Presentation on theme: "Five Gender Gaps in the Labour Market Moazam Mahmood Director Economic and Labour Market Analysis Employment Policy Department ILO."— Presentation transcript:
Five Gender Gaps in the Labour Market Moazam Mahmood Director Economic and Labour Market Analysis Employment Policy Department ILO
Economic Indicators used in Gender-related Measures Source: Klasen (2013) Limitations -Measurement of income: wage income often not well-estimated, non-wage income almost impossible to estimate especially in developing countries -Economic participation: limited representation of multiple dimensions (unemployment, employment-to-population, labour force participation rates) Not measuring the labour market correctly and sufficiently Earned IncomeLabour Market ParticipationHybrid Note: Sources of Indices GDI, GEM, GII – UNDP RSW, SIGE – Djikstra GGM, GEM3 – Klasen/Schüler GEI – Social Watch GGI – World Economic Forum GSI (AGDI) – UNECA Note: Sources of Indices GDI, GEM, GII – UNDP RSW, SIGE – Djikstra GGM, GEM3 – Klasen/Schüler GEI – Social Watch GGI – World Economic Forum GSI (AGDI) – UNECA
Global Employment Trends for Women 2012 The report examines the conditions of women’s engagement in the labour market, by analysing the gender gaps for five indicators. Unemployment Economic indicator of registered distress in the labour market Employment-to-population ratio Assessment of employment growth rates and discouragement by gender Labour force participation Demographic and behavioral indicator, indicating increase or decrease of different age groups to the labour market - Demographic change shows impact on the labour market, for example through more women in younger age cohorts dropping out of the labour force for education. - Behavioral change affects the labour market, for example by society and culture choosing to send more of its working-age women into the labour market. Vulnerability Sectoral and occupational segregation Economic indicators of job quality Positive gender gap indicates that women are disadvantaged. Closing the gap, convergence, means moving towards zero. Data and Time period -For the economic indicators (unemployment, employment, vulnerability, and segregation) the gaps are examined over the last decade, 2002-2012, with the focus on the crisis. -For the demographic and behavioral variable (labour force participation), gaps are examined over the past two decades (1992-2012) as it moves more slowly.
Global findings Gender gap in unemployment -Constant in the period 2002 to 2007, but increased as an impact of the crisis from 2008 to 2012 Gender gap in employment -Convergence in the period 2002 to 2007, but reversals coinciding with the period of the crisis from 2008 to 2012 in many regions Gender gap in participation -Convergence in the 90s but constant in the 2000, with increasing gaps in some regions like South and East Asia, Central and Eastern Europe -Demographic and behavioral change adding, even over-riding, to the impact of the crisis Gender gap in vulnerability, occupational segregation -Significant gap for 2012 Sectoral segregation -Women crowding into service sector, in both developed and developing countries
Note: 2012 are preliminary estimates and 2013 onwards are preliminary projections. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. 0.7 pp Before crisis (2002-2007): gap in unemployment rates constant at 0.5 percentage points Impact of crisis (2008-2012): increase of gap to 0.7 percentage points by 2012 (unemploying 13 million more women) Projections show no reduction by 2017 Figure: Global female and male unemployment, 2002-2017 1. Gender gap in unemployment
1. Gender gap in unemployment: regional variation Note: 2012 are preliminary estimates. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. Regions with low gender gaps in unemployment rate Regions with high gender gaps in unemployment rate Before Crisis (2002-2007) Downward trend in the positive gap - Advanced economies - North Africa - South East Asia - Sub-Saharan Africa - South Asia Increase in the positive gap - Middle East Negative gender gap - Central and Eastern Europe - East Asia Impact of Crisis (2008-2012) Reversal of convergence and increase in positive gap - South Asia - South East Asia - Africa Convergence towards zero (from negative gaps) - Advanced economies - Central and Southern Europe Unaffected by the crisis - Latin America and the Caribbean - Middle East - East Asia Figure: Gender gap in unemployment rate by region, 2000-2012
Male employment-to- population ratio (%) Female employment-to- population ratio (%) Gap (percentage points) Region200220072012p200220072012p200220072012p WORLD73.373.572.748.649.047.824.824.624.8 Developed Economies & European Union64.565.261.647.749.548.416.715.713.2 Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS61.363.064.744.445.246.016.917.818.7 East Asia77.476.875.466.465.664.010.911.211.4 South-East Asia & the Pacific78.077.778.354.755.156.023.322.622.3 South Asia79.879.478.534.233.630.445.745.948.1 Latin America & the Caribbean74.375.474.843.947.248.830.328.226.0 Middle East66.3188.8.131.525.115.352.652.052.8 North Africa66.268.168.316.619.7 49.548.448.5 Sub-Saharan Africa70.470.570.857.458.959.212.911.711.6 Table: Gender gap in employment-to-population ratios, 2002, 2007 and 2012 Note: 2012 are preliminary estimates; the gap equals the difference between male and female ratios. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. Before crisis (2002-2007): slight decrease in global gender gap by 0.2 percentage points Decrease seen in… - Developed Economies & EU - Middle East - South-East Asia & the Pacific - North Africa - Latin America and the Caribbean - Sub-Saharan Africa Impact of crisis (2008-2012): increase in global gap by 0.2 percentage points Increase seen in… - Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and CIS - South Asia - East Asia - Middle East → Can be explained by employment growth rates by gender 2. Gender gap in employment
Average over the period: 1992–2006200720082009201020112012* Average over the period: 2013–17* Employment growth, male (%) WORLD184.108.40.206.51.5 1.41.3 Developed Economies and European Union0.61.30.3-3.1-0.40.50.30.5 Central and South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and CIS0.32.21.4-1.51.8 1.00.3 East Asia220.127.116.11.71.00.7 0.5 South-East Asia and the Pacific18.104.22.168.72.32.01.51.4 South Asia2.21.8 1.41.62.01.91.8 Latin America and the Caribbean2.01.92.20.22.214.171.124.4 Middle East3.54.02.44.23.83.02.62.2 North Africa126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.9 Sub-Saharan Africa184.108.40.206.72.83.0 Employment growth, female (%) WORLD220.127.116.11.41.01.41.31.2 Developed Economies andEuropean Union18.104.22.168-1.10.00.3 0.4 Central and South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and CIS0.32.10.8-0.71.31.60.80.3 East Asia1.2 -0.20.61.00.50.40.1 South-East Asia and the Pacific22.214.171.124.72.02.11.61.5 South Asia2.6-1.1 -1.3-126.96.36.199.1 Latin America and the Caribbean188.8.131.52.43.42.02.32.1 Middle East6.23.1-1.93.95.04.54.03.6 North Africa184.108.40.206.13.3-0.32.73.1 Sub-Saharan Africa3.32.83.02.82.72.8 2.9 Table: Global and regional employment growth rates by sex Note: 2012 are preliminary estimates; 2013–17 are preliminary projections. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. Before crisis: Higher employment growth rate for women(smaller base) of 1.8%, compared to men at 1.6% → Decreasing gender gap in employment-to-population ratio Impact of crisis: Fall of global female employment growth by more than men’s (especially South Asia) → Lower female growth rate for each year of the crisis up to 2012, and projected to continue → Increasing gender gap in employment-to-population ratio In advanced economies, women’s growth rate was lower than men’s over 2011-2012, and projected through 2017 2. Gender gap in employment
3. Gender gap in Labour force participation Figure: Distribution of female and male labour force participation rates, 1992 and 2012 Note: n=number of countries; 2012 are preliminary projections. Source: ILO, EAPEP, 6 th edition (July 2012 update). In the long term, the global gender gap in labour force participation shows convergence in the last two decades.
Male labour force participation rate (%) Female labour force participation rate (%) Gap (percentage points) Region199220022012p199220022012p199220022012p WORLD80.2220.127.116.1118.104.22.1686.126.0 Developed Economies & European Union71.869.467.550.351.752.821.517.714.7 Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS74.168.070.752.622.214.171.1248.920.5 East Asia84.281.479.471.469.166.412.812.413.0 South-East Asia & the Pacific82.682.881.858.4 58.824.224.423.1 South Asia84.883.381.336.135.831.848.647.549.5 Latin America & the Caribbean82.580.379.543.549.653.639.030.725.9 Middle East77.673.874.313.317.218.764.356.655.5 North Africa74.474.174.321.821.224.452.652.949.9 Sub-Saharan Africa79.076.576.360.363.564.618.613.011.8 Table: Gender gap in labour force participation rate, by region, 2002, 2007 and 2012 Note: 2012 are preliminary estimates; the gap equals the difference between male and female ratios. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. However, all the convergence progress was made in the first decade, 1990s. 1992 - 2002: Decrease in gap from 28% to 26% because male rates fell by more than women’s rates Gap decreasing or constant in all regions 2002 - 2012: Constant gender gap because male and female rates fell equally, and regional variation Decrease seen in… - Developed economies & EU - South-East Asia and the Pacific - Latin America and the Caribbean - Middle East - North Africa - Sub-Saharan Africa 3. Gender gap in Labour force participation Increase(reversal) seen in… - South Asia: 2 percentage points - Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) and CIS: 0.6 percentage points - East Asia: 0.6 percentage points Account for the global halt in convergence in the participation gaps
Age cohort decomposition In the 1990s, female labour force participation rate has been decreasing in the last two decades for youth, and increasing for adults In the 2000s, -Young female LFPR decreased in all regions -Adult female LFPR increased in all regions except East Asia, and South Asia Demographic changes and behavioral factors worked to reinforce the negative impact of the crisis. Reversal of convergence in regions more hit by the crisis, such as the advanced economies and Central and Eastern Europe, as well as regions more hit by demographic and behavioral factors, such as South Asia and East Asia Further complexity: Increase in LFPR gaps can be due to a desirable: young girls leaving the labour market for education. Decrease in LFPR gaps can be due to an undesirable: pervasive and persistent poverty, not allowing an option of dropping out of work. 3. Gender gap in Labour force participation
Persistent differentials in the quality of employment : vulnerability and segregation
4. Gender Difference in vulnerability Figure: Share of status in total employment by region and sex, 2012 Note: 2012 are preliminary projections. The shares do not add up to 100 because the category for employers is not presented in the figure for the sake of a clear presentation. Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. Big regional differences in vulnerable employment gap Gap > 15 percentage points - North Africa - Middle East - Sub-Saharan Africa Gap < 10 percentage points - East Asia - South Asia - South-East Asia and the Pacific Share of women in vulnerable employment lower than men’s- Developed Economies & EU - Central & South-Eastern Europe and CIS Decomposition of vulnerable employment - Share of own-account workers higher for men in all regions - Share of contributing family workers higher for women in all regions, leading to a higher dependency of women In 2012, vulnerability gaps are still pervasive, with a global gender gap at 2 percentage points.
5. Gender segregation: Sectoral AgricultureIndustryServices Both sexes199220022012p199220022012p199220022012p WORLD44.239.7126.96.36.199.134.740.043.7 Developed Economies & European Union6.65.03.830.526.321.962.968.774.3 Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS25.423.319.626.625.026.648.051.753.8 East Asia55.847.6188.8.131.528.4184.108.40.206 South-East Asia & the Pacific58.4220.127.116.117.318.527.934.538.4 South Asia62.157.050.915.417.021.022.526.128.0 Latin America & the Caribbean24.719.616.022.321.521.853.058.862.2 Middle East23.021.916.724.124.625.652.953.557.7 North Africa35.930.430.219.0 21.545.150.648.3 Sub-Saharan Africa67.265.762.28.38.08.624.526.329.3 AgricultureIndustryServices Males199220022012p199220022012p199220022012p WORLD41.237.532.824.623.925.934.238.641.3 Developed Economies & European Union18.104.22.1689.035.631.353.858.764.2 Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS26.623.519.032.230.733.341.245.847.7 East Asia47.741.031.826.725.931.425.633.136.8 South-East Asia & the Pacific56.947.442.315.319.521.027.833.136.7 South Asia56.351.044.316.918.523.126.830.532.6 Latin America & the Caribbean29.124.420.726.626.027.744.349.551.5 Middle East21.219.314.025.926.828.152.953.957.9 North Africa34.631.429.821.020.624.544.348.045.8 Sub-Saharan Africa64.465.261.810.49.810.522.214.171.124 AgricultureIndustryServices Females199220022012p199220022012p199220022012p WORLD48.843.236.415.714.716.235.442.147.4 Developed Economies & European Union5.94.23.019.014.510.675.081.486.4 Central & South-Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS23.923.020.319.818.218.356.358.961.4 East Asia65.655.539.018.718.024.815.726.536.2 South-East Asia & the Pacific60.549.444.211.614.315.127.936.340.7 South Asia77.071.968.911.813.115.411.315.015.8 Latin America & the Caribbean16.211.99.014.2 13.369.673.977.7 Middle East126.96.36.1991.113.313.052.851.456.7 North Africa40.626.431.811.412.711.248.060.957.0 Sub-Saharan Africa70.866.362.55.66.06.323.627.731.2 Table: Employment shares by sector and sex, world and regions (%) Source: ILO, Trends econometric models, July 2012. 2012 snapshot 1/3 of women in agriculture, 1/2 in service, and 1/6 in industry Trends in the last two decades - Industrial share of women has barely changed: women moving out of agriculture into services - In advanced economies, women’s employment in industry halved, crowding 85% of them into services. - In most developing economies, women crowded out of agriculture into services, with the exception of East Asia where women’s employment in industry went up to a quarter. Sectoral segregation increased over time, with women moving into service sectors, in both developed and developing countries.
5. Gender segregation: Occupational Figure: Differences in average shares of major occupational groups by sex in selected developed and developing economies, latest year available after 2000 Note: The calculation of male–female differentials by occupation is as follows, using major group X: “share of persons employed in major group X in total employment, males” minus “share of persons employed in major group X in total employment, females”. Hence, a positive differential implies that men tend to be concentrated more in the specific occupation in comparison to women. The sample of developed economies comprises 25 countries, and the sample of developing economies 24 countries. Source: KILM, 7th edition, table 5a. Occupational segregation also appeared quite pervasive over time. Men over-represented in craft and related trades workers, plant/machine operators, and managerial / legislative occupations. Women concentrated in mid-skills occupations: clerks and service workers, and shop/market sales workers.