Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Research Methodology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Research Methodology Lynn W Zimmerman, PhDsearch-i/
2 What is Research? endless sometimes painful convincing experiment findingsconsistentanalysisimplicationspublishstatisticsnever perfectboringtime consumingexpertsunpredictableUniversity of Hawaii data
3 What is Methodology? A specific way or method of performing a process An organized, documented set of procedures and guidelinesA step-by-step approach for carrying out the procedure
4 What is Research Methodology? Methods to collect data, and the concepts and theories which underlie the methodsA scientific and systematic way to solve a research problem by using various logical stepsHelps to define and clarify the process and the product of the researchAims to describe and analyze the methods themselves, to clarify their strengths and limitations
5 Influences on Research Expectations and possibilities concerning research in your fieldWhat do people in education do research on?Effectiveness of teaching strategiesStudent motivationEffects of testing on learningInfluence on learning of sequence of instruction
6 Three Types of Research Basic or theoreticalPracticalApplied
7 Quantitative Research Methodologies collect quantitative datameasure variablesverify existing theories or hypotheses or questioning themdata often used to generate new hypothesesemphasizes the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes.
8 Qualitative Research Methodologies to understand meaningslook at, describe and understand experience, ideas, beliefs and valuesseeks answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaningsubjects that are difficult to quantify
9 Side-by-Side Comparison Chart QualitativeQuantitativeData - words, pictures or objects.Data - numbers and statistics.Inductive - derived from specific examples.Deductive - based on logical analysis of available factsResearcher discloses biases, values, and experiences that may impact interpretation of results.The researcher documents the results using objective language.Gathers data through interviews, observations, content analysis, etc.Uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.The design emerges as the study unfolds.Researcher carefully designs all aspects of study before collecting data.Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for.The researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for.What? Why?How many?Natural setting.Highly controlled.Quotes, bar/line graphs, pie charts.Pie charts, statistics, and graphs.
10 Example: Analysis of an Oil Painting QualitativeQuantitativeBlue/green colorGold frameSmells old and mustyTexture shows masterful brush strokesPeaceful scene of the countrysidePicture is 10” X 14”With frame, 14” x 18”Weight 8.5 poundsSurface area of painting = 140 sq. in.Cost = $300
11 Variables Variable - something that changes it changes according to different factorsResearchers, especially quantitative researchers are often seeking to measure variables.The two primary types of variables areIndependent – the variable the researcher wants to measure (the cause)Dependent – the effect (or assumed effect)
12 Mixed MethodA combination of both - often quantitative to establish baselines and background and qualitative for follow uptriangulateback up one set of findings from one method of data collection supported by one methodology, with another very different method underpinned by another methodology
13 Why Do Research? Objectives of research To discover new facts To verify or test important factsTo analyze an event, process or phenomenonTo identify a cause/effect relationshipTo develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories to solve and understand scientific and nonscientific problemsTo find solutions to scientific, nonscientific, and social problemsTo overcome or solve problems occurring in our everyday lives
14 Bases for Research by Educators Practical problems which arise in the classroomSecondary sources – articles and conference presentations about someone else’s research which may raise questions for further researchPrimary research – reports of data which may raise questions for further research
15 Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Education Educational researchhas moved away from relying only on quantitative research and toward more qualitative researchQuantitative methodsdeveloped by the natural science to study natural phenomena.Examples: surveys, laboratory experiments, numerical methods, etc.Qualitative methodsdeveloped in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomena.Examples: Action research, case study research
16 Purpose of Educational Research Advancement of knowledge of education and learning processesDevelopment of tools and methods necessary to support them.May be undertaken at the individual, situational, institutional, and social structural levels of analysis
17 What Educational Researchers Do Education researchers aim to describe, understand, and explainhow learning takes place throughout the life cyclehow formal and informal processes of education affect learning, attainment, and the capacity to lead productive lives.Unifying purpose - to build cumulative and sound knowledge about human and social process of fundamental significance to individuals, to groups, and to the larger society
18 Revisit Your Definition ResearchIs planned, systematic investigationhas testable theoriesattempts to study phenomenon through careful description and identification, sometimes controlling and manipulating them to study them in isolation to discover and obtain knowledge.
19 ReferencesBrown, J. and Rodgers, T. (2002). Doing second language research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Perry, Jr., F.L. (2005). Research in applied linguistics: Becoming a discerning consumer. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Seliger, H. and Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.