2 First, second and third conditional 3 MAIN TYPES:First, second and third conditional
3 First ConditionalIf I see Andrew at the meeting, I'll give him your message.PRESENT SIMPLEFUTURE SIMPLEUSE: To talk about something that is quite likely to happen in the future. It is very possible that I will see Andrew at the meeting, in which case I'll give him your message. The condition is quite likely to be fulfilled. For presenting future plans, real possibilities, steps in an argument, points in a procedure, predictable consequences, instructions.
4 Second Conditional (Hypothetical) What would happen if…?If my parents were alive, they would be very proud of me now.PAST SIMPLEWOULD + INFINITIVEUSE: To talk about a present situation which is impossible, a hypothetical situation. The situation cannot be fulfilled because my parents are not alive.If she changed her job, she'd be much happier.USE: To talk about a future event which is unlikely to happen. The speaker doesn`t expect her to change her job. That is, it is unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled.
5 What would have happened if…? Third ConditionalWhat would have happened if…?If she had worked harder, she would have passed her exams.PAST PERFECTWOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVEUSE: To talk about something that might have happened in the past, but didn`t. She didn`t work hard enough and, consequently, she didn`t pass her exams.It also expresses excuses, regrets and blame for past events.
6 The zero conditional (factual) What happens if…?If I stay out late, I always take a taxi home.PRESENT SIMPLEPRESENT SIMPLEUSE: To describe something that is generally true. The use of if here is very similar to when. For presenting habits, general truths, rules, typical patterns, correlations.We can also use the past simple in the two clauses.If I stayed out late, I always got a taxi home.
7 Conditional Sentences: Variations in tenses First Conditional: The if clause is usually in the present simple. However, we can also use:Present continuous:If he's still waiting for you, he'll be very angry.Present perfect simple:If Rob's received your letter, he'll phone you.Present perfect continuous:If it's been raining all night, you'll have to wear boots.Can: If I can finish work early, I'll help you.Should: If I should see him, I'll tell him the news.
8 Can / could, may / might, should / ought to, must The main clause usually has the verb will / shall. But we can also use:Going to:If Helen passes her exams, I'm going to buy her a present.Future continuous:If we book this holiday, we'll be lying on the beach in two weeks` time.Future perfect:If they win the next match, they'll have won every match in the season.Imperative:If you need me, call me.Can / could, may / might, should / ought to, mustIf you don't eat your dinner, you can't have an ice cream.
9 Tense variations in conditional 2 The if clause usually takes the past simple. However, it is also possible to use:Past continuous:If you were coming with me, I`d give you a lift.CouldIf I could have the day off, I`d go with you.Were / was to:If you were to ask Steve, I`m sure he would do it.
10 The main clause usually has the modal would + infinitive The main clause usually has the modal would + infinitive. However, the modals could and might are also used and the infinitive can be in the continuous form:If we had more money, we wouldn`t be living here.If we had more money, we could go out more.If you asked Tony, he might do it for you.
11 Tense variations in conditional 3 The if clause is usually in the past perfect simple. However, we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive.If he had been travelling in the car, he would have been killed too.If we could have got a taxi, we would have come round to see you.
12 The main clause usually has the modal would + perfect infinitive The main clause usually has the modal would + perfect infinitive. However, we can also use the modals could and might + perfect infinitive.If I had known there was no more work to do, I could have stayed in bed.If the ambulance had come sooner, he might have been saved.
13 MIXED CONDITIONALSIf-clauses can be mixed provided that they make sense within a context.If-clauseMain clauseType 3If she had worked harder at university,She would have a degree now.Type 2(she didn`t work hard at universityso she doesn`t have a degree now. )If I were faster,I would have won the race.(I´m not fastso I didn´t win the race.)Type2If they were studying all morning,they will be tired now.Type 1(they were studyingso they are tired now.)
14 Words other than if Unless I won`t go out unless he comes too. Even if Even if it rains, we`ll go to the match.If onlyIf only I had money, I would go out more.As/so long asYou can use the car as long as you take care of it.On condition (that)I`ll lend you the car on condition that you take care of it.Provided / providing (that)I`ll lend you the car provided that you take care of it.Assuming (that)Assuming that you take care of the car, I`ll lend it to you.
15 In questions…. Suppose / supposing (that) Suppose you had a lot of money, would you give up work?What ifWhat if you had a lot of money, would you give up work?ImagineImagine you had a lot of money, would you give up work?
16 IMPLIED CONDITIONALSConditions are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses, particularly in spoken English. They can be expressed in another way or they may be evident from the context. The rules for the verb usage are still followed in the result clause (main clause).He committed the crime, otherwise he wouldn’t have been arrested. (implied conditional)If he hadn’t committed the crime, he wouldn’t have been arrested.I would have stayed longer, but he didn’t ask me to. (implied conditional)I would have stayed longer if he had asked me to.
17 InversionIf the first verb in a conditional if clause is should, were or had, we can leave out if and put the verb at the start of the clause. We do this particularly in formal or literary English.Should any of this cost you anything, send me the bill (If any of this should…)It would be embarrassing were she to find out the truth. (… if she were to find out…)Had they not rushed to hospital, Dan would have died. (If they hadn`t rushed…)
18 We also use but for + noun with a similar meaning: We use if it was / were not for + noun to say that one situation is dependent on another situation.If it wasn`t / weren`t for the fireman, my dog would have died in the fire.If it hadn`t been for my parents, I wouldn`t have gone to university.We also use but for + noun with a similar meaning:But for Jim`s support, I wouldn`t have got the job.
19 In real conditional sentence, we use If… happen to, If … should, If … should happen toto talk about something that may be possible but is not very likely:If you happen to be in our area, drop in and see us.If you should be in our area, …If you should happen to be in our area, …
20 Polite requests We can use if… will in requests: If you will take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we can begin the meeting.if you want to make a request more polite, you can use if…would:If you would take your seats, …