2 Recommended Reading:Human Embryology: Larsen (7st Ed.)Langman’s Medical Embryology: Sadler (9th Ed.)Before We Are Born: Moore and Persaud (5th Ed.)Recommended Review TextsHigh Yield Embryology: DudekCore Concepts in Embryology: Sandra and Coons
11 Consequences of Exposure to the Teratogen Thalidomide Unilateral Amelia Meromelia
12 Other limb Defects with a Teratogenic origin PolydactylySyndactyly Cleft Foot
13 Causes of Human Congenital Anomalies Numerically, genetic factors are the most important causes of congenital anomalies. They cause 1/3 of all birth defects are nearly 85% of anomalies with known causes.
17 Birth Defects: Facts and Figures Birth Defects: Facts and Figures
18 Birth Defect Statistics All in all, it is estimated that 50-60% of all conceptions in normal, healthy women abort spontaneously before pregnancy is even detected and that another %abort later in pregnancy.Chromosomal anomalies appear to cause about 40-50% of spontaneous abortions. Nevertheless, many chromosomal anomalies, however, allow the fetus to survive to term.In fact, about 3% of all liveborn infants have an obvious major anomaly. Additional anomalies are detected after birth; thus the incidence is about 6% in 2-year olds and 8% in 5-year olds.