Presentation on theme: "Design of sewer system Water Resources Engineering (Semester A -2017)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Design of sewer system Water Resources Engineering (Semester A -2017) M3H124594(Semester A -2017)Design of sewer system
2 KEY LEARNING POINTS Good understanding of: the different types of sewerage systemsthe different types of methods used for sewer designthe design of foul water sewerthe design of storm water sewer
3 SEWERAGE is the water found in sewers. it can be a mixture of water which has been used for a variety of purposes at home, at work or in free time activities, and water used for business and industrial purposes.
4 SEWERAGE SYSTEMThe system of pipes used to collect and carry rain, waste water and trade waste away for treatment and disposal is called the sewerage or the waste water system
5 SOURCES OF WASTE WATER Domestic- 70-80% of the water supply Industrial (Permitted industries)- Depends upon the types of industryCommercialStorm water- flow from the precipitationInfiltration- Rain water likely to enter through leaky joints
6 TYPES OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS There are three types of sewerage systems:1- Foul sewers – carry waste water, for cookingand washing and waste from toilets to thewastewater treatment plants;2- Surface water, or Storm sewers – carryrainwater from roofs, paved areas, pavements and roads, generally flow into streams, rivers or watercourses. 3- Combined sewer – this is a single pipe system carries both wastewater and surface water to the wastewater treatment plants, (in older town). All new sewerage systems should be designed on separate foul and surface water (storm sewers) systems.
8 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMBINED AND SEPARATE SEWERAGE SYSTEMS Sl. No.Combined SystemSeparate System1Domestic sewage + Industrial flow in one pipeFlows are carried in separate pipes2Simpler in its arrangements and its operationThere are two laterals in each street3Sewer size is bigMain sewer is smaller4Possibility of settlement of solid in dry weatherFlushed daily automatically5Suitable for the countries where rainfall is distributed all over the year.Suitable for arid countries6Because high volume, cost of treatment is high.Cost of treatment is less.
9 DESIGN PROCEDURE: foul sewer system Preliminary horizontal layoutPreliminary breakdown in sectionEstimation of quantities of wastewater generated (Dry Weather Flow)Hydraulic designDetermination of invert level and outlet level
10 Preliminary horizontal layout The sewerage pipe must be located in the surrounding area of the road. (public properties)The pipe to be located in private property due to certain topographies must apply for permission to certain individual before the construction can begin.Before any construction work can begin, the layout and overall existing building, pipe and electrical must first to be determine.During the construction work, the separation of sewer and main water should be requires of minimum horizontal separation of 3 m and a minimum vertical separation of 46 cm from water mains.The system must be drawn to show the location of the pipe and manholes location and flow of sewerageSewer follow natural drainage ways to minimize excavation and pumping requirements.Location of pipe:place for easy connection for future userprovide access for maintenance.Location of outfall:outfall point should be specified, near to the lowest point, next to receiving water body
11 2.Preliminary breakdown in section Manholes are structures designed to provide access to a sewer. Access is required for testing, visual inspection of sewers, and placement and maintenance of flow or water quality monitoring instruments.Manholes are usually provided at heads of runs, at locations where there is changes in direction, changes in gradient; changes in size, at major junctions with other sewers and at every 90 meter intervals depending on the size of the sewer pipes. The diameter of the manhole will depend on the size of sewer and the orientation and number of inlets.
13 Sewer Appurtenances: Street inlets Street inlets called gutter are the openings through which storm water is admitted and conveyed to the storm sewer or combined sewer. The inlets are located by the sides of pavement with maximum spacing of 30 m.
14 3.Estimation of quantities of wastewater generated Estimation of quantities of flow considered for design is based on Dry weather flow for a separate sewer system
15 Estimation of future population Prospective population of the project area is calculated using the following formula (Growth rate method):Nfuture = Nactual . (1+a)bNfuture : Number of inhabitant over design period of the projectNactuel : Number of inhabitant over the actual yeara: population growth rate (in %)b : Design period of the project (in year)Design period: The length of the time up to which the capacity of a sewer will be adequate is called a design period.Normally design period for a sewerage system is considered as 30 years
16 DRY WEATHER FLOW (DWF) DWF = LP + I + E It is the quantity of water that flows through a sewer in dry weather when no storm water is in the sewer.The quantity of DWF primarily depends on:1- Rate of water consumption2- Population3- Groundwater infiltration4- Industrial dischargeDWF = LP + I + Ewhere:L = Domestic water consumption per head,P = Population connected to the sewer,I = Infiltration to porous pipes,E = Industrial discharge.
17 4.Hydraulic design of sewer Select pipe materialFormula of Manning-StricklerQ = Ks S RH2/3 I1/2Q : Discharge in m3/s ;S : Wetted area (m2) ;RH: Hydraulic radius(m);I : pipe slope ;Ks : rugosity coefficient (Ks=1/n with n Manning coefficient) ;
19 Pipe partially full Select diameter (start with minimum diameter) Sewer pipe are never designed to run full; there is always an empty space provided at the top.Select diameter (start with minimum diameter)Calculation of discharge for pipe running fully QFSCalculation of ratio Qmax/QFS, then determine Vact/Vmax
20 It is very poor design to use less than 150 mm diameter foul pipes and some engineers specify a 225 mm minimum due to frequent blockages, which occur in 150 mm pipes.The design flow is checked for Maximum flow Q max = 6 DWFFull section flow for circular pipe made in concrete isQFS=23.97 * I1/2 * D8/3Flow ratio Qmax/QFS is calculated, if ≥ 1 increase pipe sizePartial flow chart is used to determine velocity ratio Vact/VFS
22 Check of Velocity: self-cleansing condition Vact/VFSIf 0.6 m/s ≤ Vact ≤ 2.5 to 3 m/s OK, keep pipe sizeIf not The pipe size should be adjusted or the slope should be slightly increased
23 EXAMPLEThe proposed layout for a small sewerage scheme is shown below and the data relevant to this network is shown in the table below. Select suitable pipe size for the network.BranchL(m)Grad 1:PopulationE(m3/day)A12055350800B15060450250C11062200400Water consumption = 400 liters per head per dayInfiltration = 5% D.W.F.
25 DESIGN PROCEDURE: Storm sewer system Preliminary horizontal layoutPreliminary breakdown in sectionEstimation of quantities of storm water generated (Rational Method)Hydraulic design using Manning formulaCheck for velocity; if not in the range change the sewer diameterDetermination of invert level and outlet level
26 Storm sewer design Two main methods used in sewer design in U.K. 1-The Lloyd-Davies method (Rational Method)2-The Modified Rational Method (MRM)
27 LLOYD-DAVIES METHOD (RATIONAL METHOD) This method uses:the rational formula to calculate runoffthe Ministry of Health formula (MOH equations) to calculate rainfall.
28 THE RATIONAL FORMULAA = Total area of the catchment, ha
29 THE MOH EQUATIONS TO CALCULATE RAINFALL where,i = Intensity of rainfall in mm/hrT = Duration of storm (is taken to be the time of concentration)
30 TIME OF CONCENTRATIONThe duration of storm is taken to be the time of concentration of the area i.e. the time that any discharge of water takes to travel from one end of the catchment area to the outlet:Where,Te is the time of entering i.e. the time it takes for the droplet of rain to entry of the sewer.Tf is the time of flow i.e. the length of the pipe divided by the velocityTf=L/V
31 ASSUMPTIONS OF LLOYD-DAVIES METHOD a) The rainfall intensity is constant throughout the storm duration and the frequency is once per year.b) The impermeable area is evenly distributed around the sewer.c) The impermeabilities of all surfaces remain constant throughout the storm and during subsequent periods of runoff.d) The velocities of flow in sewer are complete bore velocities.
32 STEPS IN LLOYD-DAVIES METHOD 1- Find or assume a gradient for each pipe2- Assume a pipe diameter3- Estimate Te and find Tf =L/v4- Find i (rainfall intensity) from MOH equations5- Find Ap contributing to sewer6- Find Q (runoff) from the rational formula7- Check that diameter suits Q, if not go back to step no. 2
33 Hydraulic design of sewer Select pipe materialFormula of Manning-StricklerQ = Ks S RH2/3 I1/2Q : Discharge in m3/s ;S : Wetted area (m2) ;RH: Hydraulic radius(m);I : pipe slope ;Ks : rugosity coefficient (Ks=1/n with n Manning coefficient) ;
34 Circular pipeCheck that diameter select can transit maximum discharge generated by catchment area (Qp)Minimum commercial Diameter = 300mmCheck self-cleansing conditions (Vmin = 0,6 m/s Vmax=4 m/s)
35 Example 1A storm sewer is proposed to drain a 12 hectares drainage area shown in the figure below. With given data in the table below determine the design discharge.SiteArea (ha)CTime of concentration (min)A40.810B80.530
36 EXAMPLEThe projected plan for a small rainstorm water drainage scheme is shown below. Assuming a worldwide time of entry of 6 minutes, design the pipe sizes using the rational (Lloyd-Davies) method.SewerPipeImpermeable AreaIn hectares,Ap(ha)Length of flow,L(m)Gradient1:A0.3511070B0.2265C0.2580D0.1968E0.287355
37 ApplicationDesign storm sewer for the three pipes draining the above catchment area. Check self-cleansing condition.
38 5.Determination of invert level invert level : The pipe invert level is the level of the inside bottom of the pipe.Upper Invert Elevation=Ground surface – depth of cover – pipe wall thickness – pipe diameter.Lower Invert Elevation= Upper Invert Elevation-(Slope of sewer)x(Length of sewer)Minimum depth of cover is 1 to 2 m
40 ExampleUpper Invert Elevation=Ground surface – depth of cover – pipe wall thickness – pipe dia = m m m m =17.5 mLower Invert Elevation= Upper Invert Elevation-(Slope of sewer)x(Length of sewer) m ( m/m) x (707 m) = mCheck: Depth of Cover Adequate/ Not adequate ?=19.00 m – (16.23 m m m) = 2.27 m OKIf Depth of Cover Not adequate / too shallow Two alternatives:Repeat with a lower invert elevation, orA steeper slope
41 vertical profile of sewer line: Application The figure below present horizontal layout of foul sewer network. Four gravity pipes are lying starting from Manhole 1 to manhole 4. Manhole ground elevations for MH1 to MH4 are given respectively m, 237m, 236.6m and 235 m. Distances between manhole are respectively 50m, 20m and 50m. Pipe 1 is bounded by MH1 and MH2 have a diameter of 200 mm and a slope of 2%. Pipe 2 is bounded by MH2 and MH3 have a diameter of 200 mm and a slope of 2%. Pipe 3 is bounded by MH3 and MH4 have a diameter of 250 mm and a slope of 2%. Calculate inert elevation for sewer line from Manhole 1 to 4. Check cover then plot vertical profile of the same sewer line.