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Presentation on theme: "SUMMARY WRITING."— Presentation transcript:


2 SUMMARISING Summary - a way of expressing all the important information in a reading text, in a short and clear manner. Summarising allows you to have important information on hand for easy reference without having to memorize long and complex passages. Summarising also allows the information to stay in the mind longer. In another word, a summary is a brief statement, in your own words, of the main ideas and supporting details used in a reading text.

3 In summary writing, you are required to display your ability to do the following:
- to understand the requirements of the task - to understand large quantities of information - to identify and select the important points - to combine and organize the information in a logical order - to paraphrase or rewrite the ideas in your own words and to present them in short, clear sentences - to use grammatically correct and appropriate language - to use correct mechanics such as correct spelling and punctuation

4 Distinguishing the Main Idea from Supporting Details
What is a paragraph? A paragraph is made up of related sentences that develop a MAIN IDEA. The sentences in a paragraph should provide evidence for the main idea of the paragraph. What is the MAIN IDEA of a paragraph? This is the overall point of the paragraph. The main idea can be obtained by asking questions such as: - What is the writer trying to say? - What is the passage about? - What is the main idea of the passage? The answers to these questions often lead you to the main point.

These are details or sentences that work together to communicate the main idea. They give information that supports the main idea. There should be at least three details to provide strong support for the main idea. Supporting details can be descriptions, definitions, examples, elaboration or exploration of the main idea. SUPPORTING DETAILS PARAGRAPH MAIN IDEA

6 The Potrait of an artist
EXAMPLE The Potrait of an artist Vincent Van Gogh was a famous artist. He started work at the age of 16 at the Hague gallery of the French art dealers, Goupil & Co. His brother Theo also worked for the same firm. Vincent Van Gogh used bold, harmonious colour effects in his paintings. His art pieces were simple but memorable. He studied at the Art Academy in Antwerp in His famous paintings include Starry Night, Sunflowers and Farms Near Auvers. MAIN IDEA: Vincent Van Gogh was a famous artist. SUPPORTING DETAILS: He started work at the age of 16 at the Hague gallery of the French art dealers, Goupil & Co. Vincent Van Gogh used bold, harmonious colour effects in his paintings. His art pieces were simple but memorable. He studied at the Art Academy in Antwerp in 1885. His famous paintings include Starry Night, Sunflowers and Farms Near Auvers.

7 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing = restating in your own words what another person has said or written. In other words, paraphrasing is the ability to write your own version of the essential information without changing the meaning and facts of the original text. It is an essential skill for summarising. For example, when a writer paraphrases a few sentences from a newspaper article to use in his essay, what he is actually doing is rewriting the original text using his own words. You can paraphrase by changing the word forms or using synonyms and changing clause or phrase structure. A paraphrased sentence is almost as long as the original work and it certainly has all of the original ideas.

8 How to paraphrase: Reread the sentence or section several times until you completely understand it. Then, “translate” it into your own words, making sure that you keep ALL of the original ideas. You may find it difficult to paraphrase word for words so you may want to rearrange sentence structures for greater clarity. EXAMPLES Original Version: American Greeting Corporation is the largest public listed greeting card company in the world. Paraphrased Version: American Greeting Corporation is the world’s biggest public listed greeting card company.

9 Original Version: People pick up cards firstly because the designs are attractive, only then do they check if the message strikes a chord. Paraphrased Version: Initially, people choose cards based on their attractive designs. Next, they see whether the message is appropriate. The humble card has to contend with e-cards, SMS and MMS. The main competitors for the card are e-cards, SMS and MMS.

10 Original Version: However, the card remains the preferred choice among many because there is nothing like knowing that somebody has taken the time to pick out a card specially for you. Paraphrased Version: People prefer to buy cards because it is nice to know that someone has taken the trouble to source out a card for you.

11 Finding a synonym / synonymous phrase
Original statement There are many people who are protesting against genetically modified food. Changing word form There are many protesters against genetically modified food. There are many people opposing genetically modified food. There are many opponents of genetically modified food.

12 Another good way to paraphrase is by using general terms.
Here is an example of how to substitute with a general term in order to summarize a sentence: Details: "A lot of children came and brought presents. They played games and blew bubbles at each other. A magician came and showed them some magic. Later Jennifer opened her presents and blew out the candles on her cake." General term: "Jennifer had a birthday party." Details: "John bought some milk, bread, fruit, cheese, potato chips, butter, hamburger and buns." General term: "John bought some groceries."

13 Details: "Jennifer did the arithmetic problems
Details: "Jennifer did the arithmetic problems. Then she did the five-page reading assignment for social studies. Finally she studied the spelling list for the test." General term: "Jennifer did her homework."

You must first read the passage once to get a general idea of what the passage is about. Then study the question carefully to make sure you understand the task at hand. Underline the key words in the question to keep focused so that you do not deviate from the task at hand. Then read the passage and jot down or underline the main points and other relevant information.

15 5. Leave out irrelevant examples, illustrations,
5. Leave out irrelevant examples, illustrations, explanations, repetitions, direct speech, quotations, and figurative expressions. 6. Then based on your main points, write out your first draft. Try to use your own words as far as possible by paraphrasing words used by the writer. DO NOT add your own information or opinions that are not found in the passage. 7. Use linkers such as 'first', 'next', ‘then’, ‘whereas’, ‘furthermore’, ‘moreover’ and 'finally' to show logical sequence and cohesion in your summary.

16 8. After writing your first draft, read it through and do the necessary editing.
9. Then write your summary using simple language in clear legible handwriting. 10. Proofread your work again and check to see if you have accurately summarised the task at hand and that your summary displays good organisation and cohesion. When proofreading, check your work to ensure there are no grammar, spelling and punctuation errors.

17 11. Finally, write down the number of words used in the summary.
12. DO NOT exceed the word limit. If the instruction reads ‘about 100 words’, then you can write between 95 and 105 words but if the instruction reads ‘not more than 100 words’, then make sure you DO NOT exceed the 100 words limit. 13. Remember, the summary is to be written in ONE paragraph.

18 WRITING A SUMMARY EXAMPLE: Original Paragraph 1:
Skipping breakfast might seem like an easy way for dieters to cut calories. However, new research finds that the majority of people who are successful at losing weight and keeping it off eat breakfast every day. (36 words) Summarised paragraph 1: Research shows that people who wish to lose weight do not skip breakfast. (12 words)

19 WRITING A SUMMARY EXAMPLE: Original Paragraph 2:
Eating breakfast helps you spread out your hunger and manage your food intake better throughout the day. If you start out the day by eating something, you don’t get this burning hunger later that causes you to overeat. (38 words) Summarised paragraph 2: Eating breakfast keeps you feeling full and prevents you from overeating. (11 words)

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