2 Setting the Stage Ready for Kindergarten (R4K) Kindergarten readiness sets the stage for the future.The skills and knowledge children have upon entering school are strongly predictive of future academic success.1Children who enter school at higher levels of readiness are healthier and are less likely to become involved with the criminal justice system and drop out of school. These children experience higher levels of education and typically have higher earnings throughout their lives. 2Children who enter kindergarten behind their peers are unlikely to catch up.These positive school readiness outcomes suggest that investments in early childhood can benefit society as a whole.1 Jack P. Shonkoff & Deborah A. Phillips, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001).2 The Economics of Early Childhood Investments” (Executive Office of the President of the United States, 2014).
3 Setting the Stage Ready for Kindergarten (R4K) R4K has two components:An Early Learning Assessment measures the progress of learning in young children, 36 to 72 months (3 to 6 years), across nine levels in seven domains.A Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) is an observational and assessment tool that measures the school readiness of incoming kindergarteners in four learning domains.Both assessments are developmentally appropriate.
4 Measuring Kindergarten Readiness Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) About the KRAThe KRA is:A developmentally appropriate observational and assessment tool.Used to assess skills and behaviors that children learned as four-year-olds and prior to entering kindergarten.Administered by teachers to kindergarteners between the first day of school and November 1st.About the DataLaunched in school yearRevised for school year based on feedback from teachers, curriculum experts, and data specialists.The and KRA data reflect similar readiness levels but cannot be directly compared. This year’s data offer a roadmap for what needs to be done to improve school readiness.
5 Measuring Kindergarten Readiness Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) Kindergarteners are assessed as:Demonstrating ReadinessConsistently demonstrates the foundational skills and behaviors that enable a child to fully participate in the kindergarten curriculum.Approaching ReadinessExhibits some of the foundational skills and behaviors that are needed to participate in the kindergarten curriculum.Emerging ReadinessDisplays minimal foundational skills and behaviors, which are needed to meet kindergarten expectations successfully.Children whose readiness skills are “approaching” and/or “emerging” require differentiated instruction, targeted assistance, or interventions to be successful in kindergarten.
6 Providing Vital Information A Valuable Tool The KRA Data:Help Teachers. The KRA gives teachers rich information about each child’s skills, abilities, and learning needs. It guides teachers’ instruction and enables them to address any identified learning gaps of an individual child or groups of children.Advise Early Childhood Programs and School Leaders. The data offer programs and schools information about the learning needs of children.Inform Families. Families learn about their child’s strengths and needs in the new Kindergarten Readiness Individual Student Report (ISR). Families can help their child master required skills and behaviors.Instruct Community Leaders and Policy Makers. Enables stakeholders to make well-informed programmatic, policy, and funding decisions.
7 Carroll County Data Demographics of Young Children Population DataU.S. Census, 2013Children <5 (age 0-4)8,211Estimated Children Age 41,642School EnrollmentMSDE, School YearPreK Students (4- & 5-Year-Olds)342Kindergarteners by GenderFull-Day Program0.0%Male53.1%Half-Day Program100.0%Female46.9%Kindergarten Students1,675Kindergarteners by EthnicityStudents Assessed by KRAAmerican Indian0.2%Students who Attended PreK*20.4%Asian1.8%African American3.7%Kindergarteners by SubgroupNative Hawaiian/Pacific IslanderChildren with Disabilities8.8%White83.7%English Language Learners2.1%Hispanic6.5%Free/Reduced Priced Meals14.9%Two or More Races4.0%* Kindergarteners who participated in PreK programs in school year , as reported by parents at kindergarten registration.
8 Meeting Higher Standards KRA, 2015-20161 Quick Take1,675 children entered kindergarten classrooms in the County’s public school system this year.881 (55%) kindergartners met the State’s more demanding and rigorous performance standards – higher than the statewide average (45%).Demonstrating readiness at school entry ensures that a child is prepared for the academic rigor of today’s kindergarten curriculum.55%Carroll Countykindergartenersdemonstratereadiness45%Marylandkindergartenersdemonstratereadiness1 Source: Maryland State Department of Education. All data are based on the number of students assessed. Figures may not total 100% due to rounding.
9 A Look at Carroll County’s Kindergarten Readiness KRA, 2015-2016 Jurisdictional Results55% of the County’s children entered school demonstrating the skills and behaviors needed to fully participate in the kindergarten curriculum.45% of children (726 students) started kindergarten underprepared for school success and require targeted or substantial assistance.
10 Poised for Success KRA, 2015-2016 Jurisdictional ResultsAbout half of Asian kindergarteners (48%) and African American kindergarteners (45%) demonstrate readiness.Fewer Hispanic children (32%) demonstrate kindergarten readiness: 23 points lower than the county readiness average (55%).*** Fewer than 5 students
11 Poised for Success KRA, 2015-2016 Jurisdictional Results61% of females demonstrate kindergarten readiness – exceeding the countywide average and 12 points higher than their male peers.
12 Mastering Academic & Non-Academic Skills KRA, 2015-2016 Carroll County Kindergarten ReadinessPercent Demonstrating Readiness by DomainDomains of LearningThe KRA looks at a child’s knowledge, skills, and behaviors in four key areas:Language & LiteracyMathematicsSocial FoundationsPhysical Well-being & Motor DevelopmentThese Domains have the greatest impact on school readiness.48%51%63%64%
13 A Closer Look at the Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 Income’s Impact on Readiness41% of children from low-income households are ready for kindergarten, compared with 57% of children from mid- to high-income households: a 16-point achievement gap.15% of kindergarteners or 251 children are from low-income households (as indicated by Free and Reduced Price Meal status).At least half of the educational achievement gaps between poor and non-poor children exist at kindergarten entry.216 pointgap2 Lee, V. and Burkham, D. (2002). Inequality at the Starting Gate: Social Background Differences in Achievement as Children Begin School. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
14 A Closer Look at the Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 Language Proficiency Impacts Maryland’s Readiness2% of kindergarteners (36 children) are English Language Learners (ELLs).28% of children under 5 in Maryland have at least one parent or guardian who speaks a language other than English at home: 57% speak Spanish.37% of ELLs demonstrate readiness, compared with 56% of English proficient kindergarteners: a 49-point achievement gap.49 pointgap3 Margie McHugh, “Dual Language Learners and Their Families: National and Maryland Perspectives” (National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, December 2015).
15 A Closer Look at the Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 The Effect of Disability Status on Maryland’s Readiness148 kindergarteners (9%) receive special education services through an Individualized Education Program (IEP).24% of these kindergartners (32 students) demonstrate the foundational skills and abilities needed for school: 34 points lower than their peers who do not have an IEP.34 pointgap
16 A Closer Look at the Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 Children from low-income households, those learning the English language (ELLs), or those who have a disability have lower levels of school readiness across all domains. When children enter school with a significant readiness disparity, it is more likely that these achievement gaps will continue throughout K-12 education.Differenceby:Language & LiteracyMathematicsSocial FoundationsPhysical Well-being & Motor DevelopmentDisabilityEnglish ProficiencyIncome25 ptgap28 ptgap32 ptgap33 ptgap46 ptgap32 ptgap30 ptgap16 ptgap19 ptgap18 ptgap14 ptgap7 ptgap
17 Advantages of Early Learning KRA, 2015-2016 Predominant Prior Care20% of the County’s kindergarteners (338 children) attended public pre-kindergarten (PreK) programs the year prior to starting school.100% of PreK students participate in half-day programs; children in full-day programs receive, on average, three more hours of instruction per day.* Prior Care Enrollment denotes the early care & education setting of children, as reported by parents, the year prior to kindergarten (i.e. school year ); it does not reflect multiple prior care settings. Some prior care settings have enrollment criteria. For example, Head Start and public PreK serve children from low-income households and children with disabilities—two subgroups that are at risk of low school readiness.
18 Advantages of Early Learning KRA, 2015-2016 Jurisdictional Results46% of kindergarteners previously attending a PreK program demonstrate readiness and are within 9 points of the countywide average (55%).Kindergarteners who attended PreK are better prepared for school than those at home or in informal care (33% ready) – 13 points higher.
19 Advantages of Early Learning KRA, 2015-2016 PreK Addresses Achievement GapPublic PreK programs serve a high percentage of children from low income households.46% of children enrolled in PreK classrooms the year before kindergarten demonstrate readiness and outperform their low-income peers (41%).PreK reduces the achievement gap for children from low-income households and their countywide peers (55%): a 9-point gap for kindergarteners attending PreK, compared with a 14- point gap for low-income children.9 pointgap14 pointgap
20 PreK Addresses Academic Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 Children attending PreK programs the year before kindergarten outperform their peers at the same income level, as well as those who were at home or in informal care in Language & Literacy and Mathematics:DomainDemonstrating Readiness:Language & Literacy48%All Kindergarteners34%PreK32%Children from Low-Income Households30%Children At Home/Informal CareMathematics51%39%36%14 ptgap16 ptgap18 ptgap12 ptgap15 ptgap15 ptgap
21 PreK Addresses Non-Academic Achievement Gaps KRA, 2015-2016 Children attending PreK programs the year before kindergarten outperform their peers at the same income level, as well as those who were at home or in informal care in Social Foundations and Physical Development:DomainDemonstrating Readiness:Social Foundations63%All Kindergarteners53%PreK51%Children from Low-Income Households49%Children At Home/Informal CarePhysical Well Being & Motor Development64%58%10 ptgap12 ptgap14 ptgap6 ptgap6 ptgap15 ptgap
22 The Time Is Now Too Many Children Are Underprepared 9%needsubstantialassistanceSignificant Distance to Go726 kindergarteners (45%) started school without the foundational skills needed to succeed and require support to do kindergarten work.150 of these kindergarteners (9%) were assessed as “emerging” readiness, possessing minimal foundational skills and behaviors and require substantial assistance.726kindergartenersare unpreparedfor school
23 Success is Achievable Laying the Groundwork Maryland is maximizing the use of its growing collection of data, broad policy guidelines, and dynamic statewide birth to 12th grade education system to advance the school readiness of young children.Ready for KindergartenR4K is only one of the many strategic investments Maryland is making to eliminate the achievement gaps that begin before children enter kindergarten.Maryland’s Additional Strategic InvestmentsIncreasing Access to PreKOffering Comprehensive Services (“Judy Center” Expansion)Improving CurriculaLaunching the Early Learning AssessmentStrengthening the Early Care & Education WorkforceEngaging Families & Communities
24 Success is Achievable Results Based Accountability KRA data, as well as the use of the Results Based Accountability (RBA) framework, can be used to inform Maryland’s actions and indicate areas of focus for improving the outcomes for all children.Ask the following:How are we doing with respect to school readiness?What does the KRA data show?What explains our current school readiness levels?What will it take to improve the status of children’s readiness for school?What happens if we do nothing?How can we accelerate our good trends and improve our results?
25 Success is Achievable Using the Kindergarten Readiness Data Readiness Matters 2016 ResourcesThe following materials are available to help jurisdictions and key stakeholders use the KRA data:Readiness Matters 2016Statewide ReportStatewide Issue BriefStatewide PowerPoint PresentationJurisdictional DataJurisdiction-specific Issue BriefsCustomized PowerPoint PresentationsBusiness Leaders BriefParent / Family Information (English & Spanish)Visitnow!