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Presentation on theme: "THE ATOMIC THEORY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Foundations of Atomic Theory
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions. Law of Definite Proportions The fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound. Lavoisier (credited with Law of Conservation of Mass). Proust (credited with Law of Definite Proportions). Dalton (credited with Law of Multiple Proportions). Law of Multiple Proportions If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first elements is always a ratio of small whole numbers.

3 Conservation of Atoms 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O O H2 H2O O2 + 4 atoms hydrogen
John Dalton 2 H2O H O H2 O2 H2O + “Conservation of Atoms” Description: This slide illustrates conservation of atoms in a chemical reaction. Basic Concepts Atoms are conserved in chemical reactions, but molecules are not. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. They are only rearranged. Equation coefficients can be interpreted as the relative numbers of molecules, formula units, or moles of reactants and products. Teaching Suggestions This slide shows that atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction but are merely rearranged. Use this slide and worksheet to help students understand formula equations. You may need to review how gram formula mass is determined. Questions State the law that explains why the number of oxygen and hydrogen atoms is the same on both sides of the equation shown in the diagram. In what ways are the atoms rearranged by the reaction? Write a word equation for the reaction taking place in the diagram. In the balanced equation shown in the diagram, what is the coefficient of H2? Of O2? Give two ways in which the coefficients in the balanced equation can be interpreted. Use the balanced equation to determine how many moles of H2O would be produced by the reaction of 4 moles of H2 with 2 moles of O2. The gram formula mass of a substance is the number of grams of the substance containing a mole of formula units. Write the equation for the reaction in question 5 showing the number of moles of the reactants and the product. Calculate the gram formula mass of H2, O2, and H2O. How many grams of H2 and O2 react in the reaction in part a? How many grams of H2O are produced? Rewrite the equation, giving the masses of reactants and products. How do you know that mass is conserved in this reaction? Do the masses of the reactants in the equation in part d have the same ratio as the coefficients of the equation in part a? Why or why not? Which do you think is most useful to a chemist: the balanced formula equation (at the top of the diagram), the molecular sketch, the word equation, or an equation that gives the masses of reactants and products? Which would be the least useful? Explain your reasoning. 4 atoms hydrogen 2 atoms oxygen 4 atoms hydrogen 2 atoms oxygen Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 204

4 Legos are Similar to Atoms
H O H2 O2 H2O + Lego's can be taken apart and built into many different things. Atoms can be rearranged into different substances.

5 Conservation of Mass + + High voltage electrodes Before reaction glass
chamber High voltage After reaction 0 g H2 40 g O2 300 g (mass of chamber) + 385 g total O2 H2O H2 5.0 g H2 “Conservation of Mass” (Lavoisier) Description: This slide illustrates a reaction between hydrogen and oxygen in a nonstoichiometric mixture of these gases. Basic Concepts ·         Mass and atoms are conserved in chemical reactions. ·         When non-stoichiometric quantities of substances are mixed, they react in stoichiometric proportions. Any reactants in excess remain unreacted. Teaching Suggestions Explain that the first diagram shows the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in a closed chamber. A spark passes between the electrodes, causing the O2 and H2 to react rapidly. The second diagram shows what is in the chamber after the reaction. Use this slide to illustrate that reactants combine in the stoichiometric proportions. Stress that is is not sufficient to know the amounts of starting materials present. One must also know the amounts of reactants that will take part in the reaction. Questions What is the ratio of the mass of O2 to H2 before the reaction? What is the ratio of the number of moles of O2 to H2 before the reaction? How do you account for the fact that the mass of the chamber and its contents is the same before and after the reaction. Why is some oxygen left in the chamber after the reaction? What are the masses of H2 and O2 that take part in the reaction? What is the ratio of the mass of O2 to H2 taking part in this reaction? What is the ratio of the number of moles of O2 to H2 taking part in the reaction? Why is this mole ratio different from the mass ratio? If there were twice as much H2 in the chamber (10 g) but the same amount of O2 (80g), what would you expect to find in the chamber after the reaction? Explain your answer. O2 80 g O2 45 g H2O ? g H2O 300 g (mass of chamber) + 385 g total Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 204

6 Law of Definite Proportions Joseph Louis Proust (1754 – 1826)
Each compound has a specific ratio of elements It is a ratio by mass Water is always 8 grams of oxygen for every one gram of hydrogen Photo pg 100 Ihde text (Edgar Fahs Smith Collection) Joseph Louis Proust ( ), French chemist given credit for law of definite composition. Whether synthesized in the laboratory or obtained from various natural sources, copper carbonate always has the same composition. Analysis of this compound led Proust to formulate the law of definite proportions.

7 The Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton could not use his theory to determine the elemental compositions of chemical compounds because he had no reliable scale of atomic masses. Dalton’s data led to a general statement known as the law of multiple proportions. Law states that when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that are present per gram of the first element can almost always be expressed as the ratios of integers. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.


9 An unsatisfactory model for the hydrogen atom
According to classical physics, light should be emitted as the electron circles the nucleus. A loss of energy would cause the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus and eventually spiral into it. Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2nd Edition, page 294

10 Quantum Mechanical Model
Niels Bohr & Albert Einstein Modern atomic theory describes the electronic structure of the atom as the probability of finding electrons within certain regions of space (orbitals).

11 Modern View The atom is mostly empty space Two regions Nucleus
protons and neutrons Electron cloud region where you might find an electron

12 Models of the Atom e + + - Dalton’s model (1803) Greek model (400 B.C.) Thomson’s plum-pudding model (1897) Rutherford’s model (1909) Bohr’s model (1913) Charge-cloud model (present) 1803 John Dalton pictures atoms as tiny, indestructible particles, with no internal structure. 1897 J.J. Thomson, a British scientist, discovers the electron, leading to his "plum-pudding" model. He pictures electrons embedded in a sphere of positive electric charge. 1911 New Zealander Ernest Rutherford states that an atom has a dense, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move randomly in the space around the nucleus. 1926 Erwin Schrödinger develops mathematical equations to describe the motion of electrons in atoms. His work leads to the electron cloud model. 1913 In Niels Bohr's model, the electrons move in spherical orbits at fixed distances from the nucleus. “Models of the Atom” Description: This slide shows he evolution of the concept of the atom from John Dalton to the present. Basic Concepts ·         The model of the atom changed over time as more and more evidence about its structure became available. ·         A scientific model differs from a replica (physical model) because it represents a phenomenon that cannot be observed directly. Teaching Suggestions Use this slide as a review of the experiments that led up to the present-day view of the atom. Ask students to describe the characteristics of each atomic model and the discoveries that led to its modification. Make sure that students understand that the present-day model shows the most probable location of an electron at a single instant. Point out that most scientific models and theories go through an evolution similar to that of the atomic model. Modifications often must be made to account for new observations. Discuss why scientific models, such as the atomic models shown here, are useful in helping scientists interpret heir observations. Questions Describe the discovery that led scientists to question John Dalton’s model of the atom ad to favor J.J. Thomson’s model. What experimental findings are the basis for the 1909 model of the atom? What shortcomings in the atomic model of Ernest Rutherford led to the development of Niels Bohr’s model? A friend tells you that an electron travels around an atom’s nucleus in much the same way that a planet revolves around the sun. Is this a good model for the present-day view of the atom? Why or why not? Another friend tells you that the present-day view of an electron’s location in the atom can be likened to a well-used archery target. The target has many holes close to the bull’s-eye and fewer holes farther from the center. The probability that the next arrow will land at a certain distance from the center corresponds to the number of holes at that distance. Is this a good model for the present-day view of the atom? Why or why not? Suppose that, it the future, an apparatus were developed that could track and record the path of an electron in an atom without disturbing its movement. How might this affect the present-day model of the atom? Explain your answer. How does developing a model of an atom differ from making a model of an airplane? How are these two kinds of models the same? Drawing on what you know in various fields of science, write a general statement about the usefulness of scientific models. Timeline: Wysession, Frank, Yancopoulos Physical Science Concepts in Action, Prentice Hall/Pearson, 2004 pg 114 1924 Frenchman Louis de Broglie proposes that moving particles like electrons have some properties of waves. Within a few years evidence is collected to support his idea. 1932 James Chadwick, a British physicist, confirms the existence of neutrons, which have no charge. Atomic nuclei contain neutrons and positively charged protons. 1904 Hantaro Nagaoka, a Japanese physicist, suggests that an atom has a central nucleus. Electrons move in orbits like the rings around Saturn. Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 125

13 Particles in the Atom Electrons
(-) charge no mass located outside the nucleus Protons (+) charge amu located inside the nucleus Neutrons no charge amu located inside the nucleus Atom – the smallest unit of an element that retains its chemical properties. Atoms can be split into smaller parts.

14 Discovery of the Neutron
+ + Lord Rutherford predicted the existence of the neutron is 1920.  Walter Bothe obtained evidence of the neutron in   However it was James Chadwick, who repeated Bothe's work, who is known as the discoverer of the neutron.  He found these uncharged particles with essentially the same mass as the proton.  He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1935. Chadwick is credited with the discovery of the neutron as a result of this transmutation experiment. When Ernest Rutherford bombarded the gold foil with alpha particles...we said four possible things may happen. (a) the particle will pass through the foil (b) the particle will be deflected while passing through the gold foil (c) the particle is deflected back towards the source (d) the alpha particle is absorbed by the gold foil It is this last event that is occurring above as beryllium is changed into carbon. Notice this is a nuclear reaction - the nucleus is changed in the atom. James Chadwick bombarded beryllium-9 with alpha particles, carbon-12 atoms were formed, and neutrons were emitted. Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter 3rd Edition, page 764 *Walter Boethe

15 Subatomic particles Actual e- -1 p+ +1 no mass (g) Relative mass Name
Symbol Charge Electron e- -1 1/1840 9.11 x 10-28 Proton p+ +1 1 1.67 x 10-24 Neutron no 1 1.67 x 10-24

16 Subatomic Particles equal in a neutral atom Atomic Number
NUCLEUS ELECTRONS equal in a neutral atom PROTONS NEUTRONS Negative Charge QUARKS Atomic Number equals the # of... Positive Charge Neutral Charge Most of the atom’s mass. Courtesy Christy Johannesson

17 Symbols Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number X Mass number Atomic # protons + # neutrons mass number # protons

18 F Symbols 19 9 Find the number of protons number of neutrons
number of electrons Atomic number Mass number = 9 + F 19 9 = 10 = 9 = 9 = 19

19 Br Symbols 80 35 Find the number of protons number of neutrons
number of electrons Atomic number Mass number = 35 = 45 Br 80 35 = 35 = 35 = 80

20 Na Symbols 23 11 Find the number of protons number of neutrons
number of electrons Atomic number Mass number = 11 = 12 Na 23 = 11 = 11 11 = 23 Sodium atom

21 Na Symbols 23 11 Find the 1+ number of protons number of neutrons
number of electrons Atomic number Mass number = 11 Na = 12 23 1+ = 10 11 = 11 = 23 Sodium ion

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