Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Review questions 45 to 53 pg 401.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Review questions 45 to 53 pg 401."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review questions 45 to 53 pg 401

2 Define hypertension and arteriosclerosis. How are they often related
Define hypertension and arteriosclerosis. How are they often related? Why is hypertension called the “silent killer”? Name three changes in your lifestyle that might help prevent cardiovascular disease in your old age. Hypertension: abnormally elevated or high blood pressure (generally described as systolic pressure consistently over 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure consistently over 90 mm Hg in younger adults). (pp. 391, 394) Arteriosclerosis: “hardening of the arteries,” the result of deposit of fatty-cholesterol substances and calcium salts onto the inner walls of the blood vessels. Arteriosclerosis can be a direct cause of hypertension because it decreases the elasticity of the arteries (thereby increasing peripheral resistance). (p. 393) Hypertension is often called the “silent killer” because it progresses initially (and often over a prolonged period) without obvious symptoms. Three lifestyle habits that might help prevent cardiovascular disease are regular exercise, a diet low in saturated fats and salt, and a decrease in stress. (Quitting smoking would also help.)

3 Mrs. Hamad, a middle-aged woman, is admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of left ventricular failure resulting from a myocardial infarction. Her chart indicates that she was awakened in the middle of the night by severe chest pain. Her skin is pale and cold, and moist sounds of pulmonary edema are heard over the lower regions of both lungs. Explain how failure of the left ventricle might cause these signs and symptoms. She has pulmonary edema. The right side of the heart is still sending blood to the lungs, but the left side of the heart, the systemic pump, is not pumping blood entering its chamber (from the pulmonary circuit) to the systemic circulation. As the pressure increases in the pulmonary vessels, they become leaky, and fluid enters the tissue spaces of the lungs. (p. 374) Linda, a 14-year-old girl undergoing a physical examination before being admitted to summer camp, was found to have a loud heart murmur at the second intercostal space on the left side of the sternum. The murmur takes the form of a swishing sound with no high-pitched whistle. What, exactly, is producing the murmur? Incompetence (not stenosis) of the pulmonary semilunar valve. Incompetent valves produce swishing sounds, and the pulmonary semilunar valve is heard at the superior left corner of the heart, as indicated in this question. (pp. 371–372)

4 Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room after being involved in an auto accident. She is hemorrhaging and has a rapid, light pulse, but her blood pressure is still within normal limits. Describe the compensatory mechanisms that are maintaining her blood pressure in the face of blood loss. The compensatory mechanisms of Mrs. Johnson include an increase in heart rate and an intense vasoconstriction, which allows blood in various blood reservoirs to be rapidly added to the major circulatory channels. (pp. 388–391; Figure 11.21) During a lethal heart attack, a blood clot lodges in the first part of the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, blocking blood flow through this vessel. What parts of the heart will become ischemic and die? The left atrium and the posterior portion of the left ventricle. (p. 367; Figure 11.2)

5 Mr. Grimaldi was previously diagnosed as having a posterior pituitary tumor that causes hypersecretion of ADH. He comes to the clinic regularly to have his blood pressure checked. Would you expect his blood pressure to be chronically elevated or depressed? Why? Chronically elevated due to increased blood volume. ADH promotes retention of water by the kidneys. (pp. 390–391; Figure 11.21) Explain why taking a vigorous swim right after eating is more likely to cause indigestion than cramping of your muscles. Blood flow is increased to areas of need and decreased to areas of non-need due to constriction and dilation of arterioles as blood will flow down pathway of least resistance. Competition for blood flow between the GI tract, which needs more blood circulation for absorption, and the skeletal muscles, which simultaneously need more blood for exercise, will cause indigestion much more quickly than muscle cramping. (pp. 385, 389–390)

6 The guards at the royal palace in London stand at attention while on duty. On a very hot day, it is not unusual for one (or more) to become lightheaded and faint. Explain this phenomenon. Standing erect for prolonged periods enables gravity to pool blood in lower extremities, particularly in the absence of muscle pump activity which increases venous return during movement. Reduction in venous return causes reductions in stroke volume, causing lightheadedness as blood flow to brain is reduced. Standing in a hot environment will also produce sweating, vasodilation, and a reduction of blood plasma, which further decreases stroke volume. (p. 376)

Download ppt "Review questions 45 to 53 pg 401."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google