Presentation on theme: "Reported speech qwertyui. El estilo indirecto (reported speech) se usa para contar lo que alguien ha dicho sin citar exactamente sus palabras. Podemos."— Presentation transcript:
El estilo indirecto (reported speech) se usa para contar lo que alguien ha dicho sin citar exactamente sus palabras. Podemos contar en presente lo que alguien acaba de decir, para lo cual basta Con quitar las comillas y cambiar el pronombre sujeto y la persona del verbo. “ I am tired” He says that he is tired Pero lo normal es que el verbo que introduce la subordinada en estilo indirecto (say o tell, normalmente) vaya en pasado, y entonces el cambio más importante es que el verbo de la subordinada da un salto atrás ( de present simple a Past simple, de éste a past perfect, etc) “I like noodles” He said that he liked noodles
Además de suprimir las comillas y cambiar los tiempos verbales, también es necesario que hagamos algunos cambios en los pronombres y en las expresiones de tiempo y de lugar. La oración subordinada va introducida por “ that”, aunque en inglés hablado se suele omitir. Cuando la frase enuncia una verdad general no hay cambio en los tiempos verbales. “Crime is punished by the law”, she said She said that crime is punished by the law
Cambios en los tiempos verbales Tense Direct Speech Tense Indirect Speech Present simple“He works as an editor”Past simpleHe said that he worked as an editor Present continuous“He is working as an editor” Past continuous He said that he was working as an editor Past simple“He worked as an editor”Past perfectHe said that he had worked as an editor Past continuous“He was working as an editor” Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Present perfect simple “He has worked as an editor” Past perfectHe said that he had worked as an editor Present perfect continuous “He has been working as an editor” Present perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Past perfect simple “He had worked as an editor” Past perfect simple He said that he had worked as an editor Past perfect continuous “He had been working as an editor” Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Future simple“He will work as an editor”Would + infin.He said that he would work as an editor
Cambios en los modales Can May Must / have to Will Could Might Must / had to Would Cambios en otras palabras NowThen TodayThat day TonightThat night YesterdayThe previous day / the day before Last weekThe previous week / the week before A month agoThe previous month / the month before TomorrowThe following day / the next day / the day after Next weekThe following week / the week after HereThere ThisThat TheseThose
Reported questions Hay dos tipos de preguntas: LAS YES / NO QUESTIONS son las que se contestan con un “si” o un “no”. para ponerlas en estilo indirecto utilizamos el verbo ask, y a continuación if o whether. Entonces la pregunta deja de serlo y se convierte en una frase afirmativa, ya no hay inversión sujeto-verbo(A+S+V), ni signo de interrogación, ni comillas. “Did you speak to John last night?” She asked She asked if / whether I had spoken to John last night auxsujverb
LAS WH-QUESTIONS son las que empiezan por una palabra interrogativa (Wh- word) Al pasarlas al estilo indirecto ponemos dicha palabra (wh-) y luego el sujeto + verbo. ►Who told you that story? She asked She asked who had told us that story ► Where did you go last summer? He asked me He asked me where I had gone the previous summer Sujeto → no aux suj Who are you writing to? She asked She asked who I was writing to
Reported orders Para poner una orden en estilo indirecto cambiamos el imperativo por un infinitivo con to. Pero antes del infinitivo debemos poner un verbo que exprese mandato, como Tell u order, seguido del complemento indirecto. Hay otros verbos que siguen esta estructura aunque no expresen orden. Ask o beg para peticiones. Warn para advertir a alguien de algo. Advise para dar consejo Invite para hacer una invitación. “Stop driving so fast”. My mother ordered me to stop driving so fast. Si la oración es negativa, ponemos not delante de to. “Don´t tell anybody” He begged me not to tell anybody
Reported suggestions Primero ponemos el sujeto y el verbo suggest en pasado y después lo que se sugirió. Las sugerencias se pueden pasar a estilo indirecto de dos formas: usando una oración introducida por that, con su sujeto y el verbo en la forma base. (El verbo demand, que expresa mandato, también sigue esta estructura) “Let´s watch the news” Tom suggested Tom suggested that we watch the news Usando el gerundio, sin especificar ningún sujeto. “ Let´s phone the police inmediately” He suggested phoning the police inmediately
1. Frank promised that he will take / would take photographs on the trip. 2. The shop claimed that they have / had no more Harry Potter books. 3. Bob explained that he couldn ’ t / can ’ t come that evening. 4. Dad mentioned that he was going / is going to the dentist. 5. Laura admitted that she doesn ’ t know / didn ’ t know the answer. Choose the correct answer
Choose the correct continuation. 1. I wondered …. a.if Mike was still angryb. if Mike still loves me 2. Reporters asked eyewitnesses …. a.what had they seen b. if they had seen anyone leave the building 3. My parents wanted to know …. a.which film I was going tob. what time I will get home 4. Joe asked the doctor …. a.when could he go back to workb. if he could go back to work
1. “ My parents are reading the paper. ” Mike said his parents ……………………… (read) the paper. 2. “ David will arrive soon. ” Bill mentioned that David ……………………… (arrive) soon. 3. “ John forgot my birthday! ” Tessa complained that John ……………………… (forget) her birthday. 4. ” I ’ m not waiting for you. ” Simon said that he ……………………… (wait) for us. 5. “ Were you speaking to the publisher? ” He wanted to know if I ……………………… (speak) to the publisher. 6. “ Barbara can meet us later. ” She mentioned that Barbara ……………………… (meet) us later. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. were reading would arrive had forgotten wasn’t waiting had been speaking could meet
1. The boys claimed that they ……………………… (not break) the window. 2. Rita promised that she ……………………… (take) me to the party. 3. The salesgirl asked Jenny which sweater she ……………………… (prefer). 4. Ingrid admitted that she ……………………… (cannot understand) the maths. 5. The student wanted to know if the class ……………………… (have) a test the following week. 6. Sandra wondered who ……………………… (call) her when she was out. 7. The policeman warned Alex that he ……………………… (give) him a ticket if he caught him speeding again. 8. Jack said that he ……………………… (clean) his room when his mother had come home the previous day. 9. Mr Roberts said that he ……………………… (use) the computer at that moment. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. hadn’t broken would take preferred couldn’t understand would have / was having had called would give had been cleaning was using
Write sentences using the words below. 1.they / had / the / museum / that / been / all / Sandra / working / week / said / at 2.whether / raining / children / was / asked / the / it 3.told / mum / clean / house / my / me / to / the 4.that / playing / Brian / friends / his / basketball / said / were 5.pizza / dinner / night / suggested / a / that / David / ordering / for They said that Sandra had been working at the museum all week Sandra said that they had been working at the museum all week. The children asked whether it was raining. My mum told me to clean the house Brian said that his friends were playing basketball. David suggested ordering a pizza for dinner that night.
1. “ Let ’ s invite the neighbours for coffee tomorrow, ” said Mrs Thomas. Mrs Thomas suggested... 2. “ Don ’ t walk on the grass, ” said the park keeper to the children. The park keeper told. 3. “ Why do I have to go to the dentist today? ” asked the little boy. The little boy asked. 4. “ I ’ ll never hit Johnny again, ” Daniel said. Daniel promised. 5. “ We are watching the news on TV now, ” her parents said. Her parents told us. Complete the sentences according to the meaning of the original sentences...inviting / that we invite the neighbors for coffee the next / the following day the children not to walk on the grass why he had to go to the dentist that day that he would never hit Johnny again / never to hit Johnny again that they were watching the news on TV then
1. “ Let ’ s go to lunch next week. ” She suggested going to lunch …. a. the following weekb. next week c. that week 2. “ I am going to buy a new computer tomorrow. ” He said he was going to buy a new computer …. a. the day before b. the next day c. tomorrow 3. “ We are eating now. ” She said they were eating …. a. nowb. later c. then 4. “ Did you call me last night? ” He asked whether I had called him …. a. the night beforeb. yesterday c.last night Choose the correct time expression.
1. “ I have an important meeting with the editor. ” Victor said. 2. “ Steve, don ’ t be late for the press conference. ” The secretary reminded. 3. “ I went to the doctor yesterday. ” Linda said... 4. “ Dad will be working late tonight. ” Mum said Complete the following sentences using reported speech. Make all necessary changes. (that) he had an important meeting with the editor Steve not to be late for the press conference …(that) she had been / had gone to the doctor the day before / the previous day (that) Dad would be working late that night
Complete the sentences. Use reported speech. 1.“Stop making so much noise,” the teacher told the students. The teacher told the students 2. “Don’t turn on the television,” Tim’s mother said. Tim’s mother told him 3. “Let’s meet at the café after work,” Anne suggested. Anne suggested that The teacher told the students to stop making so much noise. Tim’s mother told him not to turn on the television. Anne suggested that we meet at the café after work
Write the sentences in direct speech. 1.I asked Regina where she was going for her holiday. 2.Everyone asked Susan what she had done the day before. 3.They said that they wouldn’t go to the party unless Sam invited them. 4.The manager ordered Gina to finish typing those letters by five o’clock. 5.Albert told us that he had finished the last Harry Potter book the week before. 6.Tina suggested that we make Lucy a surprise party. “Where are you going for your holiday?” I asked Regina. “What did you do yesterday?” everyone asked Susan. “We won’t go to the party unless Sam invites us,” they said. “Finish typing these letters by five o’clock!” the manager ordered Gina I finished the last Harry Potter book last week,” Albert said. “Let’s make Lucy a surprise party,” Tina suggested.
Choose the correct verb in brackets. Then rewrite the sentences in reported speech. 1.Anne: “My parents won’t allow me to work after school.” (complain / suggest) 2.Shop manager: “We are closing the shop early today.” (order / explain) 3.Teacher: “If you complete the assignment by next week, you’ll get extra marks.” (enquire / promise) 4.Tim: “Don’t forget the party next week, Sam.” (remind / suggest) Anne complained that her parents wouldn’t allow her to work after school The shop manager explained that they were closing the shop early that day The teacher promised that if we / they completed the assignment by the following week / the week after, we / they would get extra marks. Tim reminded Sam not to forget the party the following week / the week after.