2 DEFINITION of LEADERSHIP An interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of goal or goals.InterpersonalInfluenceGoal
3 DEFINITION of LEADERSHIP Ability of leading, guiding and directing people to accomplish certain objectives and perfectly achieve the goals of an organization.LeadingGuidingDirecting
4 DEFINITION of LEADERSHIP A dynamic relationship based on a mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change.RelationshipMutualCollaborators
5 FUNCTION of LEADERSHIP To achieve results. Measured in terms of what was intended and actually achieved.To inspire and energize workers. Encourage workers to engage in productive activity.Hard work. Leader must have energy, enthusiasm, dedication, zeal and commitment.
6 TYPES of LEADERSHIPThe Traditional Leader. Leader whose position is assured by birth and heredity.The Known Leader. Leader whose position is secured by the fact that everybody understands his position.The Appointed Leader. Leader whose position is legitimized by virtue for the fact that he or she has gone through a selection.The Bureaucratic Leader. Leader whose position is legitimized by the rank head.The Functional or Expert Leader. Leader whose position is secured by virtue of expertise, command of technology or resources.The Charismatic Leader. Leader whose position is secured by the sheer force of known or understood personality.The Informal Leader. Leader whose position is secured by virtue of personality, charisma, expertise, command of resources.
7 STYLE of LEADERSHIP Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic) Authoritarian Leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done and how it should be done.Participative Leadership (Democratic)Participative leaders encourage group members to participate.Laissez-Faire (Let do)Laissez-Faire leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members.
8 LEADERSHIP THEORIES “Great Man” Theories Trait Theories Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born not made.Trait TheoriesTrait theories assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership.Characteristics or Traits of an Effective LeaderPhysical traitsSocial characteristicsPersonality traitsTask-related characteristics
9 LEADERSHIP THEORIES Contingency Theories Contingency Theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.Fiedler’s Contingency ModelFred E. Fiedler’s contingency theory postulates that there is no best way for managers to lead.Fiedler looked at three situations that could define the condition of a managerial tasks:Leader member relations: How well do the manager and the employees get along?The task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly unstructured, or somewhere in between?Position power: How much authority does the manager possess?
10 ASPECTS of the CONTINGENCY MODEL THEORIS Relationship oriented manager vs. task oriented managerRelationship oriented managers – do better in all other situation.Task oriented managers – tend to do better in situation that have good leader-member relationship, structured tasks, and either weak or strong position power.Task oriented style vs. relationship oriented styleTask oriented style - is preferable at the clearly defined extremes of “favorable” and “unfavorable” environments.Relationship orientation – excels in the middle ground.Leader-Member relation, task structure, and position powerLeader-member relations – are the amount of loyalty, dependability and support that he leader receives from the employees.Positioning power – measures the amount of power or authority the manager perceives the organization has give him or her for the purpose of directing, rewarding and punishing subordinates.
11 ASPECTS of the CONTINGENCY MODEL THEORIS Task-motivated style leader vs. relationship-oriented leaderTask-motivated style leader - experience pride and satisfaction in the task accomplishment for the organization, while the relationship-motivated seeks to build interpersonal relations and extend extra help for the team development in the organization.Relationship-oriented leaders – are at their best when greater customer satisfaction is gained and a positive company image is established.Situational theoriesHersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory – is based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and amount of socio-emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader must provide given the situation and the “level of maturity” of the follower.Task Behavior - is the extent to which the leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities to an individual or workgroup.Relationship Behavior – is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multi-way communication.Maturity –is the willingness and ability of a person to take responsibility for directing his or her own behavior.
12 ASPECTS of the CONTINGENCY MODEL THEORIS Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral theories of leadership - are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born.-these theories propose that specific behaviors differentiate leadersBehavioral theorists – identified determinants of leadership so that people could be trained to be leaders.Theory X and Theory Y- Theory X and Theory Y each represent different ways in which leaders view employeesTheory X – Is the traditional view of direction and control by managersTheory Y – is the view that individual and organizational goals can be integrated.
13 Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Theory Y Assumption Theory XTheory YAssumptionHumans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can.Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough.Average employees want to be directed.Average human are clear and unambiguous and need security at work.People view work as being as natural as play and rest.Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization.Job satisfaction is the key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.People learn to accept and seek responsibility.People are imaginative and creative.ApplicationShop Floor, Mass Manufacturing – Production WorkerProfessional Service, Knowledge Workers – Managers and ProfessionalsConductive toLarge scale efficient operationsManagement of professionals, Participative complex problem solvingManagement StyleAuthoritarian, hard ManagementParticipative, Soft Management
14 ASPECTS of the CONTINGENCY MODEL THEORIS Participative theories- suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.Management theories- a.k.a. Transactional theories, focus on the supervision, organization, and group performance.Relationship theories- a.k.a. Transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. It blends the behavioral theories with a little bit of trait theories.
15 How Will You Manage? Oral Communication Written Communication DelegationOrganizationPublic SpeakingAbility To Run a Meeting