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The Semantic of Morphological Relations

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1 The Semantic of Morphological Relations
By : Pristya Riefca Sari ( ) Rustiah ( ) Yunita Bone ( ) The Semantic of Morphological Relations

2 Formal Processes of Derivation
Addition : some lexemes are formed by combining morphemes, ex : armchair, busybody Mutation :change of vowel, change of consonant, or both and by change of stress. Ex: proud -> pride, believe -> belief, choose -> choice, insult -> insύlt Conversion or zero change : the simple change of a word of one class to another with no formal alliteration. Ex: clean, dry, equal (adjective, also verb) Subtraction (or reduction) : by removing parts of certain lexemes new lexemes are formed (acronym and clipping)

3 Semantic Processes in Derivation
Nouns represent entities ; verb represents activities ; adjective represents qualities or characteristic. When a verb converted to a noun, the noun may refer to concrete entity – a person, object or place associated with what the verb signifies.

4 When a verb is derived from a noun, an entity becomes a predicate an entity or status-losing its quantifiable nature but becoming part of a tense – aspect system A noun or verb converted to an adjective gives a word that names a quality associated with some entity.

5 1. Verbs formed form nouns
a. Transfer meanings Roger painted the wall -> put paint on the wall Susan peeled an apple -> remove the peel from an apple We’re bottling wine -> putting wine in bottle They’re mining coal -> removing coal from mine

6 b. Effective meanings The accident crippled my friend -> cause him to be a cripple She babies her husband -> make him like a baby.

7 c. Instrumental meanings
Harry locked the door -> use the lock with respect to the door Lucy penned the note -> use a pen to write a note

8 d. Vehicular meanings ( instrument + transfer)
Sandra is skating from here to the corner -> move (oneself) on skate The company is trucking from the mine to the factory -> move (something) by truck

9 2. Verbs from Adjectives Causative ex : Ella dried the dishes -> Ella caused the dishes to be dry. Inchoative ex: The towels dried -> The towels become dry.

10 3. Verbs from verbs Repetitive ( prefix re- ) ex: re-write, re-capture, re-tell Reversive ( ‘undoing’ prefix, namely un-,de- or dis-) ex: fold – unfold, lock – unlock Privative (remove or detach N) ex: arm – disarm, cover – uncover , load – unload

11 4. Adjectives derived from verbs
Active – subjective (-ing) ex: amusing, charming, interesting ex: this book is boring (to me) Passive – objective (-ed, -en) ex: amused, broken, interested ex: I am bored (with / by this book)

12 5. Adjectives derived from nouns
The adjective means “like N”, ex: childish -> like a child The adjective means “having (some quantity of) N, affected by N, displaying N”, ex: muddy -> having mud Some adjectives mean “leading to N, likely to produce N” ex: healthful -> leading to (good) health.

13 6. Adjectives derived from adjectives
Tendency -> has a suffix –ish with the meaning “partially, tending toward”. ex: bluish, oldish, yellowish Negative -> has a prefix to indicate the negative or change the suffix –ful, -less. Ex: unfinished, uneasy, painless, etc

14 7. Nouns derived from verbs
Action nouns, ex: the bus arrived promptly – the prompt arrival of the bus Effect nouns, ex: George replied to our letter – George’s reply to our letter Agent/ instrument nouns, ex: Harry drives – Harry is a driver Affected nouns, ex: somebody employs Harry – Harry is employee Place nouns, ex: the ship anchor here – this is an anchorage

15 8. Nouns derived from adjectives
Abstract nouns -> a way of treating the quality as a thing, ex: depth, warmth, width, kindness, literacy Characterized nouns -> places characterized by what the adjective represents, ex: absentee, rapids, shallows

16 9. Nouns derived from nouns
Place nouns -> where the basic noun is to be found, ex: fishery, hermitage, orphanage Person nouns -> labels for humans associated with whatever the basic noun signifies, ex: mountaineer, islander, New Yorker.

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