Presentation on theme: "The Foundation For Success Grades 6-8 ELA"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Foundation For Success Grades 6-8 ELA IMAGE CREDIT:Nick LueThe Foundation For SuccessGrades 6-8 ELAWinter 2017
2 We know from experience the hard work teachers face every day as they strive to help their students meet the challenges set by higher standards.We are dedicated to empowering teachers by providing free, high-quality standards-aligned resources for the classroom, the opportunity for immersive training through our Institute, and the option of support through our website offerings.We are a team of current and former classroom teachers, curriculum writers, school leaders and education experts who have worked in the public, private and nonprofit sectors.Speaker Notes:We are a team of former classroom teachers, curriculum writers, school leaders, and education experts who have worked in the private, public, and non-profit sectors. We are dedicated to teacher learning and teacher growth. We know that teaching is hard work and requires excellent training, high quality materials, and meaningful support for practitioners who are continuously striving to better serve their students.We provide educators with high-quality materials and hands-on professional development to help their students achieve the learning goals set by higher standards. We empower educators to make strong instructional decisions through immersive training and access to free standards-aligned resources to adapt for their classrooms, schools, and districts.
3 Introduction: Who We Are Introduction: Who We Are1minSpeaker Notes:I am ______ from ______.Include an interesting personal story.My experience has been…Before Common Core, I was…I was skeptical about Common Core until ______ happened.
4 We Take Data Seriously3-minute online Daily Survey. Facilitators will address feedback the following day.MONDAY AT THE START OF THE DAYNOTES:At the end of each day, we will build in time for you to take 3 minutes to complete an online survey about your experience on that day. Links will be on our website. Facilitators will address feedback the following day. These data are important for us to make each day better for you at SI.At the end of the day on Thursday, we will build in time for you to take 10 minutes to complete Knowledge Survey Post-Test. These data help us see what knowledge you are walking away with after attending SI. We will the survey link shortly before the end of the day. You will be able to compare how you did on the pre-test compared to the post-test.Thursday – 10 minute online Knowledge Survey Post-Test. Answer key will be available.
5 Introduction: Who You Are Introduction: Who You AreRaise your hand if…you are an ELA teacheryou are an ELA teacher coachyou hold a different roleyou teach in a district schoolyou teach in a charter schoolyou teach or work in a different type of school or organization1 minSpeaker Notes:Let’s see who is in the room today.
6 Today’s Session Standards Review and Relevance Today’s SessionStandards Review and RelevanceShift 1 and Text ComplexityShift 2 and EvidenceShift 3 and Knowledge1 minute
7 Session 1: Agenda Opening and Community Builder 11/28/2017Session 1: AgendaOpening and Community BuilderFraming our Work for the WeekDigging into StandardsShift 1 and Complex TextShift 2 and Getting into Close ReadingObserving Shifts 1 and 2Shift 3 ObservationSummary and Reflection1
8 Session Objectives PARTICIPANTS WILL BE ABLE TO Session ObjectivesPARTICIPANTS WILL BE ABLE TOidentify the relationships between the skills described in the standards, text complexity, and background knowledge in order to recognize instruction that facilitates literacydistinguish between qualitative and quantitative text complexityidentify the characteristics of academic language/tier II wordsidentify the role of knowledge in reading comprehensiondescribe the characteristics of text dependent questionsidentify the the connection between building knowledge and accessing complex text1 minAsk participants to jot down on a post it one thing they would like to take from this session around the shifts in instruction – question they have, something they are confused about, have seen and want more info about, etc. Set this aside, and if the question isn’t addressed before the end of session 1, we will provide a space to throw it up on a sheet, review it during break, and then answer those questions before session 2 begins.
9 Norms that Support Our Learning Norms that Support Our LearningTake responsibility for yourself as a learnerHonor timeframes (start, end, activity)Be an active and hands-on learnerUse technology to enhance learningStrive for equity of voiceContribute to a learning environment in which it is “safe to not know”1 minReview the norms and ask for additional recommendations regarding norms from the audienceNOTE TO PRESENTER: Norms only appear in Day 1 Session 1 Deck. If norms are an issue in your sessions, please add this slide to afternoon and day 2 decks.
10 Setting the Stage: Ice-Breaker Setting the Stage: Ice-BreakerAt your table:Introduce yourselfWhere you are from and who you teachOne of your favorite novels or collectionsWhy you love it(5MIN) Getting to know your table and practicing norms.We are going to spend the week talking primarily about the role of literacy in instruction. Let’s get ourselves in the mindset to talk about text by talking about first the texts that we love. Introduce yourselves to your table, where you teach, and your favorite book. Give participants a few minutes to talk to their table partners about the questions on the slide, and share out.What makes a book timeless? Share out10
11 Who Wrote It? Famous First Lines Who Wrote It? Famous First LinesAs Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous vermin.Call me Ishmael.Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendia was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.Mother died today. Or, maybe, yesterday; I can’t be sure.Ships at a distance have every man’s wish on board.It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of good fortune must be in want of a wife.124 was spiteful. Full of a baby’s venom.It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.Time: 6 minsAssuming we all love literature as ELA teachers, take a few minutes to identify how many texts you can recognize based on these first lines. (Several ways you can go from here- if there are people who seem to be getting them all, you can ask for individual. If it’s a struggle, have them collaborate at the table.)Transition into fact that we are all ELA people, so these first lines – at least some of them – speak to us. These sentences alone beg to be deconstructed – they roll off the tongue. And they bring back memories for us of our relationships with these books – largely happy memories. And there is much worth in reading them. The love we have is the love we want to cultivate in our students. Each book is a window– either into ourselves or out into the world – and we want students to embrace these opportunities for exploration and understanding.1. The Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka2. Moby Dick, Herman Melville3. A Hundred Years of Solitude, Gabriel Garcia Marquez4. Their Eyes were Watching God, ZNHMother Died Today: The Stranger Albert CamusPride and Prejudice, Jane AustenBeloved, Toni Morrison1984, George Orwell
12 Background: Structure of the Standards 11/28/2017Background: Structure of the StandardsStrandRL: Reading LiteratureFour Strands – Also apply to History/Social Studies, Science and Technical SubjectsReadingWritingSpeaking and ListeningLanguagePlus, K-5 Reading Foundational Skills2 minutesSpeaker Notes:Speaking of reading….So we find ourselves here, in the era of the Common Core. Quick Review for vocabulary calibration: Strand, Anchor, Grade Specificfour strands: Reading (which includes Literature, Informational and Foundational Skills), Writing, Speaking & Listening, and Language. There are also specific Reading and Writing standards for History/Social Studies, and Science and Technical Subjects.Foundational Skills are only included in the Kindergarten through 5th grade standards.Reading and Writing in History/Social Studies, and Science and Technical Subjects standards are included for 6th through 12th grade for the specific demands of those types of texts.Each strand--Reading (which includes both Literary and Informational), Writing, Speaking & Listening, and Language--has a set of anchor standards that apply across all grades. (For example, in the Reading Literature strand, anchor standard 4 is about vocabulary.)Within each grade level, each standard is a more specific version of the anchor standard.Why the CCSS even necessary?R.4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.Anchor StandardGrade- Specific StandardRL.5.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
13 64% of U.S. fourth graders fail to meet the proficient benchmark. 1992 11/28/2017So how are well are we doing getting 3rd graders to proficient readers?Each year, the National Assessment for Educational Progres, or NAEP, administers reading and math assessments to representative samples of the nation’s 4th, 8th and 12th graders. The resulting data comprises the “Nation’s Report Card.”The 4th grade NAEP assessment, administered at the beginning of 4th grade, is for all intents and purposes a measure of reading ability at the end of third grade, plus of course the subsequent summer.According to the ”2015 Nation’s Report Card,” <Click>31% of fourth graders fail to read at even the basic level. <Click>And only 33% of fourth graders read only at the basic level . <Click>In other words as educators, we are failing 64% - or nearly two thirds of the fourth-graders in the united states.This is not a new problem: <Click>This line represents the slope of the data dating back to As you can see, there has been very little change in the proficiency level of us fourth graders <Clilck>This is also not a problem unique two US fourth graders.The proficiency levels for US eighth- and 12th graders have also hovered around 1/3 and for dating back to 1992.How to we change these dismal trends?IMAGE CREDITS:Shutterstock/Digital Media ProShutterstock/michaeljungShutterstock/AndreserShutterstock/PressmasterShutterstock/bikeriderlondonShutterstock/CristinaMarucaShutterstock/michaeljung64%19922015of U.S. fourth graders fail tomeet the proficient benchmark.
14 What we know about Standards Instructional DeliveryInstructional PlanningCurriculumShifts
15 A Reading Standard Trajectory 11/28/2017A Reading Standard TrajectoryWith your table partner:Read your assigned standard closely.Choose your grade, the grade above, and the grade below. What is the student outcome or product for the standard at each grade?What is the action of the student at each grade as it pertains to the standard?What is the difference between “hitting” and addressing the standard across a text?What are the implications for planning instruction?15 minutesEach table has a group of 2-3 addressing a standard, so all three standards are pretty much covered at each table.Give participants minutes to answer their questions on their handouts.
16 11/28/2017Go Along to Get AlongFind partners from the other tables who tackled the same standard that you did.Share answers to calibrate your responses with each other.Identify agreements and disagreements.Be prepared to share with the whole group:One learning about the standard through this activityOne realization about how your instruction aligns to the standard or notOne question you have going forward20 minutesAfter this time, ask all of those working on Standard 2 to congregate in one area, all those on standard 3 in another, and all those on standard 8 in another.Give 10 minutes for them to shareStandard 2, 3, and 8 in Literature or Information10 minutes to share out
17 11/28/2017Anchor Standards 1 and 10Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently (at grade level).5 minEvery time you are providing instruction with a text, you are doing these things in class. Read for comprehension, and make inferences – these are things we do naturally.Take a moment in your groups and check out Standard 10 – how and what does this change? (discuss within your groups)What does it mean to be “grade level complex” and who determines it? That gets us into text complexity – which we have to have a shared understanding of and vocabulary around for us to really dig into this week’s work.(when you are not paying attention to standard 10 when you are working with the standards you are missing the point)
18 The ShiftsRegular practice with complex text and its academic languageReading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informationalIntentionally building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction3 minutesThe shifts are a high-level summary of the biggest changes signified by the adoption of the CCSS.They represent the most significant shifts for curriculum materials, instruction, student learning, and thinking about assessment. Taken all together, they should lead to desired student outcomes.You can test any message or effort regarding the CCSS against these touchstones. From state, district, school, or classroom – how does X support the ideas of the shifts?They are meant to be succinct and easy to remember.We’ll discuss them each in turn.IMAGE CREDITS:Shutterstock/Monkey Business Images , ,18
19 Create Flip Chart for Each Shift 11/28/2017Create Flip Chart for Each ShiftShift # WHAT: What is this Shift? WHY: Why this Shift? HOW: What are the instructional implications of this Shift?10 mWith the asks of the standards in mind, we are going to take a look at the shiftsYou have 3 flip chart pages for your table – one for each shift.Label each with the following information:“Shift #” at the topThen a short summary of the shift (I’ll put the last slide back up in just a minute, to help you)Your succinct thoughts about WHY the shift is importantAnd finally, what needs to happen for your ELA instruction to be aligned with the shifts – the HOW.NOTE: Switch to previous slide while tables complete the charts.IMAGE CREDIT: Flikr/DerekBruff
20 Shift 1: Regular Practice with Complex Text and its Academic Language Transition to Shift 1Image credit: amy rudatShift 1: Regular Practice with Complex Text and its Academic Language
21 Explanation of the Text Complexity Factors Explanation of the Text Complexity FactorsLevels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsReadability measures and other scores of text complexity1 minBefore we get to what the shift looks like in action, we have to take a look at what complex text is – and get calibrated as a communitySo how do we determine grade level complex text? We are going to look at each of these today through the lens of what they do and do not look like in grade level standards aligned instructionReader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions posed)21
22 Let’s take Poe, for example… 11/28/2017Let’s take Poe, for example…And, here and there, in groves about this grass, like wildernesses of dreams, sprang up fantastic trees, whose tall slender stems stood not upright, but slanted gracefully towards the light that peered at noon-day into the centre of the valley. Their bark was speckled with the vivid alternate splendor of ebony and silver, and was smoother than all save the cheeks of Eleonora; so, that but for the brilliant green of the huge leaves that spread from their summits in long, tremulous lines, dallying with the Zephyrs, one might have fancied them giant serpents of Syria doing homage to their Sovereign the Sun. from Eleonora by Edgar Allen Poe10 minutesIndependently identify and annotate where the dimensions and features of text complexity manifest themselves in this text. Provide a summary of the paragraph.Share with table partners.Then ask for a share out: what made this text complex?Focus for a moment on density of information. Normally we reserve density of information for academic text.What makes this text information dense? (share)Trace back the processes you used when reading this text.- how many people had to read more than once? Five times for some parts?- Think about our struggling students, language minority students, and ELLs –As we work with complex text this week, it’s important also to keep in mind that when we work with students , Amplification of language, NOT simplification of language; Scaffolds towards independence, not language scaffolds.
23 Features of Complex Text Features of Complex TextSubtle and/or frequent transitionsMultiple and/or subtle themes and purposesDensity of informationUnfamiliar settings, topics or eventsLack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentencesComplex sentencesUncommon vocabularyLack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the studentLonger paragraphsAny text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures2 minutesHere are some of the most common features – fist-to-five whether you were in the same ballpark.We will get back into this throughout the week.Complex text contains any and all combinations of these features in many combinations.The complexity level is determined by both quantitative and qualitative measures. The details of text complexity are well described in Appendix A of the Standards.Students who struggle with reading almost always have gaps in their vocabulary and their ability to deal with more complex sentence structures. This too is well documented in research.Often, less proficient students are given texts at their level where they do not see these features, where the demands of vocabulary and sentence structure are lowered. Though this is done for the kindest of reasons, it has disastrous consequences. Day by day, differentiating by level of text during instructional time increases the achievement gap between high performers and those who struggle.Students cannot address gaps in their vocabulary and develop skill with unpacking complex syntax text when they are not given the opportunity to work with material that provides these opportunities.With that said, there is a place for providing students with text more appropriately matched to their individual reading abilities to build fluency and provide opportunity for increasing the volume of reading. But those texts cannot be the primary texts for instruction.23
24 Quantitative Measures Quantitative MeasuresWord DifficultyFrequencyLengthSentence LengthOther Features ofWordsSentence SyntaxText CohesionCommon CoreBandATOSDegrees ofReadingPowerFlesch-KincaidThe LexileFrameworkMaturitySourceRater2nd-3rd2.75 – 5.1442 – 541.98 – 5.34420 – 8203.53 – 6.130.05 – 2.484th-5th4.97 – 7.0352 – 604.51 – 7.73740 – 10105.42 – 7.920.84 – 5.756th-8th7.00 – 9.9857 – 676.51 – 10.34925 – 11857.04 – 9.574.11 – 10.669th-10th9.67 – 12.0162 – 728.32 – 12.121050 – 13358.41 – 10.819.02 – 13.9311th-CR11.20 – 14.1067 – 7410.34 – 14.21185 – 13859.57 – 12.0012.30 – 14.502 minThe quantitative dimension of text complexity refers to those aspects that are difficult for a human reader to evaluate when examining a text.These factors are most efficiently measured by computer programs.Quantitative measures of text complexity generally measure measures of word difficulty (frequency, length) and sentence length.Some metrics add other features of words, sentence syntax, and text cohesion, creating a broader range of text and linguistic measures.1 minthis is page 13 of handoutNote: The overlap in the indices between grade levels.Notice that we don’t address text complexity before 2nd gradeChoosing any one of the text-analyzer tools from second grade through high school will provide a scale by which to rate text complexity over a student’s career, culminating in levels that match college and career readiness. We are going to talk more about this portion of text complexity tomorrow – and exactly what it means.source:
25 Qualitative MeasuresLiterature Text Complexity and Information Text Complexity Rubrics and Tool5 minutesHandout: text complexity rubrics(this is in packet)Mention this is one of many – this one is from NYS adapted from PARCC’s qualitative rubric, but very similar to that of PARCC and Student Achievement Partners.Talk through the criteria and the dimensions, as well as differencesIMAGE CREDIT:25
26 Practice: Evaluation of Text Complexity Practice: Evaluation of Text ComplexityIn pairs or triads, read the excerpt from A Christmas Carol and discuss where it might fit in terms of the following qualitative criteria in the text complexity rubric.MeaningText StructureLanguage FeaturesKnowledge DemandsTHEN, using the quantitative measures provided, place it in a grade band for instruction and assessment.15 min5 minutes to read10 minutes to work8 minutes to share out (begins next slide)handout: 9-12 texts participants packetDEFINE instructional use as: embedded in a unit with similar texts, and assessment as summative-style assessment, though all variations of both of these should also be on the table if you find yourself thinking about them (e.g. end of unit assessment, scaffolded, etc.)26
27 Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: DickensCriteriaVery Complex☑Moderately ComplexReadily AccessibleNotesMeaningMultiple levels of meaning that may be difficult to identify, separate, and interpret; theme is implicit, subtle, or ambiguous and may be revealed over the entirety of the text.Multiple levels of meaning that are relatively easy to identify; theme is clear but may be conveyed with some subtlety.✓One level of meaning: theme is obvious and revealed early in the text.during share-out2 minMEANINGThese next several slides are a recommendation that you can share after the participants have shared out, for discussion and calibration purposes.(text structure next)NOTES:By beginning with Marley's death, the theme is arrived at in a non-linear manner and conveyed with some subtlety.Moderately ComplexMultiple levels of meaning that are relatively easy to identify; theme is clear but may be conveyed with some subtlety.27
28 Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens CriteriaVery Complex☑Moderately ComplexReadily AccessibleNotesTextStructureProse or poetry includes more intricate elements such as subplots, shifts in point-of-view, shifts in time or non-standard text structures.Prose includes two or more storylines or has a plot that is somewhat difficult to predict (e.g.: in the case of a non-linear plot); poetry has some implicit or unpredictable structural elements.✓Prose or poetry is organized clearly and/or chronologically; the events in a prose work are easy to predict because the plot is linear; poetry has explicit and predictable structural elements.2 minText StructureNOTES:Again, by beginning with Marley's death, and including diversions about idioms, and given the stress on the death without revealing its import, the author includes some non-linear/discursive elements that add to the text’s structural complexity.Moderately ComplexProse includes two or more storylines or has a plot that is somewhat difficult to predict (e.g.: in the case of a non-linear plot); poetry has some implicit or unpredictable structural elements.28
29 Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: DickensCriteriaVery Complex☑Moderately ComplexReadily AccessibleNotesLanguageFeaturesLanguage is generally complex with abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language, and regularly includes archaic, unfamiliar, and academic words; text uses a variety of sentence structures including complex sentences with subordinate phrases and clauses.✓Language is often explicit and literal but includes academic, archaic, or other words with complex meaning (e.g.: figurative language); text uses a variety of sentence structures.Language is explicit and literal, with mostly contemporary andfamiliar vocabulary; text uses mostly simple sentences.2 minLanguage FeaturesVery ComplexLanguage is generally complex with abstract, ironic, and/or figurative language, and regularly includes archaic, unfamiliar, and academic words; text uses a variety of sentence structures including complex sentences with subordinate phrases and clauses.NOTES:Text includes some ironic, figurative language and discussion of figurative language, archaic language and references, and a variety of sentence structures.29
30 Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: DickensCriteriaVery Complex☑Moderately ComplexReadily AccessibleNotesKnowledge DemandsThe text explores complex sophisticated or abstract themes; text is dependent on allusions to other texts or cultural elements; allusions or references have context and require inference and evaluation.✓The text explores several themes; text makes few references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements; the meaning of references or allusions may be partially explained in context.The text explores a single theme; if there are any references or allusions, theyare fully explained in the text.2 minKnowledge demandsVery ComplexModerately ComplexThe text explores complex sophisticated or abstract themes; text is dependent on allusions to other texts or cultural elements; allusions or references have context and require inference and evaluation.The text explores several themes; text makes few references or allusions to other texts or cultural elements; the meaning of references or allusions may be partially explained in context.NOTES:The text makes multiple allusions to other texts/cultural elements, including The Country, Hamlet, Nature lived hard by; some of these references can be partially explained in context.30
31 Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: Dickens Practice Evaluation of Text Complexity: DickensOVERALL QUANTITATIVE COMPLEXITY RATINGSOVERALL QUALITATIVE COMPLEXITY RATING AND PLACEMENTVery Complex/Moderately ComplexAppropriate for 9-10 instruction/ assessment2 minutes. One person’s evaluationimportant thing is not that everyone agrees 100%--the important thing is the journey and process of discussing how the complexity manifests itself in each criteria, and what that means for studentsMetricsMeasuresGrade BandLexile10206-8Flesch-Kincaid6.14-5Reading Maturity Metric8.631
32 Reader Task Considerations 11/28/2017Reader Task ConsiderationsHow does this get weighted with regard to text selection for class instruction? What does this mean for students’ independent reading?5 minHave participants read independently with lensTurn and TalkAsk how this can be misconstrued – text for joy in class is not what this is talking about.Note that we have looked into text complexity to talk about how its determined and what it means. We haven’t touched academic language yet, but that term has been kicking around – we know the what and we will do the why shortlyWith this understanding of text complexity under our belts, and how that relates to the shifts, we are going to watch a video.THIS IS A CRITICAL TRANSITION TO THE VIDEO – FRAMING THIS LAST PIECE – BREAKING THIS DOWN – SHOULD BE THE FINAL NAIL IN THE COFFIN OF THE FOLLOWING VIDEO
33 Shift 1: Regular Practice with Complex Text and its Academic Language Shift 1: Regular Practice with Complex Text and its Academic LanguageRead the first three pages (p. 3-5) independently and consider the following:What is Marilyn Adams’ main claim in this section of the article?What evidence does she use to support her claim?8 minutes total5 min: This Marilyn Adams article was assigned pre-work. Ideally in that first reading you got a good idea bout the key ideas and details. Re-read the first three pages of the article and think about these questions regarding craft and structure…2 min: Turn-and-talk: Share your response with a partner, being sure to refer to specific portions of the text.1 min: Whole group: What is the author’s claim and how does she support it? (1-2 people)(Prompt participants to refer to the text in their responses if they don’t do it on their own.)
34 Why Do Students Need More Practice with Complex Texts? Why Do Students Need More Practice with Complex Texts?The gap between complexity of college and high school textsACT (2006) shows text complexity is a strong predictor of college successToo many students not reading proficiently<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts37% of the nation’s 12th graders met the NAEP proficient level (2013)4 minutes total2 min: Whole group: According to the article, why is the complexity level of texts in high school so important?2 min: (Click through the slide, spending more time on any points not raised in whole group discussion. Optional: As you mention each point, ask if a volunteer who knows about the research can elaborate, and then follow up with any missed info.)Research that informed the development of the Standards revealed that there is a significant gap in the complexity of what students read by the end of high school and what they are required to read in both college and careers – 4 years!In a study done by ACT in 2006, it was found that the complexity level of what students read at each grade level has dropped 4 years in the last half of the 20th century (and has remained the same in the last decade.)
35 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Degree of Text Complexity This graph shows performance on questions associated with uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex texts in relation to the ACT Reading Benchmark<1minWhen it comes to uncomplicated text, students do well on standardized tests.Explain what they are seeing – and that the yellow line shows how students do with the text that is not complex – or as it is referred to here -uncomplicatedACT Reading BenchmarkAverage Percentage of Questions CorrectACT Reading Text Score
36 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Degree of Text Complexity This graph shows performance on questions associated with uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex texts in relation to the ACT Reading Benchmark>1minHowever as the complexity of the text increases, students begin to struggle in accessing the text in order to think critically aboutACT Reading BenchmarkAverage Percentage of Questions CorrectACT Reading Text Score
37 Performance on the ACT Reading Test by Degree of Text Complexity This graph shows performance on questions associated with uncomplicated, more challenging, and complex texts in relation to the ACT Reading Benchmark>1 minAnd then when students encounter truly complex text, their performance on these assessments drops significantly.Taking what we know about student reading ability as the years progress, it is not surprising that the text complexity of reading passages has a direct impact on performance.Test performance, according to ACT, is driven by text rather than questions. Thus, if students are asked to read a hard passage, they may only answer a few questions correctly, no matter what types of questions they may be. On the other hand, with an easy enough text, students may answer almost any questions right, again with no differences by question type.ACT Reading BenchmarkAverage Percentage of Questions CorrectACT Reading Text Score
38 Aligning Curriculum to the Standards Ensures more Practice with Complex TextsStandards require a staircase of increasing text complexity from elementary through high school backwards-mapped from requirements for college texts.Standards stress building knowledge and general academic vocabulary, which are critical to comprehension.1 minTest performance, according to ACT, is driven by text rather than questions. Thus, if students are asked to read a hard passage, they may only answer a few questions correctly, no matter what types of questions they may be. On the other hand, with an easy enough text, students may answer almost any questions right, again with no differences by question type.
40 Knowing What You Are Seeing Knowing What You Are SeeingELA lesson that revolves around The Hunger Games and its themesFocuses on Standards RL and RLWhat are the specific “look fors” that show these standards are being addressed by the students?[35 minutes to fully watch and discuss video (2 slides)]TRANSITION FROM LUNCHUse “Knowing What you are seeing” handout for Hunger Games(enthusiasm vs efficiency)30 sec: Before we take a look at the shifts, we are going to observe a lesson so we have a common experience on which we can apply our learning and base our discussions. When you watch, do so as if a peer asked you to come and observe a lesson she was doing. Take notes, making note of practices, student engagement, etc in the packet handout. We would also like you to look for evidence of the Standard(s), which are RL and RL17 minutes:5 min (set up the task and have them find the standards- they are at the top of the handout)Review these standards and consider what you should see. Work with a partner to jot down specific “look for’s” that would show the standard is being mastered by students (they can do this in the margin beside the standards on the handouts)8 min: We will now watch the video. Observe this lesson as if this is one of your peers. Record your observations. Make note of where you see evidence of the standard being taught and/or demonstrated.4 min: In pairs, discuss what you noticed about the instruction. We will keep this discussion purposefully short in order to move to discussing the Standards. We know you it may feel a bit frustrating to spend only 4 minutes on this.
41 Table DiscussionIn what ways is this task designed for students to meet the standard?In what instances did you see students engaging with these standards?Do the questions attend to specific words, phrases, and sentences within the text?Do the questions return student to the text to build understanding?Do the students cite specific evidence from text to support their positions?18 minutes total (to complete the 35)30 sec: As a reminder, when we observe videos we are practicing getting better at identifying Standards and Shifts so that we can teach more directly to them in their entirety. Our purpose is not to be critical-for-criticisms’ sake. Our purpose is to develop a keen Standards-based observation muscle that is not distracted by student engagement or classroom culture10 min: We will divide in half and each answer these questions for just one standard. These tables will discuss RL.1 and these tables will discuss RL.2.7 min: Whole group debrief: We’ll have each table share about what evidence you saw for the standard you discussed.If they have not yet arrived at the following, ask these questions:RL : Students can engage in this task without having read the book at all and having just seen the movie; they can also engage in the discussions based on their own opinions about Hope or Rich vs. Poor (ask: On what are they basing their analysis statements? Is it always the book, and specific parts of the book?)RL : The teacher handed out the themes; there is no evidence the students had to “determine” them, so the teacher is doing the heavy lifting for them (ask: The standard requires students to “determine the theme or central idea of a text.” Did you see evidence of this?)1 min: Transition: Take 1 minute to note what it is you want to remember about this experience right now. We will return to this conversation later with additional videos.
42 Remember Reading Targets Remember Reading TargetsCCSS goal: Students leave the lesson having read, analyzed and understood what they have READ.Traditional goal: Students leave the lesson knowing the details of the narrative.1 minuteIt’s not one or the other – it’s important for them to understand the narrative, but that is not where we stop our questions.
44 ….and Academic Vocabulary 11/28/2017….and Academic VocabularyWith table partners discuss:How often do you pre-read class texts with tier 2, or “academic vocabulary” in mind?How much time in class do you intentionally carve out to address academic vocabulary?10 minutesAsk participants to review the appendix page, and discuss briefly with table partners how intentional they are about making this part of class.
45 Let’s Learn a New Word Excrescence Excrescence noun ex·cres·cence 11/28/2017Let’s Learn a New WordExcrescenceExcrescencenoun ex·cres·cence \ik-ˈskre-sən(t)s, ek-\a projection or outgrowth especially when abnormal3mLet’s explore a little about vocabulary acquisitionPresenter’s Notes:Ask participants if they can read the word on the screen.Many of them will be able to decode the word, but how many of them know the meaning of the word?Demonstrate how word learning occurs through repeated exposure using the following examples:<CLICK>To calculate fuel efficiency, the aerospace engineers needed an accurate estimation of excrescence drag caused by the shape of plane’s cabin.Any guesses as to the meaning of the word?<CLICK> Excrescences on the valves of the heart have been known to cause a stroke.How about now, any guesses? (NOTE: some might be on the right track, some might say “pressure” because it fits both examples)<CLICK> The wart, a small excrescence on his skin, had made Jeremy self-conscious for years.NOTE: If participants said “pressure” before point out that it no longer fits. Many will be on the right track nowLet’s do one more sentence.<CLICK> At the far end of the bay was what, at first glance, I thought was a huge domed building but then saw was an excrescence from the cliff itself.Yes, excresence means ”a protrusion , particularly when abnormal.”This was an expedited example of how word learning occurs. We learn not whole meanings at once, but the gist, which we continue to refine each time we hear or read the word in context.IMAGE CREDITS: Shutterstock/Corepics VOFShutterstock/NerthuzShutterstock/DC_ApertureShutterstock/Izabel MiszczakThis slide is based on an original work of the Core Knowledge® Foundation made available through licensing under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.This does not in any way imply that the Core Knowledge Foundation endorses this work.
47 CELL Chamber Cellulose Unit Cellblock Contained Photocell Holds things 1And it doesn’t need to be a difficult word:Take for example “Cell.” In ELA and Social Studies, the meanings can build easily upon each other. (CLICK) The definitions between math and science also have commonalities. Consider how a science teacher could cite content from different disciplines as he/she introduced the topic. Consider how (CLICK) and art or music teacher could draw from the disciplines as they introduced the vocabulary in their own. The richness and complexity of the language, if extended across discipline, creates virtual word-maps, and as students see connections, it tightens their understanding and familiarity with vocabulary. If students know that a cell, generally, (CLICK) has these qualities, then understanding its meaning across disciplines becomes easier, as does (CLICK) understanding other words it connects toFlickr: Project 128 Padded Cell (cotton cell)Tony Alter: WaspGila national Forest: Incident Command Post June 14Marion Doss N-2959L-206John Paavelka: Nun’s Cells at Las Capuchinas, Antigua, GuatemalaCELLCelluloseCellblockPhotocellCellularChamberUnitContainedHolds things
48 Revisit Shift 1 Flip Chart 11/28/2017Revisit Shift 1 Flip ChartShift 1 What is Shift 1? Why Shift 1? What are the instructional implications of Shift 1?3mLet’s take a few minutes to revisit our flip charts from this morning.What new understanding do you have of WHY we should be providing regular practice with GRADE-LEVEL complex text and its academic vocabulary?What new insights do you have about HOW instruction needs to take place – instructional implications?Take a few minutes to update your chart.IMAGE CREDIT: Flikr/Tim Reckmann
49 1 minReview the shift, and then note that you would like to start with speaking for this one.Image credit: amy rudatShift 2: Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text, both Literary and Informational
50 11/28/2017Survey Says….With your table, list the top five skills you think employers want when hiring.2 minutes
51 Speaking Grounded in Evidence Speaking Grounded in EvidenceAbility to work in a team structureAbility to make decisions and solve problemsAbility to communicate verbally with people inside and outside an organizationAbility to plan, organize, and prioritize workAbility to obtain and process informationAbility to analyze quantitative data…10. Ability to sell and influence others.6 min total:1 minThe above is from a Forbes magazine survey in 2015 showing some of the top 10 skills employers say they seek, in order of importance. Take a moment to review.How many participants listed these?Stand up if you have to do all seven, in one way or another, pretty much daily.Now stay standing if your students have these skills.5 minutesHave a seat. Now check out the Speaking and Listening anchor standards in your packet. Take a minute to review.2 min: look at handout “Commuication and Collaboration” At your table, discuss how the employee skills on previous slide correspond with the Speaking and Listening anchor standards above.Summary: So the CCSS represent that rarest of moments in education when an effort starts with taking a really hard look at where we sit as districts, regions, states, and in the global rankings, what skills are going to be necessary to earn at least a living wage in a rapidly advancing society, and make sure that our children are well positioned for what the future holds.Just because this is not something that is assessed on a test does not mean it’s not assessed in real life.30 seconds:These standards, implemented with reading standards around complex grade level text, push students into productive struggles that create students who have high expectations for themselves.
52 Reasons to Speak: Beyond the Standards 11/28/201710 minutesThis graph gives quite a bit of information.Take five minutes to analyze:What compelling or new information does this table provide?How might this relate to the speaking and listening standards?Share out at tables –While this highlights the undocumented – because they are even more at risk for language acquisition and getting support, students who are learning english, or who do not speak formal English in their homes, need well-structured opportunities to practice language to learn it: A language-rich environment with opportunities for interaction in different collaborative contexts. Content and language develop inseparably and in integrated ways; A focus on highly granular pieces is counter-productive (looking at this cohesively - avoiding micro-standards) which is also why we talk about going deep into the standards – it does require conversation and collaboration.As with struggling learners, ELLs need Amplification of language, NOT simplification of language; Scaffolds towards independence, not language scaffolds.The bottom line is that We are the gatekeepers of language in the classroom as teachers and leaders for all of our students.Reasons to Speak: Beyond the Standards
53 Executing Shifts Through the Standards Executing Shifts Through the StandardsCCRA.2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize key supporting details and ideas.KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEMANDSUnderstanding:Meaning of vocabularyThat it’s possible to have more than one central idea in a textMeaning of analyzeWhat it means for a theme to developHow to summarizeHow to pick out a relevant detail or supporting idea2 minQuick review: Let’s go back to one of the anchor standards. For Anchor standard R.2 – in order for a student to “master” this standard, there are many moving parts that have to be harnessed and sometimes explicitly taught.To say you are “hitting” standard 2 means students need to understand:Meaning of vocabulary across content (central idea, theme, main idea) through consistent useThat it’s possible to have more than one central idea in a textMeaning of analyzeWhat it means for a theme to developHow to summarize (or “recount”)How to pick out a relevant supporting detail or ideaAnchor standard 2 involves a complex combination of these skills and understandings
54 Executing Shifts Through the Standards Executing Shifts Through the StandardsCCRA.2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize key supporting details and ideas.1 minuteClick for the GOING DEEPER portion – embedded in this standard are also the complexities around what analysis looks like.GOING DEEPERWhat analysis looks like:Linking relevant supporting details back to a central ideaPicking evidence and explaining how that supports one’s pointTracing the development of a theme and being able to articulate it
55 From “Every Little Hurricane” by Sherman Alexie From “Every Little Hurricane” by Sherman Alexie2 minuteInstruct the Participants to Read the excerpt in their packets from Every Little Hurricane (which is the first story in the Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven(curious – if you see anyone read it twice – might be worth asking, and then worth asking why)
56 Discuss with your Table: PART 1 Discuss with your Table: PART 1What weather words and phrases does the author use?Alexie uses the paradox of fighting at a party, two seemingly incompatible events that nonetheless occur. What other examples of paradox appear in the excerpt, and why might that be?Which character do you most resemble? Why?How does the author use the storm metaphor?What about the silence frightens Victor?Summarize the excerpt and its use of symbolism and paradox to illustrate a theme.5 minutesInform students they have about five minutes to discuss the questions with their table. There is space in the packet to answer these questions if you want them to do this individually and write the answers. Use your judgment if it seems to be taking longer.Do not debrief, but move to the next slide.
57 Discuss with your Table: PART 2 Discuss with your Table: PART 2Where and when does the story take place?What happens in the first sentence? What do we learn in the first sentence? What can we infer in the first sentence?What do we know about the storm?What do we know with certainty about the argument? What can we infer about the argument?What is the effect of lines 22-23? ("He could … hurt each other that badly.")Why would the author include the information about how people behave in hurricanes?7 minutesInform participants that they have five minutes to move through these questions. Again, use your judgment.At the conclusion, Ask participants the following questions:Do both sets of questions require you to read the text? (yes)Which set of questions moves readers to a better understanding of the text?Which set of questions demonstrates alignment to the standards?The second set of questions is more aligned and keeps you in the text. Below is a list of the first slide’s questions and reasoning why these are not the best questions:What weather words and phrases does the author use? (identifying weather phrases is nice, but what does it do? A better question would be “how does Alexie use a metaphor to convey tone? Or “What two events are being compared in this passage, and what is the effect on tone?” or “What kind of figurative language does Alexie use in this passage; what is the impact on tone?” in this way, you aren’t giving the weather phrasing away, or why it’s used”Alexie uses the paradox of fighting at a party, two seemingly incompatible events that nonetheless occur. What other examples of paradox appear in the excerpt, and why might that be? (This again gives away the real meat – that he is using a paradox. And “why might that be” allows guessing. This is an author’s craft question – “How does the author use two incompatible events to impact meaning and tone”Which character do you most resemble? Why? (obvious)How does the author use the storm metaphor? (this isn’t a bad direction, but look at the craft and structure standards – how could we up the ante on this question?)What about the silence frightens Victor? (doesn’t ask for evidence)Summarize the excerpt and its use of symbolism and paradox to illustrate a theme. There is so much going on in this sentence – where to begin?
58 Reading TargetsCCSS goal: students leave the lesson having read, analyzed and understood what they have READ.Traditional goal: Students leave the lesson knowing the details of the narrative.1 minuteThe first set of questions had some decent ones in it, but one has to assume full comprehension before you can get to some of them. For others, they were invitations to move outside the text and talk about ourselves and experiences. They may have known some of the details of the narrative with the first set, but the second set of questions demands a close reading of the text to move toward understanding and analysis. The first set of questions also quite frequently provide the answer, or make it so that students don’t have to really think to find the answer.
59 Shifts in Practice SHIFT 1 Shifts in PracticeSHIFT 1Instruction focuses on reading texts closelyQuestions and tasks address the text and help build knowledge by attending to its particular structures, concepts, ideas, and detailsInstruction focuses on building students’ academic vocabulary in contextQuestions and tasks attend to the text’s words, phrases and sentencesSHIFT 2Teacher asks questions that can only be answered by referring to the text (not personal experience)Teacher expects evidence and precision from students and probes responses accordinglyStudents cite specific evidence from text(s) to support analysis, inferences, and claims orally and in writingStudents use evidence to build on each other’s observations or insights during discussion or collaboration1 minNow that we have grappled with a little text, we are going to take another look at a classroom working with complex text.We are going to close out our specific work with shift1 and 2 by taking a look at another video of teaching, featuring Kaycee Eckhart in New Orleans. Take a moment to refer to your notes from the first video, and then turn to the page to record your ideas for The Lottery.
60 19-20 minutes total15 minutes: Watch the video and Discuss the evidence you saw of each shift with your table. Use “Knowing What you are Seeing” handout for participants to fill in as they watch.4 min: Whole group debrief: Each table will cite an example of evidence for Shift 1 and 2. If you didn’t see examples of instruction that aligns to this shift, where were missed opportunities for students to use evidence from the text orally or in writing?
61 Thinking about the Videos Thinking about the VideosCompare the complexity of the texts and discourse with focus on:Student engagementQuestions attending to specific words and sentences within the textQuestions returning student to the text to build understandingStudent citation of specific evidence from text to support their positions6 minutesAsk table groups to collaborate for answers and share out
62 Revisit Shift 2 Flip Chart 11/28/2017Revisit Shift 2 Flip ChartShift 2 What is Shift 2? Why Shift 2? What are the instructional implications of Shift 2?3mLet’s take a few minutes to revisit our flip charts from this morning.What new understanding do you have of WHY we should be providing experience reading, writing, and speaking grounded in evidence from text?What new insights do you have about HOW instruction needs to take place – instructional implications?Take a few minutes to update your chart.IMAGE CREDIT: Flikr/DerekBruff
63 This is probably one of the most misunderstood directives from the Common Core – the incorporation of significantly more nonfiction. Outline it has a lot of similarities with shift 1 – so this piece is going to be shorter. Everything in shift 1 and 2 applies to shift 3Image Credit:Nick LueShift 3: Intentionally Building Knowledge through Content-Rich Nonfiction
64 What is Your Favorite Work of Nonfiction? Why? What is Your Favorite Work of Nonfiction? Why?5 minRecommend this be a “Find some one you haven’t talked to today”Whole group share – select a couple people (1 minute)When we talk about non-fiction, we aren’t just talking about “informational” text – the narrative non-fiction, literary non-fiction market is really taking off.
65 Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction: Why? Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction: Why?Students were historically required to read little informational text in elementary and middle school.It builds the vocabulary and knowledge that students are going to need for success in school.Non-fiction makes up the vast majority of required reading in college/workplace.Informational text often has to be read differently than narrative text.(2)Many people concentrate on the nonfiction as the thrust of this shift.The real thrust of this shift is building knowledge – because with knowledge comes vocabulary, and the two combine for increased reading power.Background knowledge has long been connected to comprehension.Reading informational text the fastest and most efficient at building background knowledge.65
66 How Background Knowledge Plays Out How Background Knowledge Plays OutAs you watch the video, consider the text that you use in your classroom and think about your student population.How can you scaffold to ensure that students who struggle understand what they are reading?What are the central take-aways from this video?15 minutesShare the questions on the right with teachers to focus the viewing, and then show the video. Afterward, debrief on the questions with the participants. ONLY THROUGH 5:20
67 Revisit Shift 3 Flip Chart 11/28/2017Revisit Shift 3 Flip ChartShift 3 What is Shift 3? Why Shift 3? What are the instructional implications of Shift 3?3mLet’s take a few minutes to revisit our flip charts from this morning.What new understanding do you have of WHY we should be building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction?What new insights do you have about HOW instruction needs to take place – instructional implications?Take a few minutes to update your chart.IMAGE CREDIT: Flikr/DerekBruff
68 Galley Walk with Stickers 11/28/2017Galley Walk with StickersReview the charts from other tables.Use your three dots to highlight the points that resonate most strongly with you.5 minutesWalk stickers on agree with shifts before and after (kinda like charter thumbs up)DEBRIEF POINTS:Scratch surface v getting deepImage Credit:Flikr/BurnAway
69 Pulling it all Together 11/28/2017Pulling it all TogetherCompare the complexity of the texts and discourse with focus on:Evidence of the Shifts and the StandardsStudent engagementQuestions attending to specific words and sentences within the textQuestions returning student to the text to build understandingStudent citation of specific evidence from text to support their positionsWhat are some opportunities for improvement?OPTIONAL IF YOU HAVE TIME15 Let’s take a look at a new video based on what we know about the shifts and the standards – how does she bring this together in this vignette – and what could she work on based on what you see?IMAGE CREDIT:Nick Lue
70 I Used to But Now I . . .On the front side of an index card, write one practice you used to do when developing a lesson.On the back side, write a related practice you will now do based on today.Time: 3:00–3:03 (3 minutes)Presenter's Note:Comments can be a general learning or something specific to their Core Knowledge lesson. Provide an authentic example of your own, or use these:“I used to design lessons based on fun activities that would engage students . . .But now I will ensure the activity has a meaningful intent aligned with the objective as well.”“I used to have topic guidelines for objectives in my lesson on Feudal Japan . . .But now I have good, measureable objectives like: Students will be able to describe the rigid class system in Japanese feudal society.”Say:Like any good lesson, we want to bring closure to our time together by focusing on our key learnings.We'll do this by engaging in an “I Used to . . .But now I . . .” activity.Please find an index card and a pen at your table.On the front side of the card, write one practice you used to do when developing a lesson. Begin the statement with: “I used to . . .”On the back side, write a related practice you will now do based on this training. Begin this statement with: “But now I . . .”But now I . . .I used to . . .
71 Speed SharingFind three partners you have not interacted with today, and share your cards..3 minutesImage: flicker – Michael Crane Speed Dating Jelly Babies
72 http://www. standardsinstitutes MON – TUE – WED – FRI end of day
73 References Slide Source 28.11.2017 12 20, 31, 42CCSS Appendix A:21Poe, E.A. (1903). The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven Edition, Volume 2. New York: P. F. Collier and26-30Text complexity measure32Adams, Marilyn Jager. "Advancing Our Students' Language and Literacy: The Challenge of Complex Texts." American Educator 34.4 (2011): 3.33-36Ferguson, R. L. (2006). Reading between the lines: What the ACT reveals about college readiness in reading.;3944E. Hiebert and M. Kamil, eds., Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Bringing Research to Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005.; W. E. Nagy, P. A. Herman and R. C. Anderson, “Learning Words from Context.” Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (1985), ; W. Nagy and J. Scott, “Vocabulary Processes,” in M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr, eds., Handbook of Reading Research, Volume III. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000.4950Image Credits: Slide 8: Shutterstock/Monkey Business Images Slide 12: Shutterstock/Monkey Business Images , , Slide 30. Shutterstock/Zdenka Darula Slide 32: Shutterstock/Volt Collection ; additional slides: Amy Rudat
74 Reference List 28.11.2017 Not sure what these are from… Image credits : Slide 1: Nick Lue. Slide 12: Shutterstock/Digital Media Pro Shutterstock/michaeljung Shutterstock/Andreser Shutterstock/Pressmaster Shutterstock/bikeriderlondon Shutterstock/CristinaMaruca Shutterstock/michaeljung Slide 17: Flikr/DerekBruff. Slide 18: Shutterstock/Monkey Business Images , , Slide 19: Image credit: Amy Rudat. Slide 43: Shutterstock/Corepics VOF Shutterstock/Nerthuz Shutterstock/DC_Aperture Shutterstock/Izabel Miszczak This slide is based on an original work of the Core Knowledge® Foundation made available through licensing under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This does not in any way imply that the Core Knowledge Foundation endorses this work. Slide 45: Flickr: Project 128 Padded Cell (cotton cell) Tony Alter: Wasp Gila national Forest: Incident Command Post June 14 Marion Doss N-2959L-206 John Paavelka: Nun’s Cells at Las Capuchinas, Antigua, Guatemala. Slide 46: Flikr/Tim Reckmann. Slide 47: Image credit: Amy Rudat. Slide 60: Flikr/DerekBruff. Slide 61: Nick Lue. Slide 65: Flikr/DerekBruff. Slide 67: Nick Lue. Slide 69: flicker – Michael Crane Speed Dating Jelly Babies.Not sure what these are from…Snow & Uccelli, 2008; Schleppegrell, 2010, 2007; Wong Fillmore & Fillmore, 2012Alvarez, L. (2012). “Reconsidering academic language in practice: The demands of Spanish expository reading and students’ bilingual resources.” Bilingual Research Journal, 35, 1, 32-52