2 OBJECTIVES Identify elements of a short story Define elements of a short storyDemonstrate mastery of short story elements
3 OVERVIEWShort stories often contain structural and character elements that should be familiar to you.These elements can be used as guides to help you think about the actions, themes, and contexts of the story.
4 Elements of a Short Story ThemeSettingCharactersCharacterizationPoint of viewIronyPlotexposition statementrising actionconflictclimaxfalling actionresolution
5 THEMEThe main idea of a literary work, usually expressed as a generality.The lesson the author is trying to convey.The “moral” of the story.
6 Example of ThemeTo say that a theme is “friendship” is not clearly stated.A more appropriate theme would be…“Friends are a valuable possession”“You can always trust a true friend.”
7 SETTING The time and place in which a work of literature happens. May or may not have a important influence on the story.Can affect the mood or act as a symbol.
8 Example of SettingA story may be set in a certain time period like the 1800s.A story may be set in a certain area of the world like China.A story may be set in a general place like a farm.
9 CHARACTERS The people (or actors) in the story. ANTAGONIST PROTAGONIST A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or play.PROTAGONISTThe main character of a novel, play, or story.
10 CHARACTERIZATIONThe description of the personalities of the characters in the story and the way in which an author reveals their personalities.Direct Characterization - an author directly describes the appearance and personality of the character.Indirect Characterization - an author shows the personality of the character through dialogue and actions.
11 POINT OF VIEWThe story teller from whose point of view the story is being told, the narrator.First Personuses "I" - A character is telling the story.Third Personuses "he," "she," or "it" - The author is telling about the characters. This is the most common narrative style.
12 IRONYLanguage that conveys a certain idea by saying just the opposite.Verbal Irony is a discrepancy between what is said or written and what is meant.Dramatic Irony occurs when an audience knows something that a character in the story does not know.Situational Irony is a discrepancy between the expected result and actual results.
13 PLOT The sequence or order of events in a story. The plot includes: Exposition Statement - The part of the plot that tells how the story begins.Rising Action - The action in the story leading up to the climax.Climax - The point of crisis in the plot. It may be the reader’s point of highest interest.Falling action - The action in the story after the climax is revealed.Resolution - The part of the plot that reveals the final outcome.