

11 Republican Opposition in the U.S. Senate
The Treaty of Versailles did include Wilson’s plan for the League of Nations, but many U.S. Congress members opposed it for that reason. Republican were upset that they were not invite to France to help settle the peace treaty. Republicans in the Senate, lead by Henry Cabot Lodge believed it would force the United States into many conflicts. After voting twice, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty. The League of Nations started without the United States.

12 Wilson Falls Ill Wilson tried to use public opinion against the Republicans in the U.S. Senate by going on a cross country speaking tour. However, while in Pueblo, Colorado, President Wilson collapsed. Then, on October 2, 1919, he suffered a serious stroke that almost totally incapacitated him, leaving him paralyzed on his left side and blind in his left eye. His last year in office, President Wilson rarely left the White House.

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