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– Mental preparation for performance

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Presentation on theme: "– Mental preparation for performance"— Presentation transcript:

1 – Mental preparation for performance
Learning objectives To understand the term arousal. To be able to explain the inverted U theory relating to arousal in sport. To understand techniques for stress management in sport. To be able to define the term aggression. To understand the difference between direct and indirect aggression. To understand the characteristics of an introvert and extrovert personality. To evaluate the type of sports suitable for each personality types

2 Arousal Arousal is an energised state of readiness before performing a task.

3 Arousal - Inverted U theory
Watch me What is the inverted U theory all about?

4 Inverted U theory This theory suggests there is an optimum arousal level and if aroused more than this performance will decline. When drawn on a graph this appears as an upside down U shape. At low levels of arousal, performance will be below par, the athlete is not psyched up.

5 Inverted U theory As arousal increases so does performance, up to an optimal point. At this level of arousal performance is at its best (optimum)

6 Inverted U theory After this optimal point, further increases in arousal will lead to a decline in performance. At this level of arousal performance is at its best (optimum)

7 Inverted U theory The relationship between arousal and performance is fine and can affect all athletes differently depending on a number of factors. Each athlete has their own optimal level of arousal. Think. Pair. Share – What factors might affect how your optimum levels of arousal?

8 Inverted U theory The task/activity complexity will shift the inverted U. Fine skills; Delicate and highly controlled tasks require a low level of arousal (shift to the left) High arousal will therefore interferes with task as close control required.

9 Inverted U theory The task/activity complexity will shift the inverted U. Gross skills: Easy/large basic movements require a higher level of arousal. This includes strength based tasks where is a bigger margin for error and a broader optimal arousal zone. (tolerates a bigger arousal level before performance falls)

10 Controlling Arousal What goes through the mind of an elite athlete moments before an important event?

11 Controlling Arousal Arousal is best controlled through a variety of stress management techniques. Photo: © pincusvt on Flickr. This image is reproduced under the terms of the Creative Commons License

12 Controlling Arousal 1. Mental rehearsal/imagery/visualisation
Mental rehearsal involves the athlete imagining themselves in an environment performing a specific activity using all of their senses. The images should have the athlete performing successfully and feeling satisfied with their performance. How might a gymnast use mental rehearsal before a routine?

13 Controlling Arousal Mental Rehearsal can be used to:
Familiarise the athlete with a competition site, a race course, a complex play pattern or routine. Motivate the athlete by recalling images of their goals or of success in a past competition. Perfect skills or skill sequences the athlete is learning or refining Reduce negative thoughts by focusing on positive outcomes Set the stage for performance with a complete mental run through of the key elements of their performance.

14 Controlling Arousal 2. Positive self talk:
This involves recognising that the athlete has started worrying about a performance and refocusing by using positive inner thoughts. e.g. Netball player tells herself “focus” or a footballer saying “We have plenty of time left to equalise”

15 Controlling Arousal 3. Deep breathing
This technique involves the performer relaxing the chest and shoulder muscles and deep breathing through the diaphragm. This can redirect attention and release stress and tension. This is especially important right before a vital moment in sport.

16 Aggression Why are some players more aggressive than others?
What effect does the environment have on aggression? Does sport offer an outlet for aggression or create more aggression?

17 Aggression Sport often requires a degree of aggression to succeed. Aggression can be a negative, although as long as it is controlled, it can also become a positive. There are two types of aggression.

18 Aggression Direct aggression
Here the aggression is in the direction of another player and involves physical contact such as a rugby tackle or in wrestling or boxing.

19 Aggression Indirect aggression
Others prefer sports which involve indirect aggression like tennis, golf and volleyball, where players hit a ball or object to 'beat' their opponents.

20 Aggression Think. Pair. Share – Do the following sports use direct or indirect aggression?

21 Personality Think. Pair. Share – What’s difference in personality of these individuals?

22 Personality Your personality can affect the type of sports you like and excel in. These are just general rules however, you may be an exception to the rule! Personalities are often described by how introverted or extroverted the individual is. Introverted people tend to be quiet, shy, thoughtful and enjoy own company. Extroverted people are more loud, sociable, talkative and excitable.

23 Personality Whether you are more of an introvert or extrovert can affect the type of sport you like to play. Introverts are usually shy. They perform better at lower arousal levels. Too much stimulation will cause them to be over-aroused and they will not perform well. Introverts tend to like sports which require: Concentration Precision Self-motivation Intricate closed skills Low arousal levels Individual performances/routines For example, archery, golf and snooker.

24 Personality Extroverts are socially outgoing. They need high arousal levels to perform. Coaches and team mates need to keep them 'excited' about performing. They prefer team games with open skills and lots of unpredictability.  Extroverts prefer sports which are: Exciting Team sports Fast paced High arousal levels Large, simple motor skills Low concentration For example, rugby and boxing.

25 Motivation Motivation is thought to be a combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims and the outside factors which affect it. With this in mind, motivation has the following two forms, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Players who are motivated will persist with the task, even when the odds are against them.

26 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation comes from within the performer and is characterised by feelings of pride and self satisfaction/acheivement from completing or succeeding in a task.

27 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation include the thrill of scoring a goal, the satisfaction of winning a major competition. The feeling of well-being derived from such motivation ensures that the performer maintains the desire to continue with the activity.

28 Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation is more temporary and comes from a source outside of the performer. These are things which can encourage the athlete to perform and fall into two groups; tangible and intangible. Tangible rewards: Physical rewards such as medals, certificates and money. These should be used sparingly with young athletes to avoid a situation where winning a prize is more important than competing well.

29 Extrinsic motivation Intangible rewards: Praise, recognition and applause. These should be used on a regular basis to encourage the athlete to repeat the behaviour which earned the praise.

30 Motivation A coach should consider the personality of the performer before deciding on the best way to offer motivation. Extrovert individuals enjoy the limelight and can be praised openly. Others prefer to be praised quietly, away from others. Intangible rewards are seen as more effective than extrinsic ones. Overuse of extrinsic motivation can undermine the strength of intrinsic motivation as the performer become reliant on external elements.

31 Apply it! What has stuck with you?
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? Explain, using sporting examples, direct and indirect aggression? Discuss how an athlete may use mental rehearsal before an event. How does an introvert differ to an extrovert? Mental preparation for performance

32 Practice it! Exam questions Define arousal. (1)
Describe the relationship between arousal and performance as shown in the inverted-U theory. (2)

33 Practice it! Exam questions
3. Name two stress management techniques and explain how they could be used to control arousal in named sporting activities of your choice. (4) 4. In 2015, Manchester City footballer, Jill Scott, was sent off for an aggressive act in a game against Arsenal ladies. Explain the difference between direct aggression and indirect aggression in physical activity and sport. (2)

34 Practice it! Exam questions
5. The winners of the FA Women’s Super League win a trophy at the end of the season. Evaluate the use of a trophy as a form of extrinsic motivation. (3) 6. Explain what sports would suit the following personality types: • introvert • extrovert (2)

35 Practice it! Marks Scheme:
A readiness / state of alertness (1) / Physical and mental state varying from deep sleep to intense excitement (1) Correct drawing of the inverted-U (1) As arousal level increases, so does the level of performance (1) Until it reaches an optimum point at around moderate arousal level (1) Once past this optimum point, performance decreases as they have become over aroused and become too anxious (1)

36 Practice it! Marks Scheme: 3. AO1 • Deep breathing (1)
• Mental rehearsal (1) • Visualisation (1) • Imagery (1) • Positive self-talk (1) AO2 Technique must be explained in relation to a named sporting activity • Deep breathing to reduce heart rate / to reduce nervous feeling before hitting a golf ball off the tee (1) • Mental rehearsal to picture the perfect performance / feeling of how to kick a conversion in rugby (1) • Visualisation to picture an aspect of performance / focus on how that performance should look prior to facing a bowler in cricket (1) • Imagery to imagine oneself in a calm / relaxing place before attempting a putt in golf (1) • Positive self-talk to give yourself positive instructions allowing you to remain focused on the task / to motivate / to reassure before taking a penalty in football (1)

37 Practice it! Marks Scheme:
4. Direct aggression is aimed directly at other players / physical contact with others (1) Indirect aggression is aimed at an object to gain an advantage (1) 5. Trophy is given once per year so is not overused and therefore does not undermine intrinsic motivation (1) The feeling of pride / accomplishment over a long season to win the trophy may well be an effective motivator (1) The extrinsic reward of the trophy combined with intrinsic drive can work well together (1) The trophy on its own may not be a big enough motivator for some (1) Intrinsic motivation (drive) is generally deemed to be more powerful than extrinsic so performers will still need intrinsic reasons (as well as the trophy) 6. Introverts tend to play sports that require concentration / precision (fine skill control) is required / low levels of arousal required, eg archery (or any other suitable example) Extroverts tend to play / do sports that are fast paced / concentration may need to be low / gross skills are used, eg rugby league (or any other suitable example)

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