Presentation on theme: "Achieving sustainable environmentalism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Achieving sustainable environmentalism 4Achieving sustainable environmentalismUnit 4 Section AFOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESSAIR FORCE ENGINEERING UNIVERSITYFOREIGH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESSAIR FORCE ENGINEERING UNIVERTISY1
2 4 Nature: To worship or to conquer Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not every man’s greed.— Mahatma GandhiA nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people.— Franklin Delano Roosevelt4UNITNature: To worship or to conquer2
3 Section A 4 4 Nature: To worship or to conquer UNITNature: To worship or to conquerAchieving sustainable environmentalismSection ATo talk about environmental issuesObjectivesTo fully understand the textTo apply the phrases and patternsTo master the argumentative essaywriting skill
4 Contents Achieving sustainable environmentalism Warming-up Activities Text StudyLanguage ApplicationSummarySection A
5 Achieving sustainable environmentalism Warming-up ActivitiesLead-inPre-reading ActivitiesCultural BackgroundSection A
6 Lead-in Short Answer Questions 1. What do the following pictures remind you of in terms of the environmental issues?TipsThese pictures remind us more of the environmental problems we human beings are encountered with at present, including air pollution (hazy weather), water pollution, deforestation, wild animals extinction and so on.
7 Lead-in Short Answer Questions 2. What do you think of the relationship betweenman and nature?Man has the “blood ties” with nature. Mankind has to depend on nature for his food, medicine, shelter, clothing and other necessities to be able to survive. However, due to industrialization and economic development, man does not live in harmony with nature anymore. While transforming nature for his own sake, man has been over exploring and using the natural resources, resulting in such problems as global warming, soil erosion, shortage of fresh water, and sandstorms. Man has suffered a lot from the problems.Tips
8 1. World Environment Day falls on June 5 every year. Pre-reading ActivitiesListen and TalkListen to a passage about World Environment Day and then decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).T1. World Environment Day falls on June 5 every year.2. San Francisco is the second city in the United States that has held events to celebrate World Environment Day.3. The main message of World Environment Day this year is “Plan for Our Cities”.4. Cities use more than 57 percent of the world’s natural resources.5. The events held this year include not only speeches from famous persons, but also fun activities such as concerts, parades, etc.FFFT
9 1. What is your understanding of a “green city”? Pre-reading ActivitiesListen and TalkListen to the passage again. Work in pairs and discuss the following questions.1. What is your understanding of a “green city”?2. To build a green city, besides the measures given in the passage such as building more healthy parks and reducing pollution, what other measures can you think of?
10 1. What is your understanding of a “green city”? Pre-reading ActivitiesListen and Talk1. What is your understanding of a “green city”?As I understand, a “green city” is a city or town that focuses on environmentally friendly practices. It aims to improve the livability of urban surroundings and benefit the well-being of citizens living there.
11 Pre-reading Activities Listen and Talk2.To build a green city, besides the measures given in the passage such as building more healthy parks and reducing pollution, what other measures can you think of?To build a green city, other measures may include water quality control, efficient recycling and waste management, use of renewable energy sources, increase of city residents’ awareness of environmental protection, and easy access to products and services that make green lifestyle choices easy.
12 crisis commitments observed Listen to a short passage concerning global warming.Global warming may or may not be the great environmental ______ of the 21st century, but—regardless of whether it is or isn’t—we won’t do much about it. We will argue over it and may even, as a nation, make some fairly solemn-sounding ___________ to avoid it. But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be _________.To be continuedcrisiscommitmentsobserved
13 inconvenient truth relieve breakthroughs projected Listen to a short passage concerning global warming.Al Gore calls global warming an “_______________,” as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution. But the real truth is that we don’t know enough to _____ global warming, and—without major technological ____________—we can’t do much about it. From 2003 to 2050, the world’s population is _________to grow from 6.4 billon to 9.1 billion, a 42% increase.To be continuedinconvenient truthrelievebreakthroughsprojected
14 Listen to a short passage concerning global warming. If energy use per person and technology remain the same, total energy use and greenhouse gas _________ (mainly, CO2)will be 42% higher in But that’s too low, because societies that grow richer use more energy. We need economic growth unless we _________ the world’s poor to their present poverty and freeze everyone else’s living standards.emissionscondemnTo be continued
15 Listen to a short passage concerning global warming. The practical solution is that if global warming is a _______________, the only solution is new technology. Only an aggressive research and development program might find ways of breaking our dependence on _________ or dealing with it.potential disasterfossil fuels
16 1. What are the main ideas of Environmentalism? Cultural BackgroundQuestions Previewing1. What are the main ideas of Environmentalism?2. What do you know about Protagoras?Tips3. What is the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge)?Tips
17 What are the main ideas of Environmentalism? Cultural BackgroundWhat are the main ideas of Environmentalism?Environmentalism refers to the concern about the environment, or the consciousness about the intricate human-nature relation, which mainly advocates the preservation, restoration and / or improvement of the natural environment by social and political movements.
18 2. What do you know about Protagoras? Cultural Background2. What do you know about Protagoras?Protagoras is a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and one of the several fifth century B.C. Greek thinkers collectively known as the Older Sophists (诡辩家).Protagoras is known primarily for three claims:1) Man is the measure of all things; 2) He could make the worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger); 3) One could not tell if the gods existed or not.
19 Cultural Background3. What is the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge)?It is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States, and the largest protected wilderness region in the country. The refuge supports a wide variety of plant and animal life including caribou, polar bears, grizzly bears, wolves, migratory birds, fish, dense shrubs, and rare groves of poplar trees .
20 Achieving sustainable environmentalism Main Idea & StructureLanguage FocusCritical ThinkingText StudySection A
21 The author starts his argumentation by stating the importance of a keen _________________________ in modern society. (Para. 1)environmental awarenessWhat is the theme of the essay? (Para. 1)TipsHow can we make the right choice amongso many different and conflicting proposals put forward in the name of environmental protection?
22 Part I — (Para. 1)Introduction: Two questions are raised to show that people have conflicting ideas about environmental protection.The introduction paves the way for the author’s central argument.
23 While answering the question raised in Paragraph 1, what concepts does the author put forward? (Para. 2)The author introduces two new concepts:environmental luxuryenvironmental necessitiesTips
24 According to the author, what is the ultimate rule followed by rational environmentalism? (Para. 2) The rule states that it is environmentally essential to fight against ecological change that directly does harm to the health and safety of human beings.Tips
25 How does the author explain environmental necessity ? (Paras. 3-4) The author explains what is environmental necessity by giving two examples: combating ozone depletion and controlling the greenhouse effect.Tips
26 According to Paragraph 5, why are ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect consideredas urgent human disasters? (Para. 5)Because they directly threaten human beings, and their consequences cannot be easily addressed.Tips
27 Part II Section 1 — (Paras. 2-5) In the first section of the body, the author tries to establish a rule that people can follow when making environmental choices.
28 According to Paragraph 6, what are the features of the environmentalism that is popular today? (Para. 6)It indulges in overt earth worship. It issentimental, highly selective and incompatible with the reality of natural disasters.Tips
29 What does the author mean by saying “My nature worship stops with the twister that came through Kansas or the dreadful rains in Bangladesh that eradicatedwhole villages and left millions homeless”? (Para. 6)TipsThe author means that he doesn’t think man should indulge in nature worship because natural disasters can bring people terrible tragedies.
30 What does the author intend to do by citing the example of oil drilling in ANWR? (Para. 7) By using this example, the author aims tostrengthen his criterion of making environmental choices, whereby human interests should be given priority over those of animals or nature.Tips
31 (Paras. 7-9)The author cites the debate about whether to drill for oil in ANWR to rebut the sentimental environmentalism and justify his own argument.
32 On the issue of preserving the spotted owl in Oregon versus protecting the logging familiesthere, which side does the author take? Why? (Para. 10)The author thinks that protecting the livelihood of the logging families is more important than preserving the spotted owl. Again, the author aims to strengthen his own criterion through this example.Tips
33 In the second section (Paras. 6-10), the Part II Section 2— (Paras. 6- ___)10In the second section (Paras. 6-10), theauthor, with the purpose of strengthening his own criterion, argues against a different rule, one which he calls a __________________________, which he says is characterized by _______________________.sentimental environmentalismexcessive earth worship
34 The author thinks that nature is under the What opinion does the author hold towardthe relationship between man and nature? (Para. 11)The author thinks that nature is under the____________ of us humans, rather than being our master. Humans need to respect nature as well as _________ it. But when humans have to choose between their own interests and those of nature, they should put their own interests __________________.Tipssupervisioncultivatein the first place
35 According to the author, under what circumstance should humanity accommodate nature? Examples? (Para. 12)Man should adapt to nature only when his fateand that of nature are closely connected andman’s fate is put in danger. For example, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect will threaten the living environment of man…Tips
36 Part three is the conclusion. Part III— (Paras ___)13Part three is the conclusion.The author restates his central argument: Human interests should be given _____ over those of nature although human beings should ______ to nature onlywhen their own survival is being endangered by environmental changes.priorityadapt
37 Main Idea & StructureMain Idea of the TextThis text is an argumentative writing in which the author tries to make a contrast between two different opinions about environmental protection, through which he tries to justify his claim that human interests should be put above those of nature, and that human beings should protect nature only on the grounds that their own interests are guaranteed.
38 IntroductionTwo questions are raised to show that people have conflicting ideas about environmental protection. (Para. 1)
39 Main body: Section 1 and Section 2 IntroductionMain body: Section 1 and Section 2The author tries to establish a rule for people to follow when they make environmental choices. (Paras. 2-5)The author rebuts a different rule, called a sentimental environmentalism, which he says is characterized by excessive earth worship. (Paras. 6-10)
40 Body: Section 1The author defines environmental luxuries and environmental necessities. (Para. 2)The author gives examples “combating ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect” to explain what he sees asan environmental necessity. (Paras. 3-4)A rule, called a sane environmentalism, for making environmental choices is presented. (Para. 5)
41 Body: Section 2The author reviews a different rule, one which he calls a sentimental environmentalism. (Para. 6)The author cites the debate about whether to drill for oil in ANWR to rebut the sentimental environmentalismand justify his own argument. (Paras. 7-9)The author cites the debate about preserving the spotted owl in Oregon vs. protecting the livelihood of the logging families to justify his own argument. (Para. 10)
42 Main body: establishing a rule and rebutting a different rule IntroductionMain body: establishing a rule andrebutting a different ruleConclusionThe author restates his central argument: Human interests should be given priority over those of nature. (Paras )
43 Main body: establishing a rule and rebutting a different rule IntroductionMain body: establishing a rule and rebutting a different ruleConclusion
44 Sharp concern for environmental protection, similar to the belief in _________ or the opposition to plastic surgery, is a necessary ________ to people in the upper class world. But people have different opinions about it. Therefore, how can we make the right choice among so many different and conflicting proposals put forward in the name of environmental _________?democracyattitudeprotectionTo be continued
45 To answer the question, it is necessary to follow a rule for making environmental choices: the so-called ____________________, which advocates that combating ecological changes that directly do harm to human health and safety is an _____________________. The criterion for making environmental choices indicates that nature should ______ human beings, and that human beings should protect nature only when their own interests are not affected.sane environmentalismenvironmental necessityserveTo be continued
46 While other people put forward a different rule, called a ___________________________, which is characterized by excessive earth _______, human interests should be given priority over those of animals or nature and nature should be ___________ to human beings because human interests are more important than those of nature.sentimental environmentalismworshipsubordinate
47 Practical Phrases Meanings 1. differentiate between把…区分2. take on呈现（某种特征）3. strike a chord with引起共鸣4. run / go against the grains与…格格不入5. be incompatible with与…不相容的6. come through安然度过7. choose sth. over sth. else优先选择(某物)而非
48 differentiate between 把…区分短语逆译differentiate between短语应用在网吧呆了几天几夜，他已经不能区分虚幻和现实了。他应该寻求医疗帮助。意群提示(fantasy / seek medical help)After staying in the net bar for several days and nights, he was no longer able to differentiate between fantasy and reality. He should seek medical help.
49 take on 短语应用 意群提示 呈现（某种特征） 短语逆译 我们相信，通过领导人对英国的正式访问，两国之间的关系一定会呈现出新面貌。 (official visit / a new look)We firmly believe that after the leader’s official visit to Britain, the relations between the two countries must take on a new look.
50 strike a chord with 短语应用 意群提示 引起共鸣 短语逆译 这部电影以它迷人的画面、动人的情节和优美的音乐在年轻观众中引起了共鸣。意群提示(charming pictures / touching plots / young audience)With its charming picture, touching plots and beautiful music, the movies struck a chord with the young audience.
51 run / go against the grains 与…格格不入短语逆译run / go against the grains短语应用令我们意外的是，那天在公共场合他的言行的确和他的身份格格不入。意群提示(out of the expectation / social status)Out of our expectation, what he said and did in the public that day ran against the grains of his social status indeed.
52 be incompatible with 短语应用 意群提示 与…不相容的 短语逆译 这款杀毒软件与你的电脑系统不兼容，因此，你需要找人进行系统升级。意群提示anti-virus software / computer system / update system)The anti-virus software is incompatible with your computer system, so you have to get your system updated.
53 come through 短语应用 意群提示 安然度过 短语逆译 多亏了医生精湛的医术，这位生命垂危的病人心跳微弱，能够熬过手术真是幸运。 (medical skill / weak beat / dying patient)Due to the doctor’s excellent medical skill, the dying patient with a weak beat, was lucky enough to come through the operation.
54 choose sth. over sth. else 优先选择(某物)而非（另一物）短语逆译短语应用在现代社会中，我们交友时更加看重诚实的品德。意群提示(making friends / honesty)In making friends with other people in modern society, we choose honesty over other qualities.
55 Functional Patterns Functions & Usages 1. sth. is now as required an attitude in ... as is, say, sth. else in … or …用于表达比较，“说明某种态度的重要性”。2. sth. is one founded on one’s idea that “…”用于表达“某种思想或观点的理据”。3. sb. should do / does sth. only when …用于表达“某人做某事的必要条件”。55
56 原句译文 逆译练习 在上流社会，对环境的敏感就如同信仰民主、反对整容一样，是一种不可或缺的态度。 Environmental sensitivity is now as required an attitude in polite society as is, say, belief in democracy or disapproval of plastic surgery.句型提炼56
57 用于表达比较， “说明某种态度的重要性”。 句型提炼sth. is now as required an attitude in ... as is, say, sth. else in … or …应用提示用于表达比较， “说明某种态度的重要性”。句型应用57
58 典型例句 意群提示 在跨文化交际中，文化意识就如同约会时守时、社交时礼貌一样，是一种不可或缺的态度。 。 (cultural awareness / time-consciousnessCultural awareness is now as required an attitude in cross-cultural communication as is, say, time-consciousness in keeping appointment or politeness in social exchanges.
59 原句译文 逆译练习 非感情用事的环保主义是建立在普罗泰哥拉的格言“人是万物的尺度”的基础上的。 A non-sentimental environmentalism is one founded on Protagoras’s idea that “Manis the measure of all things.”句型提炼59
60 句型提炼 应用提示 sth. is one founded on one’s idea that “…” 用于表达“某种思想或观点的理据”。 句型应用60
61 典型例句 意群提示 马丁路德金的反对种族主义是建立在这个不言自明的真理“人生来就平等”的基础上。 (anti-racism / self-evident truth )Martin Luther King’s anti-racism is one founded on the self-evident truths “that all men are created equal”.
62 原句译文 逆译练习 只有当人类的命运与自然的命运密不可分时, 人类才应该做出让步。 Humanity should accommodate only when its fate and that of nature are inseparablybound up.句型提炼62
63 句型提炼 应用提示 sb. should do / does sth. only when … 用于表达“某人做某事的必要条件”。 句型应用 63
64 典型例句 意群提示 只有当一个人强大到不仅能够战胜外部世界而且能够战胜自己的内心时, 他才成为真正的强者。 (conquer the outside world / inner side)A man becomes a hero only when he is strong enough to conquer both the outside world and his inner side.
65 奢侈品是指那些无需人类付出代价就能拥有的给人美好感受的东西。必需品则是指那些无论 付出什么代价，都一定要去拥有的东西 。a. Luxuries are those things that would be nice to have ifcostless. Necessities are those things we must have regardless.(Para. 2, L2)
66 我像别人一样喜欢驯鹿。如果他们的交配模式受到干扰，我会感到非常遗憾。但是，鱼和熊掌不能兼得。 b. I like the caribou as much as the next person. And I would be rather sorry if their mating patterns were disturbed. But you can’t have your cake and eat it too. (Para.9, L1)
67 但是，我们必须记住，保持生物多样性并不意味着要留住每一种物种。有时候，为了更加根本的利益，我们不得不牺牲一部分生活中美的东西。 c. But we must remember that not every species is needed to keep that diversity. Sometimes aesthetic aspects of life have to be sacrificed to more fundamental ones. (Para.10, L3)
68 自然受我们的监护，而不是我们的主人。我们应该尊重自然，也可以开发利用自然。 d. Nature is our ward, not our master. It is to be respected and even cultivated. (Para. 11, L2)
69 1. What nature-related disasters are brought about by human activities 1. What nature-related disasters are brought about by human activities? Are there any ways to reduce such disasters?2. What environmental problems does the world face? What are the causes of these problems?3.There are often conflicts between economic development and environmental protection. How should we balance the two and ensure sustainable development?Tips
70 1. What nature-related disasters are brought about by human activities 1. What nature-related disasters are brought about by human activities? Are there any ways to reduce such disasters?• Human activities can either cause natural disasters or make their effects much worse, such as sandstorms, floods and landslides.• To attach great importance to planting trees and make strict laws to protect forests.
71 • Water pollution • Air pollution • Wildlife protection • Land erosion 2. What environmental problems does the world face? What are the causes of these problems?• Water pollution• Air pollution• Wildlife protection• Land erosionto be continued
72 2. What environmental problems does the world face 2. What environmental problems does the world face? What are the causes of these problems?• People don’t have strong awareness of environmental protection.• People don’t have a long-term vision. They hunt or cut down trees for temporary profit, but they don’t realize the price they or their children have to pay in the long run.• Some local governments don’t make good plans about economic development.
73 3. There are often conflicts between economic development and environmental protection. How should we balance the two and ensure sustainable development?• First, the authorities must have better foresight. Environmental protection is a long-lasting campaign and its impact can’t be felt in a short term.• Second, strict laws and policies should be made to ensure that the economy is not developed at the cost of the environment.• Third, education can serve as effective way to teach more people to realize the importance of environment.
74 Q: How much do you know about the basic view held by Chinese government towards environmental protection?• According to the government policy, promoting ecological progress is a long-term task of vital importance to the people’s well-being and China’s future.• We must give high priority to making ecological progress and incorporate it into all aspects and the whole process of advancing economic, political, cultural, and social progress, work hard to build a beautiful country, and achieve lasting and sustainable development of the Chinese nation.to be continued
75 Q: How much do you know about the basic view held by Chinese government towards environmental protection?• We should remain committed to the basic state policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment as well as the principle of giving high priority to conserving resources, protecting the environment and promoting its natural restoration, and strive for green, circular and low-carbon development.• We should preserve our geographical space and improve our industrial structure, way of production and way of life in the interest of conserving resources and protecting the environment.
76 Watch a video clip and discuss the following questions. Q1: What have human beings done to the other species on the earth?Watch a video clip and discuss the following questions.TipsQ2: What lessons should we learn from this video clip?TipsVideo Watching
77 1. What have human beings done to the other species on the earth? To live better, human beings have been conducting the only mission to continue with the destruction to the other species on the earth. Human beings have invaded their territory, destroyed their homes, kept ignoring their situation and put them in the danger of extinction …
78 2. What lessons should we learn from this video clip? • The planet does not belong to us, and we are not but the guest;• The earth belongs to you, to us and to the other species too;• The planet earth is dying and is hungry for love;• We should no longer keep silent, ignoring, destroying and killing;• Be capable to conquer our heart and coexist with the planet earth;• Don’t let your indifference take over.
79 Achieving sustainable environmentalism Language ApplicationWriting DevicesEssay WritingParagraph TranslationSection A
80 Write an argumentative essay Generally speaking, there are two ways to organize an argumentative essay featuring counter-arguments, namely, the block pattern and the point-by-point pattern.In the block pattern, the author first lists in Block 1 all of the counter-arguments and their respective rebuttals, and then in Block 2 he presents his own arguments, which function as a supplement to the rebuttals in Block 1, and show that his thesis has been comprehensively considered and discussed.to be continued
81 Block pattern Introduction: • Explanation of the issue • Thesis statementBody Block 1• Summary of the other side’s arguments• Rebuttal to the first argument• Rebuttal to the second argument• Rebuttal to the third argumentBlock 2• Summary of your own arguments• Your first argument• Your second argument• Your third argumentConclusionto be continued
82 Point-by-point pattern In the point-by-point pattern, counter-arguments are dealt with one by one. In other words, the author lists one counter-argument and rebuts it, and then he lists another counter-argument and rebuts it.to be continued
83 Point-by-point pattern Introduction• Explanation of the issue• Thesis statementBody• Statement of the other side’s first argument and rebuttal with your own counter-argument• Statement of the other side’s second argument and rebuttal with your own counter-argument• Statement of the other side’s third argument and rebuttal with your own counter-argumentConclusionto be continued
84 Let’s look at the following examples to see how the block pattern or the point-by-point pattern is adopted to outline the essays.
85 Feel free to let boys and girls attend separate classes Example for the block patternFeel free to let boys and girls attend separate classesIntroductionThere is some evidence that same-sex classes produce positive results among students.Body Block 1Summary of the other side’s arguments:• Test scores don’t show any advantage for all-girl or all-boy classes.• Separate classes (or separate schools) send the message that males and females can’t work together.to be continued
86 •Same-sex education is a kind of discrimination against boys or girls. Rebuttal to the first argument: Research is inconclusive and some researches show opposite results.Rebuttal to the second argument: Children get to interact with members of the opposite sex outside of school, for example, their opposite-sex parent, brothers or sisters and their neighbors.Rebuttal to the third argument: Several studies have shown that discrimination is widespread in mixed classes.to be continued
87 Same-sex classes or schools should be encouraged. Block 2Summary of your own arguments: Same-sex classes provide a better learning environment.Your first argument: Boys and girls become more confident in their studies.Your second argument: School children have many opportunities outside of school to interact with one another.Your third argument: Same-sex classes can better ensure equal treatment of students.ConclusionSame-sex classes or schools should be encouraged.to be continued
88 Should children be sent to boarding schools? Example for the point-by-point patternShould children be sent to boarding schools?IntroductionIt is more helpful to children if they stay in day schools rather than boarding schools.BodyCounter-argument 1: Children are under teachers’ supervision all the time.Rebuttal: Teachers’ supervision is inadequate.Counter-argument 2: Children can spend more time studying.Rebuttal: Children may idle away time.to be continued
89 Sending children to boarding schools is not a good decision. Counter-argument 3:Children can’t have easy access to the Internet, therefore won’t become addicted to computer games.Rebuttal: Addiction to computer games may be avoided, but children may develop other problems.ConclusionSending children to boarding schools is not a good decision. to be continued
90 Read the sample essay and see how it develops in the point-by-point pattern.
91 Should children be sent to boarding schools? Topic:Should children be sent to boarding schools?Introduction:It is more helpful to children if they stay in day schools rather than boarding schools.Body:• First counter-argument: Children are under teachers’ supervision all the time.• First rebuttal: The individual attention a child gets is little.to be continued
92 • Second counter-argument: Children can spend more time studying. • Second rebuttal: Children may idle away time.• Third counter-argument: Children can’t have easy access to the Internet, therefore won’t become addicted to computer games.• Third rebuttal: Addiction to computer games may be avoided, but children may develop other problems.Conclusion:Sending children to boarding schools is not a good decision.to be continued
93 Sample Essay:Children’s education has always been an issue that draws the social concern. As many parents now face great work pressure, they think it a good idea to send their children to boarding schools and put them under the supervision of teachers. However, I don’t think this is a good idea. In my opinion, it is more helpful to children if they stay in day schools.Those who support sending children to boarding schools believe that children can develop better life and study habits if they areto be continued
94 supervised by teachers all days long and enjoy advanced learning facilities. However, this may not be the case. Although teachers may be highly-trained and educational facilities well-provided, there are so many children and relatively so few teachers in most schools that the individual attention a child gets is very little.Another idea held by these people is that children can have more time for study and other activities if they stay in boarding schools. They don’t have to spend much time traveling between their homes and schools each day.to be continued
95 But who can say that children do spend the time saved on study, or on other meaningful things? They may just idle it away.Last but not least, some parents think that keeping their children in boarding schools is a good way to prevent them from playing computer games at home. Yes, it’s true that children cannot have easy access to the Internet in boarding schools, but I don’t think it wise to exert such control. If children are confined to boarding schools all the time and denied the chance to experience different things, it can cause problems as well.to be continued
96 For example, children may not develop their ability to communicate with others. To avoid children getting addicted to computer games, parents should spend more time playing with them and give them more love and care.All in all, parents can’t just leave their children in boarding schools feeling relaxed themselves. Family education, as an important supplement to school education, plays an indispensable role in shaping children’s characters. I strongly recommend that children attend a day school rather than a boarding school.to be continued
97 Writing practiceDirections: Write an essay of no less than 200 words on the following topic. The topic has an outline that you can follow.
98 Man or nature, which is more powerful? Part I. Introduction You can follow the outline given below.Man or nature, which is more powerful?Part I. Introduction1.People often say that man can conquer the nature.2.I deeply believe that nature takes over man.To be continued
99 Part II. Body: argumentation You can follow the outline given below.Part II. Body: argumentationSummary of the other side’s argumentsHistorically speaking, there is no doubt that man can reform the nature.It seems that man is more powerful than nature for he can make up whatever he thinks up.To be continued
100 Part II. Body: argumentation You can follow the outline given below.Part II. Body: argumentationSummary of the your argumentsNature is so mysterious and powerful that man just knows a little about it.Man cannot live without the nature that is offering man with so much for survival.To be continued
101 You can follow the outline given below. Part III. Conclusion1. It is self-evident that man depends on nature for survival and development.2. Man can only make full use of the natural rules to reform the nature and live in harmony with it.To be continued
102 You may adopt the following expressions. When it comes to …Environmental awareness is as required attitude in … as it is, say, sth. in …sb. should do sth. only when …differentiate betweentake on a new lookrun against the grains of the natural rulesbe tightly bound updo sth. at the cost ofraise world awareness of …
103 • Should Olympic champions be rewarded with large sums of money? More topics:• Should Olympic champions be rewarded with large sums of money?• Will a single-sex school better develop students’ abilities than a mixed-sex school?
104 Translate a paragraph based on the summary of the text by using the expressions from the text.
105 从地球上出现人类开始，人与自然之间的亲密关系也随之诞生，而且，这种关系每一世纪都比以前变得更为明智而深远。所以，我们求助于自然，并把自然视为人类的最年长和最有影响力的老师。从某一个观点来看，自然曾一度是我们的监工，现在却变为我们的奴仆。begin with the birth ofintelligent and far reachingfrom one point of viewtask masterTo be continued
106 但从另一个观点来看，自然一直是我们的最忠实的朋友、教导者和启发者。这种和谐紧密的关系，如果仅仅是少数人的特权，而大多数人并不能享有，这就使那和谐紧密的关系失去神秘和情趣。对于少数人来说，这种关系在每个时代都充满了奇妙和美好；对多数人来说，这种关系只是理所当然的一件事。constant friendsrob … of mysteryand richnessa matter of courseTo be continued
107 The intimacy between man and Nature began with the birth of man on the earth, and becomes each century more intelligent and far reaching. To Nature, therefore, we turn as to the oldest age most influential teacher of our race; from one point of view once our task master, now our servant; from another point of view, our constant friend, instructor and inspirer. The very intimacy of this relation robs it of a certain mystery and richness which it would have for all minds if it were the reward of the few instead of being the privilege of the many. To the few it is, in every age, full of wonder and beauty; to the many it is a matter of course.
108 the Useful Expressions the Functional Patterns Achieving sustainable environmentalismThematic study4UNITSummaryRevision ofthe Useful Expressionsthe Functional Patterns
109 all corners of the atlas strike a chord with … 1 上流社会2 信仰民主3 至高原则4 臭氧消耗5 食物消失殆尽6 食物链7 全世界8 引起共鸣9 公开声明10与…格格不入polite societybelief in democracydefinitive rule ofozone completionempty breadbasketfood chainall corners of the atlasstrike a chord with …declare openlyrun against the grains of
110 leave millions homeless … 11 使几百万人失去家12 非此即彼的主张13 繁衍地14 鱼和熊掌兼得15 面对…僵局16 密不可分17 思维模式leave millions homeless …either-or propositionbirthing groundshave the cake and eat it tooin the standoff ofbe inseparately bound upframe of mind
111 the Functional Patterns Revision ofthe Functional PatternsLanguage points — functional patternsFunctions & UsagesSentence Patterns1.用于表达比较，“说明某种态度的重要性”。2.用于表达“某种思想或观 点的理据”。3.用于表达“某人做某事的必要条件”。sth. is now as required an attitude in … as is, say, sth. else in … or …sth. is one founded on one’s idea that …上面挤，下面空sb. should do / does sth. onlywhen …
112 Achieving sustainable environmentalism Section AThe end