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Preventing Plagiarism

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Presentation on theme: "Preventing Plagiarism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Preventing Plagiarism
Presented by Joan Lange, Librarian Pope John Paul II High School

2 Research: exciting quest or a labor of Hercules?
How to avoid Pitfalls that lead to Plagiarism.

3 Personality Quiz: Is your Research style Heroic or Monstrous?
A. Accumulate a mountain of printed articles. B. Start assembling images from Google that will make a glitzy PowerPoint. C. Go straight to Wikipedia for the “right answer.” D. Formulate questions that you find interesting or puzzling and begin to explore. 1. The assignment is due in two weeks. Do you…

4 Personality Quiz: Is your Research style Heroic or Monstrous?
A. Jump from site to site with superhuman speed until you exhaust yourself and the resources. B. Select websites that are graphically stunning, not bothering to check who created the site. C. Select one of the first results in a Google search. D. Formulate a search strategy based on your questions. 2. You are allowed to use online sources Do you…

5 Personality Quiz: Is your Research style Heroic or Monstrous?
A. Type frantically from the mountainous pile of printed articles. B. Start copying and pasting, making sure to change font to an attractive style. C. Quickly type what you learned from the Wikipedia article, being sure to switch words around or do a “synonym switch” to avoid plagiarism. D. Evaluate your information, create comparisons and contrasts, and present your insights with solid support. 3. It is the night before the paper is due. Do you…

6 Which type of researcher?
If you answered… R E S U L T A. Herakles (Hercules) Good intentions and energetic, but lack of focus spreads efforts in too many directions. Often overwhelmed by laborious searching and massive amounts of information. B. Helen of Troy Easily fall into trap of superficial beauty and graphic, glossy appeal with little substance. Rather than reflect your own insights and inner beauty, you fall into the trap of quick information and shallow appearances. C. Polyphemos (Cyclops) Single-sighted. You work in predictable ways, relying on general information and assuming that there is only one right answer. Lazy and easily duped by misleading information.

7 And if you answered “D,” you are…
Odysseus (Ulysses) A lover of quests, quick-witted, and a creative and critical thinker. You will drive your point home, but only after a series of interesting adventures and moments of insight.

8 Wikipedia first? In a 2009 survey of 6 colleges,
_________% of students reported using Wikipedia at the beginning of the research process. _________year institutions are more likely to use Wikipedia than ________ year institutions (from The Pew Internet & American Life Project)

9 College students use Wikipedia for
Currency Coverage Comprehensibility Convenience “Most students said they do not tell their professors they use Wikipedia; they simply avoid citing it in their reports.”

10 But as Wikipedia founder Jim Wales says…

11 “For God’s sake, you are in college. Don’t cite the encyclopedia.”

12 Prevent Plagiarism by brainstorming with Primary Sources first!

13 Planning Prevents Plagiarism
Plan Research Assignments so that Students Dialogue with primary sources first to develop their own original ideas (thesis) Practice paraphrasing and using quotations Survey first the type of note taking to be used Use Noodletools to organize notes and generate correct citations

14 Why Research? Not a book report
“If you take exploration of self out of the research process, you limit your students to reporting. Exploration involves questioning challenging testing not merely absorbing information.” (DeSena 2007)

15 Dialogue with Primary Sources
Select Historic Movie from list View movie while notating details (“I wonder” moments) Categorize the details into --Political --Economic --Social --Religious Research details (go deep) to discover authenticity Historic Movies Project for AP European History

16 “I know this is important, but….”
Conference with students so they can dialogue with the primary sources. “I know the Greeks are supposed to be important to modern medicine, but this body humors thing is really weird.” (student conferencing on Ancient Greece research project)

17 Read and Dialogue with Hippocrates
“I will fulfill this oath and this written covenant to the best of my power…The regimen I adopt shall be for the benefit of the patients to the best of my power and judgement, not for their injury or any wrongful purpose….I will not abuse my position to indulge in sexual contacts….Whatever I see or hear, professionally or privately, which ought not to be divulged, I will keep silence on, counting such things to be as religious secrets.”

18 Brainstorming to Thesis to Outline
Pull central idea (thesis) from brainstorming Organize with a simple outline of supportive ideas about the thesis. Some possible ways to organize thoughts: comparison/contrast cause and effect analysis

19 Organization Chart Compare and Contrast Purpose Strengths
Sound Modern Science? Hippocratic Oath Protect rights of patient *confidential *everyone treated equally Patient’s needs are important Pro—listening to patient is important to cure Con—did All Greeks have this right? Hippocratic Theory of Humors Prevent diseases and maintain good health Diet and exercise and life routines (sleeping,etc) Balance foods Pro—diet is important to good health Con—purging used poisons

20 Research is not just a paper…
Shakespeare, speeches, and Animoto Brutus Speaks video Flavius Speaks video Titinius Speaks video

21 Prevent Plagiarism by practicing paraphasing/quotations
surveying type of notetaking using NoodleTools for notes and citations

22 Facts vs. Interpretations Practice the difference
Students highlight facts only in a scholarly essay then point out details that are supporting an interpretation. Students point out how secondary sources are used. Does the writer use quotation, summarization, or paraphrase? Students “read literature in their field (other than the textbook) to model effective writing.” (DeSena 2007)

23 What type of notetaking?
Survey first the article to determine type of notetaking: Type of information Notes Facts Bulleted, brief notes Technical discussion Paraphrase in own or background info words Distinctive wording Quotation (Vargas 1985)

24 What type of notetaking for this? Brief Facts Paraphrase Quote
In August 1649, Cromwell and 12,000 soldiers arrived in Ireland. During the next ten years of bloodshed it is estimated that about a third of the population was either killed or died of starvation. The majority of Roman Catholics who owned land had it taken away from them and were removed to the barren province of Connacht. Catholic boys and girls were shipped to Barbados and sold to the planters as slaves.

25 Short facts Notes: Cromwell’s 1649 battle in Ireland Roman Catholic Irish 12,000 soldiers /3 killed or starved 10 year war Most lost land Boys/girls slaves (Barbados)

26 Practice Paraphrasing
Avoid “plug-in method”—inserting synonyms for words in original document (DeSena 2007) Read passage several times First skim first few sentences of paragraphs Second,read more slowly Third, read again and take a few notes Fourth, without looking at source, write a Paraphrase (Price 2002)

27 Quotations: A balancing act
Use sparingly Choose for distinctive phrasing Link with own interpretations

28 Exercise: Put quote in context
What is quote saying (paraphrase) (or if using an image, what is the message?) Who is saying it How quote (or image) relates to the main point of paper (Price 2002)

29 Using Paraphrasing and Brief Quotations:
“The politics reduce themselves to three principles. The first to govern and aggrandize oneself according to circumstances. The second to ally oneself only if an advantage is got. The third is to make oneself feared and respected even in the most untoward circumstance.” Frederick the Great giving advice to his nephew Frederick William II

30 Paraphrase and Quote used in a paragraph with citation
Frederick the Great believed that to govern effectively a ruler needed to make oneself great and form alliances only if it worked to the ruler’s benefit. In addition Frederick emphasized that to rule, one needed to “make oneself feared and respected” (Cohen and Major 472). This type of ruler distanced himself from the people through the granduer of his kingship, powerful friends, and the threat of punishment for disobedience to the Crown.

31 Noodletools Organize notes Paraphrase Quotation My Ideas
Correct citation MLA or APA style Print, online, or interview sources

32 Why should I use Primary Sources?
They make history come alive in our classrooms. They improve students’ ability to analyze literature and documents. Using primary sources helps students to develop critical thinking skills – compare/contrast; find contradictions; understand point of view, etc. (Volunteer Voices,

33 by brainstorming with Primary Sources first!
Prevent Plagiarism by brainstorming with Primary Sources first!

34 Primary Source Examples Across the Curriculum

35 Dialogue with Quotations
Quotes to explore Science and the Environment: “Approximately 80% of our air pollution stems from hydrocarbons released by vegetation, so let’s not go overboard in setting and enforcing tough emission standards from man-made sources.” Ronald Reagan, quoted in 1980 Sierra Magazine

36 Dialogue with Quotations
Quotes to explore Math and Economics in current events: “I used to think if there was reincarnation, I wanted to come back as the President or the Pope or a .400 baseball-hitter, but now I want to come back as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.” James Carville, Bill Clinton’s campaign manager, in a 1993 interview

37 Compare/contrast image of women in art “No art was ever less spontaneous than mine….It calls for as much cunning as the commission of a crime.” Edgar Degas

38 Bibliography The idea for the Heroes personality quiz was adapted from the exhibit Heroes: Mortals and Myths in Ancient Greece, organized by the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, in cooperation with the Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville, January 29-April 25, 2010. Images: Helen of Troy. Musee du Louvre, France. The Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University, Web. 18 Feb < Herakles. The Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University, Web. 31 Jan < Heracles in the lion’s skin. Tampa Museum of Art, Tampa, Florida. The Perseus Digital Library Tufts University, Web. 17 Feb < Odysseus. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The Perseus Digital Library. Tufts University, Web. 17 Feb < =yes>.

39 Bibliography DeSena, L. H. Preventing plagiarism. New York: National Council of Teachers of English, Print. Head, Allison J. and Michael B. Eisenberg. “How Today’s College Students Use Wikipedia for Course-Related Research.” First Monday Web. 1 Mar /2476. Martin, R. G. “Plagiarism and Originality: Some Remedies.” The English Journal 60.5 (1971): JSTOR. Web. 17 July Price, M. “Beyond ‘Gotcha!’: Situating Plagiarism in Policy and Pedagogy.” College Composition and Communication. Sept. (2002): JSTOR. Web. 17 July Tennessee Electronic Library. “Why should I use primary sources?” Volunteer Voices Web. 15 July Vargas, M. F. “Developing an Immunity to Sophomoric Plagiarism: Notetaking Skills. The English Journal 74.2 (1985): JSTOR. Web. 17 July Whitaker, E. E. “A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism. College Composition and Communication (1993): JSTOR. Web. 17 July 2007.

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