4 Chapter Outline The Concepts of Age and Age Cohorts The Concepts of Sex and GenderMeasuring the Dynamics of the Age TransitionThe Age TransitionAge Transitions at Work
5 Age and Age CohortsSociety assigns social roles on the basis of age and gender.Younger people are treated differently from older people.Different kinds of behavior are expected of people as they move through different ages.
6 Age Stratification Theory Societies distribute resources unequally by age.These resources include economic goods as well as social approval, acceptance, and respect.Age strata, and the prestige and power associated with each, are influenced by the needs of society and by characteristics of people at each age.
7 Aspects of Human Society that Vary by Age and Sex CategoryCharacteristic or ActivityDemographicBeing sick and having restricted activitiesDyingBeing sexually activeHaving a babyMoving or migrating
8 Aspects of Human Society that Vary by Age and Sex CategoryCharacteristic or ActivitySocialGetting married/divorcedBeing involved in religious organizations and activityBeing involved in political organizations and activity
9 Aspects of Human Society that Vary by Age and Sex CategoryCharacteristic or ActivitySocialSchool enrollmentLevel of educational attainmentBeing involved in criminal behavior
10 Aspects of Human Society that Vary by Age and Sex CategoryCharacteristic or ActivityEconomicBeing in the labor forceOccupation within the labor forceCurrent incomeLevel of accumulated wealth
11 Lexis Diagram: Relationship between Cohorts and Period Data
12 Age Cohorts and Age Strata Are Closely Intertwined
14 Dynamics of the Age Transition A population with 35% or more of its people under age 15 is “young.”A population with 12% or more of its people aged 65 or older is “old.”As the proportion of young people increases relative to the total, the population “grows younger.”An aging population is one in which the proportion of older people is increasing relative to the total.
15 The Age StructureThere are three major ways to quantify the age structure:Average age of a populationDependency ratioGrowth rates by age
17 Changes in Number and Rate of Growth at Specific Ages ChinaIndiaGrowth rateAbsolute changeAge Group1980– 20000–4–0.15–3,0040.8417,6065–9–0.97–21,9381.2625,33910–14–0.50–12,4341.5529,11215–19–0.35–7,3581.7930,74720–240.6311,5901.7826,618
18 Changes in Number and Rate of Growth at Specific Ages ChinaIndiaGrowth rateAbsolute changeAge Group1980– 200025–291.5231,8102.3631,51630–343.2560,6312.8132,93935–393.5353,1632.9330,16540–442.7135,1422.7424,90245–493.1139,76518,338
19 Changes in Number and Rate of Growth at Specific Ages ChinaIndiaGrowth rateAbsolute changeAge Group1980– 200050–542.2722,7962.1213,57255–591.6913,3952.1511,30460–642.2615,0682.3610,07765–692.7814,9572.568,375
20 Changes in Number and Rate of Growth at Specific Ages ChinaIndiaGrowth rateAbsolute changeAge Group1980– 200070–742.7510,6152.746,12175–793.097,2783.204,11380+4.907,2034.933,963
21 Stable and Stationary Populations In a stable population neither the age-specific birth rates nor the age-specific death rates have changed for a long time.A stable population could be growing at a constant rate or declining at a constant rate.If a stable population is unchanging, we call it a stationary population.
22 Global Distribution of Younger and Older Populations