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Human Embryology

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Presentation on theme: "Human Embryology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Embryology

2 Recommended Reading: Human Embryology: Larsen (7st Ed.) Langman’s Medical Embryology: Sadler (9th Ed.) Before We Are Born: Moore and Persaud (5th Ed.) Recommended Review Texts High Yield Embryology: Dudek Core Concepts in Embryology: Sandra and Coons

3 Understanding Embryology Pictorially
Recommended Websites:

4 The Developing Embryo and Fetus

5 Timetable of Human Prenatal Development (Weeks 1-2)

6 Timetable of Human Prenatal Development (Weeks 3-6)

7 Timetable of Human Prenatal Development (Weeks 7-10)

8 Nine week old Fetus “The Miracle of Life”

9 Periods of Susceptibility to Teratogenesis

10 Critical Periods in Human Prenatal Development

11 Consequences of Exposure to the Teratogen Thalidomide
Unilateral Amelia Meromelia

12 Other limb Defects with a Teratogenic origin
Polydactyly Syndactyly Cleft Foot

13 Causes of Human Congenital Anomalies
Numerically, genetic factors are the most important causes of congenital anomalies. They cause 1/3 of all birth defects are nearly 85% of anomalies with known causes.

14 Common Multifactorial Inheritance Defects Facial Clefts (1 in 1000-2500 Births)
Incomplete cleft lip Bilateral cleft lip Cleft lip, jaw, palate Isolated cleft palate Oblique facial cleft Midline cleft lip

15 Mechanism of Chromosomal Nondisjunction in Meiosis

16 Incidence of Down Syndrome in Newborn Infants

17 Birth Defects: Facts and Figures
                                                                                                            Birth Defects: Facts and Figures

18 Birth Defect Statistics
All in all, it is estimated that 50-60% of all conceptions in normal, healthy women abort spontaneously before pregnancy is even detected and that another % abort later in pregnancy. Chromosomal anomalies appear to cause about 40-50% of spontaneous abortions. Nevertheless, many chromosomal anomalies, however, allow the fetus to survive to term. In fact, about 3% of all liveborn infants have an obvious major anomaly. Additional anomalies are detected after birth; thus the incidence is about 6% in 2-year olds and 8% in 5-year olds.

19 Successful Surgeries


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