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Forms and Systems of Government

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1 Forms and Systems of Government
Chapter 1 Section 2

2 Government Systems Depending on the goals of the government, there are 3 different choices that a country can decide to organize itself under. The 3 major systems are Unitary Federal Confederal Do any of these terms look familiar? What do you think are the major differences between them?

3 Unitary System A unitary system is a system in which the central/ national government is granted all the key powers of gov’t. This does not mean that there is only one level of gov’t. There are still state, provincial, and “local” gov’ts, but those gov’ts are created by and an extension of the national government. They do not operate independently from the central or national government. Examples : Japan, Italy, France, Great Britain, China Others include…

4 Panama – Very important to the history of the U. S
Panama – Very important to the history of the U.S. specifically the presidency of Teddy Roosevelt. We are the reason this nation exists. Most famous Van Halen Song

5 Egypt – One of the most well known nations on the planet due to its prevalence in ancient human history

6 Mongolia – Its most famous leader was said to produce so many offspring that over half of today’s inhabitants of this nation can trace their ancestry back to him

7 Seinfeld Ukraine is weak - https://www. youtube. com/watch
Seinfeld Ukraine is weak This nation was made famous in Seinfeld and more recently Vladimir Putin

8 South Africa – Home to a recent World Cup, Nation was colonized by the Dutch called themselves the Boers



11 Federal System The Federal System divides the powers of government between a national gov’t and a state/provincial gov’ts Under a Federal system state governments can act independently, (in clearly defined areas) from the central gov’t. Example : State governments largely decide how ALL elections are handled. Under a Federal System the central gov’t is still the supreme power, however the states are guaranteed certain rights that limit how much the central gov’t can control the states. Examples: U.S., Canada, Switzerland, Mexico, Australia, India, and Russia

12 Federal System When the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1788 it created the first Federal system in history. The federal concept is expressed in the 10th Amendment of the Bill of Rights which states… The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. In other words, states have rights. If it’s not listed in the Constitution as a specific power of Congress or the President than it is left to states. Issue with Federal System

13 Advocates for marijuana legalization (medicinal & recreational) often cite the 10th amendment as a key argument for a state’s right to decide on the matter. What point are they trying to make using the 10th Amendment? Do you think this is a strong argument to make why or why not?



16 Nigerian flag

17 Argentina – Lionel Messi

18 Pakistan flag – Bin Laden killed here

19 Finland

20 Ethiopia - Only African nation to never be fully colonized

21 BLUE = Unitary GREEN = Federal
By Lokal_Profil, CC BY-SA 2.5, BLUE = Unitary GREEN = Federal

22 Confederal System Definition: Confederation
A loose union of independent states An organization that consists of a number of parties or groups united in an alliance or league Unlike the other 2 systems the confederal system shifts the balance of power away from the central government to the individual states/provinces who are members in the confederation. Power is de-centralized. Example: If U.S. was a confederation state governors would be more powerful than the U.S. president. Central/National gov’t DOES NOT have supreme authority and cannot force state gov’ts to obey their laws. Examples: U.S. under Articles of Confederation, Southern States Civil War, Belgium (Flanders Wallonia), European Union

23 Supremacy Clause The U.S. Constitution contains a clause that codifies the supremacy of the Federal/central/national government over the individual state governments. Article VI Clause II – Supremacy Clause This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing [sic] in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding A confederation would NOT include a clause like the supremacy clause because state governments are where the power lies in that system.

24 Many who argue against the legalization of marijuana point to the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution as the main reason why states should not be allowed to legalize it on their own accord. How is the Supremacy Clause used to support this argument?


26 It’s not hate it’s heritage! Slogan to keep the Confederate flag flying




30 Unitary vs. Federal vs. Confederal
The key difference between the 3 systems of governments is the power of the central or national government. Unitary – Central/National gov’t holds all political power and makes all policy decisions. Complete centralized power. Federal – Political power is shared/divided between central gov’t and state gov’ts. Central gov’t supreme. Confederal – Majority of political power is assigned to each individual state. Central gov’t does not have authority over states. Decentralized power


32 Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems
Besides Unitary, Federal, and Confederal there are 2 other ways national gov’ts can be organized. Presidential Parliamentary The presidential system has a completely separate and independent legislative (Congress) and executive (President) branches. President serves a set term (4 yrs. in U.S.) In a Parliamentary system the executive (Prime Minister) is chosen from the legislative body. They serve as top executive while also a member of Parliament. Prime Minister may hold the position for as long as they have support in Parliament. They may be removed at any time with a vote of “no confidence” from members in Parliament. Should we try out the Parliamentary system in the U.S.? Maybe first in a state?


34 Pros/Cons Presidential
The major advantages to the presidential system are… Built in stability with a guaranteed term for executive Further protection from gov’t abuse with a clear separation between executive and legislature Enhanced voter participation by directly voting for president. The main criticism of a presidential system is the possibility of political gridlock due to possibility of opposing political parties controlling separate branches Example: Republican president and a Democrat controlled Congress.

35 Pros/Cons Parliamentary
The major advantage for a Parliamentary system is that they tend to be more efficient and responsive to the needs of the country. If we had this system in America, it would be as if the President’s political party was always in control of Congress while in power. This mean gov’t action would be easier Another advantage is that these systems tend to foster the creation of more political parties. The main criticism of this system is the possibility of instability as the Prime Minister may be removed at any time with a vote of no confidence. This creates a system of revolving doors where a new administration must constantly be reformed Prime Minister Questions – Parliament Heckling

36 Constitutional Government
A constitutional government is a gov’t that has specific limits to the government spelled out in a legal document(s). Governments are restrained, NOT PROTECTED by constitutions. Any of the previously mentioned systems (Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential, or Parliamentary could be considered Constitutional governments) The U.S. has the world’s oldest written Constitution Great Britain has a constitutional government, but not a specific constitution. Their gov’t is mostly restrained by several legal documents. Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Reform Acts China has written constitution, but is not considered a constitutional government because their constitution does not place many limits on their government.

37 The Major Types or Forms of Governments
Republic Democracy Socialism Communism Monarchy Fascism Despotism Dictatorship Oligarchy Theocracy Authoritarian Totalitarian Autocracy

38 Benjamin Franklin

39 Second part doubtful he ever said it

40 Who said it? Confucius. Rubber scraper/spatula Can you think of anything in which we consistently refer to something by the wrong name?

41 Republic vs. Democracy Often the words republic and democracy are used interchangeably, but they are not the same. They are similar in that both a democracy and a republic people can vote on policies and who they wish to represent them. In a true democracy the majority position always wins. There are no guaranteed rights given to the minority position. In other words it’s a “Dictatorship of the Majority” 51% controls the fate of the other 49%. The same is true in a republic, majority wins under a vote with the exception that under no circumstances can the majority vote to take away certain rights that are legally guaranteed to every citizen. A literal translation of the word is “the public thing” or “the law” BOTTOM LINE: A republic is a gov’t of laws. These laws guarantee rights to citizens that limit government power. A democracy only guarantees majority control. Recent fight over these words. Do example of choosing lunch between two things that are close to 50/50 (burger hotdog) Then do same thing for activities for something fun. Imagine you had to live your life with people voting on what you do.





46 Why Socrates Hated Democracy

47 Not a Democracy The word “democracy” DOES NOT exist anywhere in the original U.S. Constitution, any Amendment, the Declaration of Independence, or any of the individual state government constitutions. Technically, it is incorrect for politicians or the media to refer to our form of government as a democracy. One only needs to recite the Pledge of Allegiance to know the U.S. is a republic. Bill of Rights Institute - No Democracy

48 Monarchy 2 types of monarchies
Absolute monarch Constitutional monarch Absolute -- Form of gov’t in which the head of gov’t is a king or queen. These kings and queens have absolute power vested in them. There is no restraint on their power by laws or other branches/bodies of government (Courts/Legislature). Free to enact any policies they choose; their word is law. Constitutional – Monarch mainly serves as a ceremonial head of state. Power of monarch is greatly restrained as most political power rests with a legislative branch (Parliament/Congress) of gov’t. Clearly written laws exist that limit/restrict monarch’s power. Different branches/parts of gov’t exist to counter power of monarch In both forms of monarchy the position of the monarch is a hereditary position. Meaning it’s passed down through family.

49 Great Britain and Japan are excellent example of both types of monarchs.
In the early history of Great Britain the monarch was absolute, such as Henry the VIII. However, as time progressed in Great Britain events like the English Civil War continually weakened the power of the monarch. Today, real political power rests in the British Parliament and Prime Minister which is kind of like our Congress. Tokugawa emperor and Akihito

50 Fascism Fascism is a complex ideology. There are many definitions of fascism; almost none are universally accepted. The basic tenet of fascism is a collectivist notion to make the nation stronger, larger, and more successful. National strength is the only thing that makes a nation "good," so fascists will use any means necessary to achieve that goal. - Orwell essay on Fascism

51 Characteristics of Fascism
Unrestrained gov’t; has the ability to dominate lives of its citizens. Individuals do not have recognized natural rights, they are secondary to the well-being of a collective group. Any opposition/criticism of the state is forcibly suppressed (secret police). Emphasis is placed on extreme/aggressive nationalism. Intense belief of a dominate superior culture; advocates violence against members of inferior ethnicities/cultures. Industry/commerce is regimented towards needs of state before individuals/families. No free market; government control. Nazi = National SOCIALIST German Workers Party Fascist regimes excel at deceptive & convincing propaganda often building a “cult of personality” around the leader. Glorify past accomplishments of the superior culture/ethnicity. Cult of Personality

52 Donald Duck Fascist What is her ethnicity


54 Star Wars Dictatorship -- Palpatine
1932 election Nazis were voted into powe Hitler made Chancellor next to President Hindenberg. Hitler voted emergency powers after Reichstage Fire in 1933 Star Wars Dictatorship -- Palpatine

55 These 6 terms are all different words that basically describe all of or at least a certain element of fascism. Dictatorship – Name given for a leader of a fascist or communist nation. All power is concentrated into a single person or small group of people. (Usually tied to the military) Autocracy – means “rule by one”. Dictatorship or a monarchy are autocratic if only 1 person holds all gov’t power. Oligarchy – means “rule by few”. Those “few” usually rule gov’t to support their interests at the cost of other citizens Authoritarian – simply means there is no legal requirement for rulers to answer to anyone, but themselves. Totalitarian – Essentially an extreme version of authoritarian. Rulers seek to dominate all aspects of citizen’s lives. Politically, religiously, socially, and culturally. North Korean Propaganda Despotism -- the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way.

56 Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, Francisco Franco, Mullah Muhammad Omar, Kim Jung Il, Mussolini

57 Theocracy A form of gov’t in which God is the supreme political and civil authority. God’s rule is interpreted by an religious elite from religious texts who in turn run the gov’t and civil institutions. Example: Vatican City, Iran, and More specifically Sharia Law. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khomeini New Pope Francis


59 Why Isn’t Communism Hated as much as Nazis?
There isn’t nearly as much pop culture/literature directed towards the evil communist regimes that killed millions more that the nazis. Commies and Nazis



62 Statue of Lenin in a town outside of Seattle Washington

63 Intro to Communism Respond to the following quote. Do you agree/disagree with this statement. “The first step to improving the world is admitting it will never be perfect” Do you believe there will always be different socioeconomic classes in human society? In other words will there always be the “haves” and “have-nots” Explain your answer. What do you believe has been the largest force behind change in human society? Explain your answer. Play word association game -- I say tree you say… I say communism you say….what? Americans are anti-communist because most agree with that top quote. Communism assumes that once all steps and planks to communism are accomplished human society will become a utopia.

64 Communism vs. Socialism
Two governmental terms that have probably more confusing than any other in recent times are communism and socialism. The confusion of the two terms stems from the many different people (politicians to economists) who have attempted to define them. Answer vary depending on who is asked. Who should we ask? Who gets credit for these terms? Karl Marx Friedrich Engels

65 Who has the better beard and why? Marx (left) or Engels? (right)

66 Famous Tandems Who are the most famous tandems of all time? Make a list

67 Socialism and Communism Today
Today these 2 terms are not exactly used as Karl Marx used them. Socialism is seen as a economic system in which gov’t has significant control over a nation’s economy & resources. Large industries are “nationalized”. This is a process of transferring from private ownership to public ownership of a national or state government. Opposite of privatization. U.S. Examples: Amtrak, During the World Wars railroads and coal industry were nationalized temporarily. Socialism provides “free” or more accurately taxpayer funded services for its citizens, however workers are still allotted more resources (higher pay) based off of their production/skill/utility (usefulness).

68 So Thomas would still get more b/c he’s useful

69 Around the world, one of the most nationalized industries is energy
Around the world, one of the most nationalized industries is energy. What do you think are the top 5 oil producers in the world? (Hint: 4 of 5 are gov’t owned) Saudi Aramco produces over DOUBLE of what Exxon Mobil produces in a day 12 million barrels vs. 5 million barrels

70 In the U.S. our airport security is nationalized. It’s called the…


72 It worked!!! Right? Well the government had to go further into debt for the bailout. Which they then had to pay interest on that $4.3 Billion debt. Not to mention this is only what is seen. We know what we got from the bailout. GM saved…for now. What we don’t completely know is what this cost us in the long run. Where else could that 4.3 billion been spent? What about the precedent that is being set here? What kind of hazard are we creating telling large corporations they are too big to fail? Also when a giant falls it leaves a opening for the smaller firms to compete and often drives innovation in that industry. What do you think? Is it ever a good idea to nationalize an industry if it is failing or should we just “Live and Let Die”?




76 Communism Today Communism today is thought of as an authoritarian/totalitarian government system like the version experienced in former Soviet Union or North Korea today. An oligarchy (single political party) headed by a dictator (premier) that suppresses personal and economic liberty in order to eliminate wealth disparity among the population by outlawing private property to some degree. This is not quite how Karl Marx envisioned or described communism. Whereas many forms of socialism exist in different countries today, there certainly has never been a society that could fit the description Marx gives for communism.



79 Fee for Marx's Grave

80 Marx and Engels According to Marx and Engels socialism is a historical step a society must take before reaching its ultimate and inevitable goal of communism. Marx believed that human societies must experience each step before reaching the next. There are 6 basic historical steps: What do you think they are? Primitive Communism Slave Society Feudalism Capitalism Socialism Communism Marxist Internet Encyclopedia Archive

81 Step 1 -- Primitive Communism
Characterized by a Hunter/Gather society. Humans living in clans or bands of no more than 100 members. No real ownership of property besides individual possessions. All is shared by tribe/clan to ensure survival in nature. NO classes of people What major historical event will end this time period? Agricultural Revolution. What is the Agricultural Revolution? Domestication of plants and animals. Which was domesticated first plants or animals?

82 Animals! Which was the first animal to be domesticated?
Wolf/Dog – about 20,000 years ago Nature vs. Man

83 Describe what you think it would be like to live in a hunter/gather society. If you had the choice would you prefer to live like this? Do you find it appealing in anyway whatsoever? Why or why not?

84 Step 2 -- Slave Society The introduction of agriculture to human society brings about a population explosion and as people settle into communities the idea of private property is born! Big moment in Marxist theory because private property acts as the main cause of social conflict. Divisions of class become apparent in society and equality is severely eroded. No established middle class. 2 categories of people; masters and slaves. Slaves produce wealth; property owners take it. The “state” or governments develop as a tool for slave-owners to control their slaves. Slave society collapses under the weight of itself because there aren’t enough slaves to support the vastness of empires created quickly from slave labor. Up to 1/3 of the Athenian population were slaves

85 Social Collapse vs. Social Revolution
What do you think is the difference between the two terms above (collapse vs. revolution)? Social collapse is when a complex human society completely disintegrates/falls apart. Best Example: Ancient Rome Social revolution is when the reins of power of a society/civilization are removed from one group and transferred to another in a short period of time. This group creates/adopts a new political/economic system. Best Example: American Revolution A collapse is a shut down of existence. A revert back into something more primal. A revolution removal of the status quo and is followed by a new system in its place. Slaves are kept to such a low standard of living that they know of no other system. It’s impossible for the to stage a revolution b/c they have no idea for a replacement system b/c they’re uneducated illiterate slaves.

86 Social Collapse vs. Social Revolution
Marx says the slave societies will collapse. There would be no revolution. Why do you think Marx thought this? Marx believed the slave class of the slave societies would be incapable of staging a complete revolution against their masters. Why do you think Marx believed they were incapable of a revolution? Slaves could not bring forth a revolution because… For Marx, a revolution needed ideas and thought. Slaves were uneducated and reduced to the level of property like a draft animal. Slaves could possibly overthrow their masters, but lacked the ability to create/adopt a new system in place of the slave society.

87 Example #1 – Roman Empire

88 Example 2 -- The Americas: 1492-1865
Why no cotton? Only 6% of the slaves coming from Africa were imported into the American South! In the American South, in contrast, only one slaveholder held over a thousand slaves, and just 125 had over 250 slaves. Because the sugar plantations dwarfed the cotton plantations in the South. Also the death rate in on the Sugar plantations was much higher requiring more imported slaves. In the South the slaves living there were often 3,4,5th generation.

89 Was ancient Egypt a slave society
Was ancient Egypt a slave society? What do you think is happening in the picture above? Use evidence from the image to explain.

90 What do you think is happening here?
Annubis is the jackal god who leads a soul through process Osiris is in the white Horus is the falcon headed god Ammut/Ammit eats your “heavy heart” Feather is Ma’aa – Truth and justice What do you think is happening here?


92 Hieroglyphic Pop Art




96 Step 3 -- Feudalism Kings acquire power through conquest, marriage, and inheritance. Class conflict here is still rigid and exists between Lords and Serfs. Feudal society differs from slave society in that serfs are not slaves. They are bound to serving a lord on his land, but were not owned like a master owned his slave. Religion is a strengthening tool of ruling class used to keep in place the feudal hierarchy. Religion justifies authority (divine right) and organizes society. Only 1 religion. India Caste system, Also why


98 What country is his used in the most
What country is his used in the most? How is this system justified where it is used?

99 Step 3 -- Feudalism The stability produced from this system leads to its downfall. How do you think this happened? As larger nation-states (England, France, etc.) form, the constant violence and turbulence of the time period (Middle/Medieval) slowly subsides. Trade and commerce begin to flourish in this stable atmosphere, especially as Northern/Western Europe begins to trade with Mediterranean and the Middle East. This explosion of trade creates a whole new class of people; the merchant class. These merchants act as the destabilizing force. They clash with Lords/Kings and their business stifling policies. What were they doing that hurt business? Wars and taxes/tariffs Examples: Europe in Middle (Medieval) Age, Renaissance Also Vikings are converted

100 Vikings Convert to Christianity
What other major European event subsided the violence in Europe doing Feudal Society (Middle Ages)? Vikings Convert to Christianity




104 Step 4 – Capitalism – “Rule of Money”
The feudal merchants (now labeled bourgeoisie or capitalists) wrest power from feudal ruling class. Serfs move from farms to cities to become industrial workers; exchanging their labor for wages. Banks and their control/manipulation of money become the dominate tool of the bourgeoisie Emphasis placed on accumulating private property; birth of materialism. Imperialism is a key characteristic of capitalism. Capitalist nations use their accumulated wealth and power to dominate weaker nations. Example: Support wars which lead to further exploitation of foreign workers around the world in order to transfer wealth to the imperial society. [Spanish-American War] At first didn’t like war but now that they control nation-states wars are beneficial for capitalists.


106 Capitalism – “Rule of Money”
Marx argues that the capitalists (bourgeoisie) exploit the workers (proletariat) in capitalism. Why did Marx say the workers were being exploited even though they were being paid for their labor? Marx argued that the proletariat was not being paid the full value of their labor; therefore exploited. No profit would be earned by the bourgeoisie if the proletariat was paid full value of their labor. This surplus value (profit) is gained by the bourgeoisie through extending the working day beyond what is necessary. The proletariat eventually becomes collectively aware (an epiphany of sorts) of this exploitation and begin to organize and work to forcibly take control from the bourgeoisie. Marx very specifically stated that this would be a VIOLENT event. Example: Industrial Revolutions in U.S and Britain and Labor strikes ( ) Overtime laws,

107 U.S. Labor What is our definition of what the necessary work day/week is in the United States? What happens if a (wage) worker goes over this limit? How did our labor laws get to the point that it is at right now in this country? It hasn’t always been this way. Do you think Americans work to much or to little? Do you think we work more or less than European countries? China? Japan?



110 Events that contributed to Capitalism
Crusades although was war and conquest re-connected two regions of the world that were isolated since the time of Rome. This will have a positive impact on trade later. Guess the event and how it contributed towards transition to capitalism. How did you know?

111 Black Plague wiped out so many people that it made the peasants labor more valuable thereby enriching the low class pulling them out of their weak and feeble state and able to challenge the status quo

112 Protestant Reformation removed the power of the Church had over the continent. Suddenly the Pope wasn’t the single figurehead leader for every Christian in Northern and Western Europe thereby weakening the rigid hierarchy in place.

113 English Civil War, American/French Revolution’s were fought and won by those who opposed of monarchy and the old feudal ruling class. These events broke the back of feudalism allowed the rise of the bourgeoisie and opened the way to free trade and the rule of money.


115 Analyze the following image
Analyze the following image. What do you think is the message being sent?


117 STEP 5 -- Socialism -- “Dictatorship of Proletariat”
The concept of class begins to erode. The domination of market forces is replaced through worker’s desire for cooperative labor in order to collectively meet their wants and needs. Once the proletariat succeeds in their worker revolution and overthrows capitalism, socialism will prevail. Workers will come together to ban old capitalist money, banks, governments, and market forces and be replaced by communes who make decisions with an agreement of the majority of workers on the production of goods. Remnants of capitalism remain, and some workers are rewarded for contributing more labor, but socialism works to equally redistribute all wealth in society. If socialism is successful conflicts b/t different social classes, capitalist competition, and wars will come to an end. Quality of life improves and communism is possible. Marx says “socialism” is the 1st part of communism. Commune a small group of persons living together, sharing possessions, work, income, etc., and often pursuing unconventional lifestyles.



120 Once you have children you will see that Sharing is something that must be taught by parents; it is not automatically built into you. Not to say that sharing is a bad thing but it certainly isn’t an instinct that human beings are possess. Building a system around something that isn’t a part of our Why do people share? Do you think sharing is instinctual in human beings? Give an example.

121 Which do you think you’re more likely to see
Which do you think you’re more likely to see? Which is the more typical behavior?


123 STEP 6 – Communism – Leap Forward
As societies “leap forward” from socialism to communism governments/nation-states crumble worldwide b/c there is no need for them in a society that has no class divisions. There are no borders, nationalities, ethnicities, religions, race. There is just humanity. “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs” There is no money, no private property, and everyone works for the betterment of everyone else. Goods and services are free to be consumed by anyone who has a need for them. At this point a new phase of history begins. Real human history starts because humanity is finally free to act independently of market/productive forces. Marx does not lay out exact characteristics b/t Socialism and Communism. This is because he doesn’t know yet what it will look like. All of society, all of economics and all politics are combined into one, perfect, classless, automatic, government-less system based on common ownership of all economic means of production, and social sameness Leap forward is actually a Chinese twist on communism theory.



126 Marxist Theory Lens Marxism is based off of conflict and class struggle. Society will only see real lasting change when real conflicts are resolved between social classes. Marx also famously said that these stages must happen naturally and cannot be forced. This very much differs from those who eventually follow in Karl Marx’s footsteps (Lenin in Russia, Mao in China). All of these leaders try to force socialism/communism on their people. Marxist Political Theory Typically, Russia is the country most associated with the birth of communism, but Marx believed the United States and Great Britain in the 19th century were much closer to attaining communism. Why do you think this is?



129 Can you do the same thing for…
4 characters are…Humpty Dumpty, The wall, Kingsmen, Gravity?

130 He was also very aware that when people change their ways and views it is generally in reaction to an intolerable situation in the present and only to a small degree because of the attraction of a better life in the future.  all of society, all of economics and all politics are combined into one, perfect, classless, automatic, government-less system based on common ownership of all economic means of production, and social sameness Harrison Burgeron -- Equality Marx - Philosophy of Life

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