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Complementary and Alternative TherapiesChapter 6 Complementary and Alternative Therapies Copyright © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Learning Objectives Explain the major difference between alternative and complementary therapies. Analyze how the concept of holistic care relates to integrative medicine. State the purpose of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Examine what is meant by the term whole medical systems. List three biologically based practices. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Learning Objectives Discuss the basic premise of mind-body medicine. Identify the theory underlying energy medicine therapies. Describe four mental health problems that may be helped by complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Examine seven alternative approaches to mental health care. Specify two precautions related to CAM therapies. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alternative and Complementary Therapies (p. 56)Allopathic medicine Uses medical and surgical methods to treat disease Complementary medicine Treatments that agree or “work with” allopathic therapies Massage Alternative medicine Treatments that are used instead of conventional medicine Herbal therapy Compare and contrast allopathic, complementary, and alternative therapies. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Integrative Medicine (p. 57)Integrative medicine attempts to blend the most effective practices and treatments from both conventional and alternative treatment systems. Emphasis is on interrelationships among body, mind, and spirit. Holistic care We are no longer content to treat the illness. We are learning to treat the whole person. List and describe ways that the concept of holistic care relates to integrative medicine. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (p. 57)Dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science CAM therapies can be divided into two basic groups. Body-based CAM Energy-based CAM What is the purpose of NCCAM? Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Body-Based CAM (p. 57) Whole medical systems Whole medical systems are built on complete systems of theory and practice. Include modern and Western medicine All systems believe that wellness is a state of balance (physical, mental, and spiritual). Illness is an imbalance. Define whole medical systems; list and describe types of medical systems. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Body-Based CAM (p. 57) Whole medical systems Ayurveda Focus is on the innate harmony of the body, mind, and spirit. Homeopathy Uses natural substances in micro-doses to relieve symptoms Naturopathy Views disease as an alteration in the process by which the body heals itself Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Based on the view that the body is a delicate balance of opposing forces: yin and yang Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biologically-Based Practices (p. 59)Biologically-based practices attempt to improve the human condition through the use of substances extracted from nature. Examples Aromatherapy Use of certain scented essential oils to promote health and well-being Dietary supplements “Dietary ingredient” supplement to the diet Herbal products Use of certain plants (herbs) to treat disease and alleviate suffering Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Body-Based Practices (p. 60)Practices that focus on moving the body into an improved state of function through treatment Examples Chiropractic treatment Relationship between body structure (the spine) and function is the subject of study for chiropractic care. Chelation Uses the chemical ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its ability to bind with heavy metals Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Body-Based Practices (p. 60)Examples Eye movement desensitization Uses controlled eye movements to help reprocess traumatic memories Massage Manipulation of muscles and connective tissue to relax the body and enhance well-being Phototherapy Use of bright lights for the treatment of depression Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy-Based CAM Therapies (p. 60)Energy-based therapies base their practices upon two types of energy fields. Veritable Putative Energy medicine shows us that illness results when the body’s energies are out of balance. Therapies are intended to restore the amount and flow of body energy. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mind-Body Medicine (p. 60)Belief that the mind and the spirit have the ability to affect the body and its functions The risks of mind-body therapies are minimal. Expressive therapies are thought to help people express thoughts and emotions that they are unable to state verbally. Hypnotherapy, meditation, prayer, and spiritual healing are believed to promote relaxation, decrease stress, and relieve emotional or physical pain. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Energy Medicine (p. 61) Practitioners believe in a vital, life-force energy that flows through the human body. Energy medicine is divided into two parts. Biofield therapies Examples include acupuncture, biofeedback, Qi Gong, Reiki, therapeutic touch, and color therapy. Electromagnetic field therapies The use of energy to treat illness Examples include magnetic therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), pulsating electromagnetic therapy, and millimeter wave therapy Describe the theory behind energy medicine. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Technology-Based CAM (p. 63)Mental health advice is becoming just a click away. Telemedicine Uses video and computer technology to deliver health care Telephone counseling Uses active listening skills to provide information and referrals Radio psychiatry Psychiatrists and psychologists who offer information, discussion, advice, and referrals in response to callers’ mental health questions Electronic communications Communicating with others who may share the same problems Treatment is now available online. Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CAM Mental Health Therapies (p. 63)Alternative approaches to mental illness emphasize the interactions of body, mind, and spirit. Animal-assisted therapy Culturally based healing Diet and nutrition Expressive therapies Pastoral counseling Self-help groups Stress reduction and relaxation Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caution on CAM Therapies (p. 64)Many CAM therapies are relatively new and remain unproven by data. Adverse effects Some CAM therapies may have adverse or unwanted effects. Implications for care providers Always consult your supervisor and the client’s primary care provider before suggesting anything to the client. List four health problems that can be helped through CAM therapies Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Question 1 Which of the following is not a body-based practice? Chiropractic treatment Chelation Eye movement desensitization Acupuncture Correct Answer: 4 Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Question 2 Which of the following is not an example of a biologically-based practice? Aromatherapy Medications Dietary supplements Herbal therapies Correct Answer: 2 Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Question 3 The client explains that she uses mind-body therapies when she is anxious about her upcoming surgery. The client would use all of the following techniques except: Music Meditation Hypnotherapy Biofeedback Correct Answer: 4 Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Question 4 The client tells the nurse that he believes in biofield therapies. Which of the following is not a type of biofield therapy? Qi Gong Reiki Color therapy Sonic therapy Correct Answer: 4 Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Question 5 Which of the following is not a form of electromagnetic therapy? Magnetic therapy Repetitive TMS Pulsating electromagnetic therapy Ayurveda therapy Correct Answer: 4 Copyright ©2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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