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Acids, Bases, and Solutions

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1 Acids, Bases, and Solutions
Chapter 7—Mr. Kennedy Acids, Bases, and Solutions

2 Understanding Solutions
What is a solution? Solution-well-mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout Composed of two parts Solvent and Solute Solute-Part of solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by solvent Solvent-Part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves solute

3 Understanding Solutions
What is a Solution? Solute particles are too small to see Solutions in Water Water is the universal solvent Water dissolves solutes in the body which allows nutrients to move throughout the body Solutions without Water Air Antifreeze Ocean Water

4 Understanding Solutions
Colloids and Suspensions Colloid-mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out Colloids contain larger particles than a solution Particles are still large enough to scatter light Suspension-mixture in which particles can be seen easily and separated by settling Do not have same properties through out Visible particles that are larger that particles in solution and colloids

5 Understanding Solutions
Effects of Solutes on Solvents Solutes lower the freezing point and higher boiling point of a solvent The particles of solutes prevents the solvent particles from freezing and boiling. Examples Antifreeze Salt water-Fresh Water

6 Concentration and Solubility
Dilute Solution-mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in it Tree Sap Concentrated Solution-mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it Syrup

7 Concentration and Solubility
Changing Concentration Changing the amount of solute changes the concentration of a mixture Measuring Concentration Comparison of amount of solute to the amount of solvent or the total amount of solution

8 Concentration and Solubility
Solubility-measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature Saturated Solution-mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperature Unsaturated Solution-mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature

9 Concentration and Solubility
Factors Affecting Solubility Pressure Type of Solvent Temperature

10 Concentration and Solubility
Factors Affecting Solubility Pressure More gas can be dissolved into a solvent if there is a higher pressure on the gas Example Carbonated Drinks Scuba Divers

11 Concentration and Solubility
Factors Affecting Solubility Solvents Some solvents and solutes are not capable of mixing Example Oil and Water Polar and Nonpolar Substance Water-based Paint Oil-based Paint

12 Concentration and Solubility
Factors Affecting Solubility Temperature Changing the temperature of a solution can cause the solubility to change As temperature change: Increase temperature results in an increase of solubility Decrease temperature results in a decrease of solubility Example Sugar Water Supersaturated solution-mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by it solubility at a given temperature.

13 Describing Acids and Bases
Properties of Acids Acid-substance that taste sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus red Sour Taste/Tart Cherries Tomatoes Apples Reactions with Metals Corrosive-way in which acids reacts with some metals so as to eat away the metal

14 Describing Acids and Bases
Properties of Acids Reactions with Carbonates Carbonates contain oxygen and carbon Releases carbon dioxide Example Limestone Reactions with Indicators Indicator-compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base

15 Describing Acids and Bases
Properties of Bases Base-substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turn red litmus paper blue Bitter taste Soap Shampoo Detergents Slippery feel Strong bases can irritate/burn you skin Reactions with indicators Litmus paper turns blue-base

16 Describing Acids and Bases
Properties of Bases Other reactions of bases Bases do not react with carbonates Uses of Acids Common uses for acid and bases?

17 Acids and Bases in Solution
Acids-any substance that produces hydrogen in water Hydrogen ion (H+)-atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron Bases-any substance that produces hydroxide ions in water Hydroxide ion-negative ion of oxygen and hydrogen

18 Acids and Bases in Solutions
Strength of Acids and Bases Measuring pH pH scale-range of values used to expressed the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Low pH-high concentration of hydrogen ions High pH-high concentration of hydroxide ions Pure Water has pH of 7. Using Acids and Bases Safely

19 Acid-Base Reactions Acid-Base Reactions
Neutralization-reaction of an acid with a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as a starting solution were Reactants Amount of neutralization depends on the amount of starting reactant Product Salt-ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a base In a neutralization reaction, the products of the acid and base are a salt and water.

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