11 Session 1: Developing Theory on Age in the Workplace
12 Action Regulation Across the Adult Lifespan (ARAL) A Meta-Theory of Work and Aging Hannes Zacher, Winfried Hacker, & Michael FreseAge in the Workplace MeetingLimerick – November 5, 2015
13 The Big IdeaThe application of lifespan developmental theories in the work context comes with a number of challengesFocus on isolated phenomena / processes / levelsFocus on internal resources, and largely neglect active behavior and the external environmentIntegrating action regulation theory (ART) with the lifespan developmental perspective into ARAL theory can help explain age-related changes in behavior and the role of behavior for successful aging at work
14 Action Regulation Theory (ART) A meta-theory on the mental regulation of tasks and active, goal-directed behavior (Frese & Zapf, 1994; Hacker, 1971, 2003)Implications for work motivation, performance, learning, personality development, work design, and stressBasic concepts: sequential and hierarchical structure of actions, complete tasks and actions, foci of action regulation, and action-regulating mental modelsAction regulation theory constitutes “a normative guide to efficient and humanized work” (Hacker, 2003, p. 105)
15 Sequential Structure of Action Regulation Goal Development and SelectionOrientation (Mapping the Environment)Plan Development and Selection of Action ProgramsMonitoring of ExecutionFeedbackProcessing
16 Hierarchical Structure of Action Regulation Goal (e.g., Promotion)Goal (e.g., Retirement Entry)Sub-GoalsSub-Sub-GoalsAdult LifespanSequence of Visible Actions
17 Hierarchical Structure of Action Regulation HeuristicLevelMeta-CognitiveTemplates/HeuristicsIntellectual LevelConscious, Knowledge-Based,Controlled, Complex Analyses,Task- and Object OrientedLevel of Flexible Action Patternsor Knowledge-Based LevelRule-Based, Activation by Signals,Situational Specifications, Not Necessarily ConsciousSensorimotor or Automatic LevelAutomatic, Procedural Skills, Rapid and Effortless Information Processing,Elementary Movement Patterns and Cognitive Routines,Unconscious Processing of Kinesthetic and Proprioceptive FeedbackConscious andAutomaticIntellectualUnconsciousandPhysical
18 Complete Tasks/Actions, Foci of Action Regulation, and the Action-Regulating Mental Model Complete tasks and actions involve not only execution, but also preparation (goal development, action planning) and feedback processing – and regulation on different and alternating mental levelsAction regulation can be more or less focused on a given task, social context, or the selfThe action-regulating mental model is the knowledge base of action regulation that guides employees from initial goal development until goal attainment and allows predictions
19 Lifespan Developmental Perspective 16 Years Old Years OldEmployee Age (Working Lifespan)Fluid Cognitive Abilities/Physical Abilities and HealthGenerativityMotivesCrystallizedCognitive Abilities /Job KnowledgeSocioemotionalAbilities(Occupational) FutureTime PerspectiveLifespan Developmental PerspectiveKanfer, Beier, & Ackerman (2013)
20 Propositions of ARAL Theory (Selection) Goal developmentProposition: Workers internalize external developmental tasks, opportunities, and deadlines into goals (subjective tasks); this redefinition process is influenced by the clarity of tasks.OrientationProposition: Age-related declines in cognitive mechanics are associated with slower information processing at the intellectual level; this effect may be offset by age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics. Age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics have beneficial effects on information processing at the level of flexible action patterns and at the heuristic levels.PlanningProposition: Age-related declines in cognitive mechanics (especially working memory capacity) lead to efficiency declines when “planning while doing”, whereas age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics lead to efficiency improvements when planning in advance.Monitoring of executionProposition: Age-related declines in the cognitive mechanics are associated with lower efficiency of execution monitoring; these effects may be partially offset by age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics.Feedback processingProposition: Age-related changes in socioemotional experience impact on feedback processing, such that young workers focus more strongly on instrumental aspects, whereas older workers focus more strongly on the social and emotional implications of feedback.
21 Propositions of ARAL Theory (Selection) Hierarchical structure of action regulationProposition: Age-related declines in cognitive mechanics are associated with less efficient action regulation at the intellectual level, whereas age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics are associated with more efficient action regulation at the sensorimotor level, level of flexible action patterns, and the heuristic level.Complete tasks/actionsProposition: Complete tasks and actions contribute to successful aging, such that older workers in jobs with complete tasks maintain higher levels of cognitive functioning than older workers in jobs with fragmented tasks.Foci of action regulationProposition: Age-related meta-stereotypes and stereotype threat lead to a shift in the focus of action regulation from the task to self and others, which impairs effective task performance.Action-regulating mental modelsProposition: Workers’ action-regulating mental models improve during the first years on the job and, in the absence of work-related changes and challenges, plateau during midlife.
22 Propositions of ARAL Theory (Selection) Cognitive mechanics/pragmaticsProposition: Age-related declines in cognitive mechanics are buffered, and age-related increases in cognitive pragmatics are facilitated, by action regulation at the intellectual level; in contrast, increased automatization of behavior with age may result in cognitive decline and skill traps.Personality developmentProposition: Action regulation that, over time and with increased practice, becomes more automatized, manifests in enduring changes of action styles or personality characteristics.Motivational strategiesProposition: The phase of goal development and selection is followed by orientation, planning, monitoring of execution, and feedback phases at the intellectual and heuristic levels, in order to optimize goal pursuit and to compensate for a lack of goal-relevant resources.Proposition: Primary and secondary control strategies involve all phases of the action regulation process, with primary control strategies aiming for changes in the external environment through action (task and social focus), and secondary control strategies aiming for changes in personal goals through feedback from the environment (self focus).Socioemotional experienceProposition: Age-related changes in goal priorities and the action-regulating mental model are associated with improved emotion regulation strategies among older workers.Proposition: A mismatch between automatized action regulation and situational demands leads to increased occupational strain and decreased well-being.
23 Implications of ARAL Theory ResearchComprehensive meta-theory to guide future research in the field of work and agingMethodological challengesPracticeWork motivation and performanceLearning and personality developmentWork design and occupational health and well-beingCareer counseling and successful aging at work
24 ReferencesBrandtstädter, J. (1999). The self in action and development: Cultural, biosocial, and ontogenetic bases of intentional self-development. In J. Brandtstädter & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and self development: Theory and research through the life span (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Frese, M., & Stewart, J. (1984). Skill learning as a concept in life-span developmental psychology: An action theoretic analysis. Human Development, 27, doi: /Frese, M., & Zapf, D. (1994). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In H. C. Triandis, M. D. Dunnette, & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 4, pp ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2000). The orchestration of selection, optimization, and compensation: An action-theoretical conceptualization of a theory of developmental regulation. In W. J. Perrig & A. Grob (Eds.), Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Hacker, W. (1985a). Activity: A fruitful concept in industrial psychology. In M. Frese & J. Sabini (Eds.), Goal directed behavior: The concept of action in psychology (pp ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Hacker, W. (2003). Action regulation theory: A practical tool for the design of modern work processes? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12, doi: /Heckhausen, J. (2000). Developmental regulation across the life span: An action-phase model of engagement and disengagement with developmental goals. Advances in Psychology, 131, doi: /S (00)Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (in press). Action regulation theory: Foundations, current knowledge, and future directions. In N. R. Anderson, D. S. Ones, C. Viswesvaran, & H. K. Sinangil (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Sage.
25 Is There Really a Generational Effect? David CostanzaOrganizational Sciences & PsychologyThe George Washington UniversityAWM 2015 – Limerick, Ireland
26 Is There Really a Generational Effect? Popular press pieces (e.g., Schulte, 2015) and articles and books by academics (e.g., Twenge, 2014) addressing so-called generational differences aboundPositivist assumption is that generational differences exist – we just have to find themThe question of whether or not generations are even a thing has mostly been passed over
27 The Positivist Approach Generational differences exist (obviously)Step 1: Pick a definition/datesStep 2: Find a difference between groupsStep 3: Attribute to generational membership
28 Find a Difference and Attribute to Generational Membership Millennials = narcissisticGen Xers = skepticalBaby Boomers = materialistic
29 Problems with Positivism? Start and end datesAge, Period, and Cohort EffectsStatistical and analytical issuesAnd, worst of allThe evidence doesn’t support their existenceButHow to provide evidence that they do not exist?
30 An Alternative Approach Really a question of varianceDo shared events and experiences at key points in people’s lives restrict variance within and increase variance between cohorts?If yes, maybe generational effects existIf no, maybe they do notHow to capture the possibilities?The Pasta-ist Approach
31 Generational Effect Fusilli model – shared experiences change people Variance in Y(Intent to Leave)Variable YGeneration 3Generation 2Time/Age
32 Age/Development Effect Ziti model – people change gradually over time Variance in Y(Intent to Leave)Variable YTime/Age
33 Period Effect Farfalle model – significant event impacts everyone (Pride in the Military)Variable YVariance in YSome big eventTime/Age
34 The Pasta-ist Approach Existing archival dataAge, Traditional Generations, and Rolling GenerationsThrow these at the wall and see what sticks…Visual inspectionStatisticsOther possible pasta shapes?
36 Employability: a Question of Aging? Results of a systematic review Annet de LangeTrude Furunes , Christiane De Lange, Aukje Nauta, Beatrice Van der Heijden,Tinka Van Vuuren & Josje Dikkers
37 Employability and Aging? BackgroundEmployability and Aging?
38 Employability-Antecedents: Dispositions and competences (micro-level):the “capacity to continuously fulfilling, acquiring or creating work through the optimal use of competences” (Van der Heijde & Van der Heijden, 2003, p. 453).the ‘‘perceived ability to attain sustainable employment appropriate to one’s qualification level’’ (Rothwell, Jewell, & Hardie, 2009, p. 154). the likelihood of obtaining and retaining a job (Forrier and Sels, 2003)aspect of the occupational self: fosters adaptive cognitions, behaviors, and affect (career goal setting; Fugate, Kinicki & Ashforth, 2004).-Employability as outcome (more meso-level; mobility chances)‘‘job security of the modern labour market’’ (Berntson, Sverke, & Marklund, 2006, p. 224).in recent times, employability has taken on a time- and place-related character that depends on both the personal and labor market context (De Cuyper et al., 2008; De Vries, Gründemann & Van Vuuren, 1995).
39 Conceptualizations of Aging? Biological, psychological, social and societal changes across timeChronological age(Calender age)Functional age(health +work ability)Psychosocial age(Stereotype)Organizational age(Job tenure)Life-span age(marital status,salary)?????Employability
40 PurposeConduct first systematic review on the relations between the concept of aging at work (i.e., calendar age, organizational age, life-span age, psychosocial age, and functional age) and indicators of employability
41 Research questionsWhat is the prevalence of empirical studies that focus on the relations between worker age and employability?What are the relations between different age operationalizations and employability in earlier research?Based on the findings of the current review, which research agenda for future studies can be formulated?
43 Method: Inclusion criteria -Empirical papers including individual and/or supervisor ratings of employability, career skills of workers-Published ≥1980-Measures tapping employability and indicators of ageing at work- Including workers aged ≥21 years- At least N≥15 workers included in empirical analysis
44 Flow chart (inspired by Cochrane reviews) What are the relations between age conceptualizations and employability reported in earlier published empirical research?Step 1: QuestionPsycINFO (120)Key words in Abstract: (Age and Employability), AND/OR (Organizational age and Employability), AND/OR (Tenure and Employability), AND/OR (Age and Lifelong learning Workers), AND/OR (Functional Age and Employability), AND/OR (Psychosocial age and Employability), AND/OR (Stereotype and Employability)Excluded at this levelN=59Step 2: Library SearchStep 3: Screening phaseFull Article (n=61)Excluded at this levelN= 37Data Extraction(n=24 studies)Excluded at this levelN= 7 (e.g., no actual measure of employability included)Step 4: Study RelevanceStep 5: Data ExtractionEvidence Synthesis of 17Step 6: Evidence SynthesisReport Results & ConclusionsStep 7: Report Results
45 Results: Question 1 k=17 eligible empirical studies were found Characteristics:-Diversity in definitions, conceptualizations (23.5% Van derHeijde & Van der Heijden; 11.7% Berntson and Marklund,2007), and hardly any overlap in the use of theoreticalbackground.-94% include calendar age as indicator of ageing at work(continuous or categorical). Age range was limited-11.8% (only 2) studies were based on a longitudinal panel study-Diversity in countries (e.g., Europe, USA, Korea, Scandinavian countries; 47% (8) concern Dutch data) and professions (different sectors and job types; low- and high qualified workers)
46 Q2: Relations between Age and Employability? AgingBiological, psychological, social and societal changes across timek=16 (94.4%)k=4 (23.5%)k=0k=3; 17.6%k=2;11.7%Chronological age(Calender age)Functional age(health +work ability)Psychosocial age(Stereotype)Organizational age(Job tenure)Life-span age(marital status,salary)Relatively more studies revealed negative relations between calendar age and employability. However, also nonsignificant relations were reported, and a number of studies revealed also positive relations between calendar age and employability within specialistic jobs (Job type=moderator) or between age and certain subscales of employability (such as corporate sense)-/+/n.s.not tested+-/n.s+Employability
47 Q3: Research AgendaConduct new research comparing the same validated operationalizations of employability (see also VanHercke, 2014)Develop a new overarching theory to further examine the causal nature of relations between aging and employability across the life-span (e.g. career goal setting theory, Selective Optimization with compensation theory of Baltes and Baltes, 1990)Conduct more longitudinal complete panel research covering meaningful time-spans and age processes to further examine life-span changes in relation to employabilityNew theoretical as well as empirical attention for the question: what are good indicators or measures for life-span changes that affect employability?
48 www.han.nl/lectoraathrm www.annetdelange.nl Thank you and Stay Tuned for More
49 What did the 17 studies focus on? Antecedents:Individual, team or organizational levelCareer-related processOutcomes:individual, team or organizational levelIndividual:Calendar Age +Functional Age (health)Work ability)Life span age (financial status)organizational age (job tenure)career compromise,self-presentation strategiescoping strategiesjob insecurityEducational background and lifelong learningContinuance motivationMulti-dimensional concept of employability?*Van der Heijde & Van der Heijden, 2006 or* Berntson and Marklund,2007Individual:Self-efficacyIntention to continue workEmotional exhaustionJob performanceCareer SuccessMajority of the studies is focused on relation between age-related antecedents of employability, and not in the whole process or more team-based research or organizational-level focused research (age-friendly environments etc.)Organizational:Type of job (generic or expert job)Employment or economic sectorPsychological contractHR practicesLeader-Member Exchange
50 Research questionsWhat is the prevalence of empirical studies that focus on the relations between worker age and employability?What are the relations between different age operationalizations and employability in earlier research?Based on the findings of the current review, which research agenda for future studies can be formulated?
51 Method: Exclusion criteria Theoretical papers, editorials or essaysPublished < 1980Not including any measures that tap employability and/or indicators of aging at work of workers (see below)Focusing only on younger workers aged <21 yearsThreshold of at least N = 15 workers included in empirical analysisN < 15 workers or respondents included
52 Conceptualizations employability Input or antecedents of EmployabilityCompetence-based, dispositional-based definitions;Employability as outcome:Perceived chances on the internal and external labor market or realized mobility (horizontal or vertical)
54 Job crafting over the lifespan: an interview study Dorien Kooij,
55 IntroductionLifespan theories: older people exercise agency in dealing with age-related changes OB Literature: (older) workers engage in proactive behaviors at work Older workers as job crafters!So why is Ithis study important anyway? It is important for organizations to know how they can retain their older workers, because the Dutch workforce is aging. Research on how organizations can retain their older worker is scare and the research that has been done assumes that older workers are passive recipients of the policies and practices of their organization or environment. However, lifespan theories demonstrate that older people exercise agency in dealing with the biological and psychological changes they experience across the lifespan. Older people for example use tools or actively transfer their knowledge to the next generation. Moreover, there are studies that demonstrate that workers, and also older workers, engage in proactive behaviors at work. Based on these two streams of literature i want to examine older workers as job crafters. Jc defined as …
56 Job crafting: key to successful aging “Self-initiated changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work aimed at improving person-job fit”Changing motives and abilities and low job mobility misfit and less psychological challengeIndividualized bottom-up approachI define job crafting as self-initiated changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work to improve person-job fit. An example is an older workers who offers to deal with all angry customers becuse he has a lot of experience in dealing with them. Or an employee working in IT that did not want to do accountmanagement anymore and gave this task to a coworker who enjoyed this a lot and started projects to introduce microsoft in the cloud.Two reasons why I think job crafting is the key to successful aging at work. Motives and abilities change with age, for example physical abilities might decline and intrinsic motives increase, but job tenure is high and so job stays the same. This might lead to misfit and less psychological challenge. By job crafting older workers can continuously adjust their job to intrapersonal changes of the aging process, thereby increasing their ability and motivation to continue working.Also because of low job mobility, among older workers who have been in the same job for a long time, tasks that once were personally challenging and motivating can become routine and boring. Older workes often experience career plateauing. So job crafting can increase interest in the job and enhance work motivation by allowing older workers to increase the psychological challenge associated with job performance.Although changes in work motives and abilities are similar among older workers, individual differences increase with age, making it harder for organizations to develop standard policies for this heterogeneous group of older workers. So job crafting important for successful aging at work, but when started looking in this literature I felt it did not capture job crafting activities of older workers.
57 Literature on job crafting Job crafting forms and activitiesTask, relational, and cognitive crafting (e.g., Wrzesnewski & Dutton, 2001; Slemp & Vella- Brodrick, 2013)Increasing social and structural job resources, increasing challenging demands, and decreasing hindering demands (Tims, Bakker, & Derks, 2012)Decreasing social job demands and increasing quantitative job demands (Nielsen & Abildgaard, 2012)Reduced workload crafting (Kroon, Kooij, & Van Veldhoven, 2013)These are the forms and activities disitinguished so far in research on job crafting. Research on job crafting is in its infancy and so we do not know exactly which forms and activities of job crafting there are. Wrzesniewski and Dutton ( 2001 ) proposed three forms of job crafting in their conceptual model; task crafting, so altering the type or number of tasks, this could mean expanding the job to include additional responsibilities (e.g., chef de parti), but also in the direction of narrowing one’s job (asking coworkers to take over tasks) or employees can alter their work routines by performing the same tasks in different or novel ways, relational crafting, so altering the number or nature of interactions with others, so changing number of interactions or relationship closeness (interacting more with particular colleague to learn), and cognitive crafting or altering the view of the job. Did not include this job crafting from in my research. Other researchers build on this by identifying job crafting activities based on the JDR model. Particularly, Tims et al. take a demands and resources perspective on job crafting and distinguish (1) increasing the level of structural job resources (i.e., those aspects of the job that are functional in achieving work goals, or stimulate personal growth, learning, and development; Bakker & Demerouti, 2007 ), such as variety, opportunities for development, and autonomy, (2) increasing the level of social job resources, such as social support, supervisory coaching, and feedback, (3) increasing the level of challenging job demands (i.e., all aspects of the job that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort or skills but that are also experienced as rewarding; LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine, ), such as new projects, and (4) decreasing the level of hindering emotional and mental job demands (i.e., all aspects of the job that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort or skills and may therefore be associated with physical or psychological costs; Bakker & Demerouti), related to working with people and working with knowledge. Using the Tims et al. ( 2012 ) scale, Nielsen and Abildgaard ( 2012 ) developed and validated a job crafting scale for the assessment of job crafting behavior among blue collar workers. Building upon interviews with blue collar workers, Nielsen and Abildgaard proposed fi ve (rather than four) forms of job crafting. In addition to Tims they distinguish decreasing social job demands (i.e., individual’s active attempts to avoid emotionally challenging situations) and increasing quantitative job demands (i.e., individual’s active attempts to create more work for him or herself). A fi nal form of job crafting was distinguished by Kroon and others, reduced workload crafting (i.e., reducing task responsibilities or seeking help from colleagues to reduce the workload).When looked at correlations between age and these job crafting forms overall picture is that increasing resources or demands decreases with age and that decreasing hindering demands increases wiht age. So I thought this literature is not capturing job crafting of older workers. First of all, motives and abilities change with age, which makes that older workers can and want to engage in different activities than younger workers, f.e. using their general knowledge or experience, interesting job and autonomy very important, so craft job to be able to make more decisions, have meaningful relations with others, and do interesting stuff. Secondly, older workers use strategies to succesfully age, such as selecting fewer goals by delegating less important tasks. Older people can also use these strategies at work and therefore I expect that older workers job craft differently than younger workers. Therefore, I think that older workers may craft their job differently than younger workers (see also Fried, Grant, Levi, Hadani, & Slowik, 2007), and that these specific activities and forms of job crafting are not considered in the existing job crafting literature (e.g., Ghitulescu, 2006 ; Tims et al., 2012 ).
58 Aim interview studyIntegrate the nascent literature on job crafting and identify overarching job crafting forms relevant for all workers.Examine whether and how younger and older workers craft differently.reviewing the existing job crafting literature and interviewing employees of different ages and in different jobs and organizations (N = 80), I aim toSecond, by comparing job crafting activities and forms of younger and older employees, I aim to
59 MethodSemi-structured interviews about job crafting activities, motives and facilitatorsSample: 80 employees from 10 organizations (e.g., construction company, council, hotel, insurance company, retail organizations) with diverse jobs (cook, HR advisors, cashier, marketing assistant, customer service manager, mechanic, account controller, safety consultant, caterers and IT professionals)Average age is 44, 50% is male, average tenure is 14 yearsIn de interviews wordt gevraagd naar veranderingen in de baan en of deze het initatief van de werknemer zelf waren, waarom ze deze verandering geinitieerd hebben en wat hun wel of niet geholpen of gefaciliteerd heeft. Deze interviews heb ik zelf afgenomen met nog 6 Master studenten. Om zo breed mogelijk beeld te krijgen hebben we werknemers van heel verschillende organisaties zoals … in heel verschillende banen zoals … geinterviewd. De gemiddelde leeftijd is …Van de 80 geïnterviewde werknemers zijn 42 jonger dan 45 en 38 ouder dan 45 jaar. De jongere werknemers hebben een gemiddelde leeftijd van 34 jaar, zijn 8 jaar in dienst van hun organisatie, scoren een 4 op gezondheid en een 3.8 op toekomstperspectief. De oudere werknemers hebben een gemiddelde leeftijd van 55 jaar, zijn gemiddeld 21 jaar in dienst van hun organisatie, scoren een 3.8 op gezondheid en een 3.4 op toekomstperspectief.
60 Preliminary results15 employees do not craft, 65 employees mention on average 3 job crafting activities.New job crafting activitiesUse tools to make work less demandingReplace tasks that are no longer attainable by other tasksLook for tasks to develop oneselfTake on tasks that match interestsTake on tasks that increase the meaning of workTake on tasks that match current knowledge and experiencesActively share knowledge with coworkersI coded the interviews myself and based on this coding these preliminary results, but junior researcher has now also coded results so need to look at that.Van de 80 geïnterviewde werknemers craften 15 werknemers niet (8 oudere en 7 jongere werknemers) en 65 werknemers wel. Deze werknemers noemen gemiddeld 2,4 job crafting activiteiten.Uit de interviews kwam een hele lijst met job crafting activiteiten. Sommige van deze activiteiten kennen we al uit eerder onderzoek, maar een aantal activiteiten nog niet. Hier ziet u een aantal van die extra job crafting activiteiten. Zoals een machine om tapijt op te rollen, dus leuke taken naar je toe trekken, zoals bepaald project waar interesse in hebt (strat personeelsplanning) of verkoop voor projectontwikkelaar die makelaars aanbood om mee te gaan of taken naar je toetrekken die het werk meer zin geven, zoals voor andere P&O-adviseur de taak van loopbaanadviseur, kennis uit vorige baan gebruiken om taak te veranderen, bijvoorbeeld schappenplannenvrouwtje (daarvoor etalages van Hema gemaakt), lastige klanten omdat accountmanager geweest en dus gewend om problemen van boze klanten op te lossen. Aantal van deze job crafting activiteiten vallen onder bestaande vormen, zoals bijv hulpmiddelen gebruiken valt onder verlagen van belasting, maar sommige van deze job crafting activiteiten vallen niet onder bestaande vormen van job crafting en suggereren dat er andere vormen zijn. Op basis van de interviews onderscheid ik dus een aantal extra vormen van job crafting.
61 Preliminary results Two new job crafting forms: Job crafting towards interests: follow interestsJob crafting towards knowledge, experience, strengths: make use of knowledge, experience, strengthsAccommodative: decreasing hindering and social job demands/crafting reduced workloadDevelopment: increasing challenging and quantitative job demands/increasing structural and social job resourcesUtilization: job crafting towards interests/job crafting towards knowledge, experience, strengthsDe baan craften om het leuk te maken en houden, dus leuke taken naar jezelf toe trekken of taken die werk meer zin gevenBenut/sterke punten craften: baan craften zodat huidige kennis en vaardigheden en sterke punten kunt gebruiken, dus taken waar je goed in bent naar je toetrekken,
62 Preliminary results Job crafting form Y O Reduce physical, cognitive, emotional demands (acc)522Reduce workload (acc)18Accommodative craften total630Increase social resources (dev)72Increase challenging demands (dev)1912Developmental craften total2614Job crafting towards interests (uti)4939Job crafting towards knowledge, experience and strengths (uti)17Utilization craften total6653Total9897In onderstaande tabel zijn de vormen van job crafting uitgesplitst naar leeftijd (jonger of ouder dan 45 jaar). Uit deze tabel blijkt dat oudere en jongere werknemers evenveel craften, maar dat de job crafting vormen en activiteiten wel verschillen en dat oudere werknemers meer verschillende job crafting activiteiten gebruiken dan jongere werknemers (zie ook bijlage 2). Oudere werknemers craften meer om zichzelf te ontzien en proberen dus de fysieke, cognitieve en emotionele belasting en de werkdruk te verlagen en werk anders aan te pakken. Jongere werknemers vragen echter ook om hulp bij fysiek zwaar werk en proberen fysiek zwaar werk te 11verminderen. Jongere werknemers craften iets vaker door de variatie in hun werk en interessante taken te vergroten, maar binnen deze vorm van job craften is wel verschil in welke specifieke job crafting activiteiten jongere en oudere werknemers gebruiken: jongere werknemers trekken iets vaker leuke taken naar zich toe, ook om de afwisseling in hun werk te vergroten, zoeken veel vaker naar nieuwe taken als ze het niet zo druk hebben (oudere werknemers zitten vaak langer in hun functie en hebben het dus waarschijnlijk drukker) of naar taken om hun rol te verbreden, terwijl oudere werknemers iets vaker op zoek zijn naar zinvol werk en taken veranderen omdat ze bepaalde taken niet meer uit kunnen voeren. Verder zoeken jongere werknemers meer contacten dan oudere werknemers. Oudere en jongere werknemers maken allebei hun contacten intensiever.Jongere en oudere werknemers proberen allebei het gebruik van hun kennis en vaardigheden te vergroten, bijvoorbeeld door taken die aansluiten bij hun kennis en ervaring naar zich toe te trekken, maar binnen deze vorm van job crafting zijn er wel verschillen. Jongere werknemers bieden actief hulp aan aan collega’s, terwijl oudere werknemers actief advies geven. Verder trekken jongere werknemers veel vaker taken naar zich toe waar ze goed in zijn of veranderen ze hun taken om te zorgen dat de baan aansluit bij hun kennis en vaardigheden, terwijl oudere werknemers veel vaker actief kennis overdragen of collega’s coachen. Tot slot craften jongere werknemers vaker om zich te ontwikkelen dan oudere werknemers, met name door sociale hulpbronnen (contacten met anderen) te vergroten. Jongere werknemers netwerken dus meer en intensiveren contacten om van te leren. Jongere werknemers maken verder hun baan uitdagender door uitdagende taken en taken waar ze van kunnen leren naar zich toe te trekken en meer verantwoordelijkheid op zich te nemen, terwijl oudere werknemers hun baan uitdagender maken door hun beslissingsbevoegdheid te vergroten.Verder blijkt dat oudere en jongere werknemers evenveel craften, maar dat de job crafting vormen en activiteiten wel verschillen en dat oudere werknemers meer verschillende job crafting activiteiten gebruiken. Over het algemeen craften oudere werknemers meer om zichzelf te ontzien, terwijl jongere werknemers meer craften om zich te ontwikkelen. Zowel jongere als oudere werknemers craften om hun bestaande kennis, vaardigheden, en motivatie te benutten. Daarbij zoeken jongere werknemers met name naar afwisseling, een goede tijdsbesteding, taken waar ze goed in zijn en contacten met anderen, terwijl oudere werknemers zoeken naar zinvol werk, mogelijkheden om kennis over te dragen of collega’s te coachen en taken veranderen omdat ze bepaalde taken niet meer uit kunnen voeren.
63 DiscussionIntegrate the nascent literature on job crafting and identify overarching job crafting forms relevant for all workers Development, accommodative and utilization craften (new)Examine whether and how younger and older workers craft differently equal number of job crafting accounts older workers engage more in accommodative crafting and less in development crafting utilization crafting seems not to change with age
65 A paper presented to the AWM2015 The Impact of a Time & Place Management Intervention on Workability, Retirement Expectations, and Satisfaction with Work-family Balance Among Employees in a Large U.S. Healthcare SystemA paper presented to the AWM2015November 5-7Jacquelyn B. James, PhD
66 What’s Ahead? What is Time & Place Management? Research aims TPM interventionResults pertaining to:WorkabilityRetirement expectationsSatisfaction with work-family balanceSummary and ConclusionsThe main thing I want to do today is introduce you to the process that we went through of recruiting a large organization for an intervention study and convincing them to let us do all sorts of crazy things with their already time-starved employees! I do this because at our center we think intervention studies are the next thing we need in demonstrating successful adaptations to aging and work. We think we know what they are but employers want evidence. We need to start providing it. Along the way I will show you a few findings—one of the papers is published and the other is provisionally accepted.
67 What is Time & Place Management (TPM)? Greater options/control over when, where, how much to workWorkplace flexibility with…Greater precision as to what is assessedAcknowledgement of the importance of managementWork-life fit concept acknowledges individual differences in what constitutes “balance”We all know that flexibility means different things to different people. It can mean giving employees the option to work from home or to work part time but it can also mean giving an employer the authority to send employees home due to low census. It has come to mean everything and nothing at the same time. So, we reframed flexible work arrangements as TPM….this for greater precision and for acknowledgement that you can’t just plop down a FWA policy and have it work….it must be well implemented and well managed. We also made a big point that one size does not fit all when it comes to flex…that what is really important is for an employee to perceive a good fit between their ability to be productive and successful on the job and in relation to their responsibilities off the job.
68 Broad Research Aim ITo assess the causal impact of a TPM policy on business outcomesHere we show that we were interest in unit level variables examining business outcomes at the unit level.
69 Broad Research Aim IITo assess the causal impact of a TPM policy on employee outcomesAnd this model shows our interest in outcomes at the employee level…the way that most studies of this type are conducted.
70 Elements of the Study Participants from “ModernMedical” Large regional multi-site health system in the U.S. with over 10,000 employeesOne-year discovery processSix waves of data from managers, 4 from employeesFirst wave in September, 2012; final wave in January, 2014Training for the intervention and supporting materialsWe recruited from over 20 organizations. The recruitment process alone took a year. Even after ModMed agreed, there were months of negotiations with legal teams on both sides and IRBs on both sides. This organization agreed because they were seeing declining work-family balance scores, not just year by year, but also in relation to similar organizations; they feared unionization.
71 One-year Discovery Process Background researchExtensive literature reviewExamination of best practices at award-winning hospitalsDesigned intervention with ModernMedicalTelephone interviews with 15 randomly selected managersFocus groups with 40 randomly selected employees in 10 job categoriesDiscussions with leadershipPitt-Catsouphes, M., James, J.B., Cahill, K.E. & McNamara, T.K. (2015). Relationships between team performance and managers who are early adopters of flexible work options. Journal of Change Management,Then we spent another year on “discovery.” We conducted focus groups with employees from 10 job types; and managers representing these same job types (from admin people to nurses to environmental services). We presented the results of our lit review and our conversations with the leaders of other hospital settings along with the results of the FGs and interviews to the leadership of the organization. We found some “positive deviants” among our managers…managers who were going against the grain and providing flex to employees with only positive consequences.
72 Data and SampleThe Time & Place Management (TPM) Study of ModernMedicalAll ModernMedical employees were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Announcements about the study were made in the news weekly.439 work units of participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groupsParticipants were recruited by for the baseline survey.The minute online survey was administered by Survey Sciences, Inc. and included separate sections for managers and employees.
73 Response Rates At first wave: 63% (N = 405) among managers 43% (N = 3,545) among employeesOf these respondents, 3,000 employees and 325 managers completed the baseline survey in full.At final wave:28% (N = 179) among managers32% (N = 2,641) among employeesFully 2,641 employees participated in the seventh wave of the survey, along with 179 managers.
74 Online Learning Module 30-minute learning module developed by the research team and ModernMedicalEncouraged greater discussion among managers and employees about making TPM fit requests.Provided a systematic framework for discussing TPM fit requests:Structured classification of TPM fit request typesStandardized procedure for employees to deliver requestsStandardized procedure for managers to process requests.Included forms and guides available to employees and managers on an ongoing basisWe called the study a pilot study—this helped to get the organization on board. So, the training module was training for one’s “pilot license” and was organized like a flight simulator. Thanks to the training and dev. team at ModMed, this was attractive and fun and only took about 12 minutes to get through. The training remained available to employees throughout the study. Fortunately for us, the module was sent out via the usual process for training at the organization and employees are accustomed to these being required. Even though we said that it was not required, something approximately 75% of employees in the TX group did the training.
75 Supporting MaterialsEducational/motivational posters and videos on an ongoing basis following the launch of the learning module8 posters about work-life fitMotivational reminders to continue thinking about and using TPM optionsSuccessively displayed in common spaces for 3 week periods3 three-minute videosIntroduced via a link overProvided information and motivation related to TPM and to work-life fitFrom other work we have done, we knew that the key to successful flexibility initiatives was full implementation. So, we didn’t stop with the training. We created posters that went up every 3 weeks in the TX units that we called “Fit Facts”. The training taught people about the need for flexibility fit—what works for one doesn’t work for all. We followed the posters with videos that we created ourselves. The first one was a reminder of TPM, what it is and what it accomplishes. The second one was about “fit” again. And the third one was about what if “no” is the answer. These were about 3 minutes long.
77 Evidence of Treatment Effects at ModMed So, as I mentioned, the point of this presentation is to introduce the process we went through to conduct an intervention study in a large organization—we think we need more of these. Marcie is going to talk about this at the preconference at GSA. But the intervention appears to have been at least moderately effective and I want to show you just a few findings. First, I want to show you what happened to the work-family balance that the organization was concerned about. The WF balance scores went up a teeny bit in the TX group, but continued to go down in the control group. The organization was very pleased with this.
78 Workability Among Older Workers “...the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks.” - Tengland’s (2011) definition for workability in skilled occupations.Hypothesis 1. Age and workability are negatively associated.To be assessed separately for those who were more vulnerable (low baseline workability) and less vulnerable (high baseline workability)Hypothesis 2. The TPM intervention will moderate the association of workability and age, such that it is less negative for those in the treatment group.Next, we looked at Workability…. Or the perception of how long one feels capable both physically and emotionally to continue work.
79 Workability Among Older Workers Measured workability using a workability index made from the mean rating of 6 items:Now, thinking about your ability to continue working for the next five years, how do you rate your ability to continue working at your current job for the next 5 years…0=Unlikely10=Highly Likely…in relation to your lifetime best ability?…with respect to the physical demands of your job?…with respect to the mental demands of your job?...with respect to your skills, the competencies required?…with respect to your physical health?...with respect to your mental health?
80 The Impact of the Intervention on Workability Predicted median workability forrespondents age 50 and olderFor struggling older workers in the control group, starting around age 60 workability declined with age, but for struggling older workers in the treatment group, there was no decline with increasing ageWorkabilityAge of respondentMorelock, J.C., McNamara, T.K., & James, J.B. (provisionally accepted). Workability among older adults: The role of a Time & Place Management intervention. Journal of Applied Gerontology.
81 Work and Retirement Expectations Can a well-designed time and place management (TPM) initiative have a causal impact on older employees’ expectations about work and retirement?Measuring work and retirement expectations:How long do you think you will continue work for [ModernMedical]?5 years or less (I will probably leave before I retire)more than 5 years (but I will probably leave before I retire)until I retireindefinitely, I do not plan to retire.Thinking ahead 5 years, what do you expect your situation will be?working at my current job at [ModernMedical]working at a new full-time job at [ModernMedical]Working at a new part-time job at [ModernMedical]working at a new full-time job with another organizationworking at a new part-time job with another organizationworking as a temporary worker hired for projectsself-employed/independent contractor or consultantoperating my own businessfull-time homemakerretiredout of the labor force for another reasonWe had some concerns about the established measure of WA so we adapted it for our purposes.
82 The Impact of the Intervention on Work and Retirement Expectations Treatment group more likely to expect to remain at ModernMedical until retirementCahill, K.E., James, J.B. & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2015). The impact of a randomly assigned time & placemanagement initiative on work and retirement expectations. Work, Aging & Retirement. doi: /workar/wav012.
83 Summary and Conclusions The TPM intervention made a difference for:WorkabilityRetirement expectationsSatisfaction with work-family balancePreliminary evidence for change in stigma associated with requesting flexbilityTPM may support business goals by helping older workers:Delay retirementFeel more satisfied about their jobs in relation to the rest of their responsibilities
84 Bringing aging theories to occupational practice: Is selective optimization with compensation (SOC) trainable?Andreas MüllerInstitute for Occupational Medicine and Social Medicine; Centre for Health and Society; Düsseldorf University; Germany3rd "Age in the Workplace" Meeting, 4-7th November 2015 Limerick, Ireland
85 example of SOC (Baltes & Baltes, 1990) AimHelp to bridge the gap between aging theories and occupational practice;example of SOC (Baltes & Baltes, 1990)Göltzsch Viaduct, Saxony; Germany: largest brick-built bridge in the world
86 The SOC-model (Baltes & Baltes, 1990) Action theoretical resource oriented model, describes three kinds of action strategies:Selection (S) = prioritizing goalsOptimization (O) = improvement of means to pursue selected goalsCompensation (C) = development of alternative means in case of „hindrances“Basic assumptions:coordinated use of SOC fosters the effective and adaptive use of resources (e.g. Baltes, 1997)SOC can balance out negative effects of resource losses (e.g. Hobfoll, 2002)However: SOC is initially resource intensive (Baltes & Lang, 1997)gains (e.g. experience, status)Putting age into the perspective of change of resources ...losses (cognitive, physical)
87 Research on SOC at Work Many obervational studies One interventional study Müller et al., 2015SOC training may enhance mental well-being Abele & Wiese , 2008;  Abraham & Hansson, 1995;  Baethge et al. , in press;  Baltes et al., 2014;  Bajor & Baltes, 2003;  Baltes & Heydens-Gahir, 2003;  Demerouti et al, 2014; [8-10] Müller et al. 2012; 2013a,b;  Oh et al., 2014);  Riedel et al., 2015;  Schmitt et al., 2012;  Unson et al., 2013; [15,16] Weigl et al., 2013; 2014 [17,18] Wiese et al. 2000; 2002  Yeung & Fung, 2009;  von Bonsdorff et al., 2014;  Young, Baltes & Pratt, 2007;  Zacher & Frese, 2011;  Zacher et al., 2015SOC is correlated with desirable work related individual outcomes (e.g. performance, work-family balance, well-being, work ability)SOC is especially helpful for older workers & workers with health problemsSOC interacts with job characteristics:SOC is more effective when job autonomy is highis helpful when job demands are high or when job complexity is low, but also detrimental effects under high job demandsSome research gaps:Can SOC itself be trained?Is SOC a meaningful mediator of intervention effects?Do job characteristics affect intervention effects?Do individual resources affect intervention effects?
89 Design & Participants Three randomized controlled studies: Study 1: SOC only, individual SOC-coaching;Study 2: SOC only, small group settingStudy 3: multimethodal (three sessions SOC), small group settingBaseline: N= 247 registered nurses, GermanyDropout: n = 30 (12.1%) (no differences to non drop-outs in respect to demographic characteristics and baseline levels of variables)Analysed: n = 217Gender: (88.5%) WomenAge: years (SD = 9.1)Professional tenure: years (SD = 9.5).89
90 The Trainingaction theoretical conceptions of SOC (Freund & Baltes, 2002):select an goal to cope more effective with an important stressor at workdevelop and implement an action plan to achieve this goal in an optimal wayconsider alternative strategies to compensate for external or internal hindrances
91 no effects on selection, optimization Can SOC be trained?SOC:p = .019; η2 = .026loss-based selection:p = .006; η2 = .035no effects on selection, optimizationcompensation:p = .089; η2 = .014ANCOVA: baseline adjusted effects of intervention; additional control of study
93 (Conditional) indirect effects of the intervention through SOC job autonomy; job experience: n.s.mental strainwork abilitystrongest with low job demands (-.11*) and high self efficacy (-.06*)indirect effect: -.04, 95% CI [-.11, -.01]; 13% of total effect(no simultaneous indirect effects of single SOC strategies)InterventionSOCindirect effect: .02, 95% CI [.001, -.065]; 18% of total effect(no simultaneous indirect effects of single SOC strategies)job autonomy; job experience: n.s.strongest with low job demands (.08*) and high self efficacy (.04*)Process–macro for moderated mediation (Hayes, 2013); Bootstrapped 95% CI for conditional indirect effects at specific values of the moderator; Controlled for age, gender, baseline SOC and outcomes;
94 Discussion SOC can be trained. SOC mediates intervention effects on criteria of successful aging such as mental well-being, and work ability.However:Effects on SOC are not very strong.Probably only resourceful intervention approaches are effective.Participants with high individual resources (self efficacy) and low job demands benefited most.Next steps:Improving the effectiveness of interventions based on SOCInvestigating the sustainability of effects.
95 And…… more implementation research that support workers to make use of our ideas in organizational practice.
96 Thank you! Many thanks to: Peter Angerer, Annette Becker, Melanie Gantner, Harald Gündel, Barbara Heiden, Britta Herbig, Kirsten Herbst, Franziska Poppe, Renate Schmook, & Imad MaatoukThank you!Contact:Andreas MüllerHeinrich Heine University DüsseldorfInstitute for Occupational Medicine and Social Medicine
99 Example of an Action Plan Selected Goal: „I want to learn ,to say no‘ when my supervisor calls me at home to take an additional shift.“Action plan (Optimization):I make a list with criteria under which I agree to work (e.g. no leisure time appointments).I put the list beside of my phone.Every time the supervisor calls me, I ask for time to think and say I'll call back.Afterwards I go through my list.
105 PROPOSAL FOR A SUMMER SCHOOL FOR PHD STUDENTS IN “AGE IN THE WORKPLACE” PROPOSAL FROMDonatienne DesmetteUniversité catholique de LouvainJean McCarthyUniversity of Limerick
106 WHY A SUMMER SCHOOL ? AWE meetings Support to senior research activities (state of theories and research projects, funding activities, long-term networking, …)The “Age in the Workplace” Summer SchoolSupport to PhD students interested in age topics in providing them with opportunities :to come togetherto receive supervision from senior researchers who are recognized as experts in geropsychology & I/O psychology/HRM/OB.
107 The “Age in the Workplace” Summer School CHARACTERISTICSEAWOP Early Career Summer SchoolThe goal = an insight into components that make up a successful career (e.g. career planning and management, successful grant funding applications).Eligible participants :Young scholars (who have obtained their PhD within the last 5 years)PhD students in their final yearThe “Age in the Workplace” Summer SchoolThe goal = a high-level training in age theories and methods (in the workplace ?) in a friendly environmentEligible participants : PhD students (with some experience )
108 POTENTIAL PROGRAM The “Age in the Workplace” Summer School EAWOP Early Career Summer SchoolSimilar to conference (keynotes, presentations, posters, + Sessions on the craft of being a researcher e.g. fund raising, + company visits)The “Age in the Workplace” Summer SchoolKeynotes, i.e.Age topicMethods/ethics topicRH practices topicSupervision sessions : each student presents her/his work or part of this in a research themed group and receives specialist supervisionWorkshop' groups/training sessions : On the basis of the instructions of a tutor, members of the group design one or more empirical studies that would address key theoretical questions. Other possibility : working on specific topic (theories, methods, …)
109 QUESTIONS How relevant and feasible is this idea? What are the potential pitfalls? What funding structure is required, do you think? Do members of the group have any previous experience in designing and delivering summer schools or PhD student workshops ?Timing ?The EAWOP Early Career Summer School The summer school is held biennially in non-congress years (i.e. 2010, 2012, etc.).Age in the workplace Summer school could be run every other year than the AWMWho ? Who is interested to work on this idea ?…
114 Production: Rejection Rate Rejection Type2014YTD 2015Desk Rejection27.3%33.3%Regular Rejection36.4%20.0%Others6.1%8.9%Total69.7%62.2%2014’s rate is based on 33 non-invited submissions that have received final editorial decisionsYTD 2015’s rate is based on 45 non-invited submissions that have received first-round editorial decisions
115 Production: Other Statistics Time from submission to first editorial decision:- if sent to reviewers: 46.4 days- if not sent to reviewers: 4.5 daysPaper production speed:From acceptance to online publication: 4.7 weeksCurrent backlog: 3-6 monthsPage budget: 416 pages annually
117 Utility: Top Five Downloads AuthorsInformationHTMLPDFTotalHannes Zacher(2015), Volume 1, Issue 1, 4-251,4851,0762,561Peter A. Bamberger(2015), Volume 1, Issue 1,1,0924911,583Stephan A. Boehm and David J. G. Dwertmann(2015), Volume 1, Issue 1, 41-632928111,103Terry A. Beehr and Misty M. Bennett(2015), Volume 1, Issue 1,4316671,098Lisa M. Finkelstein, Eden B. King, and Elora C. Voyles(2015), Volume 1, Issue 1, 26-40264629893
118 Utility: Citation Counts Total Citations (Oct. 28, 2015): 80- Web of Science: 14- Citations in WORKAR: 36- Citations in other non Web of Science journals: 2- Citations in Books: 27- Citations in other scholarly work: 1Work, Aging and Retirement has entered the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) for Web of Science
119 What is coming next? Special Issues: Strategic Initiatives: - Change in the Meaning and Experience of Work in Later life- Generations, Age, and the Space Between- Health and Retirement Study- Successful Aging at WorkStrategic Initiatives:- Further grow citation counts (Web of Science)- Attract more submissions from sociology, economics, and finance- Attract more action research and intervention submissions