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What’s all the hype about? Do they work?

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1 What’s all the hype about? Do they work?
FAD DIETS What’s all the hype about? Do they work? Diet 3155 Wellness Presentation UConn Dietetics Program October 24, 2106 Presenters: Sarah Chau, Laura Gottfried, Aimee Jovino

2 What are fad diets? Promise quick weight loss
Usually unhealthy and restrictive Too good to be true Mainly lose water weight Target people who are desperate to lose weight Usually result in all/more weight gain back Promise quick weight loss (water) bc glycogen is stored with H2O in the liver and muscle tossue. This is lost first. The difference between fad diets and a diet that simply follows the Academy’s basic DRIs is that fad diets tend to be weight-loss oriented rather than nutritionally driven tend to emphasize certain foods or macronutrients over others, whereas the a diet that follows the DRIs creates a sound, stable, balanced intake, which addresses the entire nutritional spectrum. before starting any diet, you should always review the pros and cons of it with your doctor or RD

3 Examples of different types of fad diets
fad diets are popular - info about them disperses and disseminates through the population rather quickly. rather than seeking out info about cuh diets, these are part of popular culture and people see and hear about them every day through conversations, book and magazines, and all other forms of media.

4 The aim The claim The theory What does What does this mean for the RD?
A and C: For fast, sustainable weight loss, T: Limiting carbs Focusing on protein and fats and low-glycemic fruits and vegetables Popular since the 70’s Proven by over 80 clinical studies to effect weight loss safely and for the long term. There was a study by Foster that showed it did help weigth loss, but it was not sustainable. It’s probable becomes boring like all fad diets get to be. Registered Dietitians take: *It can “jump start” weight loss for some, which can be motivating *It is not HEALTHY to limit CHOs. They are a critical nutrient for nearly all metabolic processes in the body The Atkins diet was first introduced in 1972 when Dr Robert Atkinspublished his first book, “Dr Atkins Diet Revolution”. I will be talking about this diet. Robert Coleman Atkins was an American physician and cardiologist, best known for creating the "Atkins Diet", Popular but controversial way of eating where less carbohydrates emphasizing protein and fat as the primary sources of dietary calories. Carbs mainly come from vegetables. His diet became so popular around the world, that Time Magazine named him one of the ten most influential people in 2002,[1] In the medical and fitness communities, there continue to be both proponents and critics of his diet approach. Atkins: low carb, high protein and high fat, lifestyle change, permanent diet What does this mean for the RD?

5 The Atkins Diet: Why some people may want to follow it
Types of food Weight loss Eating habits Medical Atkins products The Atkins Diet says that eating too many carbohydrates — especially sugar, white flour and other refined carbs — leads to blood sugar spikes and lows (so your sugar is never balanced), weight gain, and cardiovascular problems. The Atkins Diet restricts carbohydrates and encourages eating more protein and fat. It has been evolving since it’s introduction. Now applicable to vegetarian and vegan diets Seems to be best when followed in a healthy way, for younger, disease-free populations. According to the Atkins Diet, obesity and related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease, are the fault of the typical low-fat, high-carbohydrate American diet. The Atkins Diet says that you don't need to avoid fatty cuts of meat or trim off excess fat. Rather, controlling carbs is what's important. As far as potential medical benefits, a modified-Atkins diet has been proven to reduce dependency on Anti-epileptic drugs in people with seizures Someone who already has high cholesterol or heart disease would want to eat more fiber and less fat, so Atkins would not be as beneficial for them. Ketone diet for epilepsy pts. Once you've used nearly all your stored glycogen, you enter a chemical state called ketosis. In this state, your cells make chemicals called "ketone bodies" from fats. While the brain runs primarily -- and most efficiently -- on glucose, it can use ketone bodies in an emergency. Ketone bodies have an odd odor to them; they're not unlike fingernail polish remover in their smell. LDL conc increases more. However, long term, cholesterol remained close to baseline values. decreases in serum Triglycerides, incr HDL Therefore, at the present time, there is not enough information to determine whether the beneficial effects of the Atkins diet outweigh its potential adverse effects on the risk of coronary heart disease in obese persons. HOWEVER… Tthere have not been enough studies done in poplulations that naturally have a high carb intake or those pre-disposed to ketoacidosis. There have been documented reports of this diet causing that in pts admittied to the emrgency room. Can anyone think of other reasons why someone might try Atkins?

6 The South Beach Diet Phase 1 2 weeks long
Typically results in 8-13 lbs lost Eat high protein and healthy fats Phase 2 Lasts until weight goal is met Typically lose 1-2 lbs per week Slowly adds in carbs, fruits and vegetables Phase 3 All foods in moderation Maintains desired body weight Bullet points: Limits carbs Promote Fats and lean protein Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables Glycemic index (ask your audience if they know what that is), then talk about how glycemic index of foods basically describes how fast the sugar from a food is absorbed into your blood!) low glycemic index → normal insulins levels → reduction in fat stores (? I don’t really know if this is right, im just guessing) Created by cardiologist Arthur Agatston to promote heart health for his patients, now widely recognized Carbs limited to no more than 40%, 30% proteins and fats Carbs are often not more than 30% however Limits saturated and focuses on unsaturated. Glycemic index determines which carbs should be avoided. The low glycemic index helps to keep insulin at normal limits. The insulin is responsible for fat stores, so this diet often results in weight loss Delete the first bullet point and write in on your notes so you can say it. It doesn’t have to be on the slide Add a picture! Limits carbohydrates Promotes fats and lean proteins Encourages fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fiber Glycemic index Claims to keep insulin under control

7 But is it Recommended? Not for people with kidney problems
Not evidence based LDL cholesterol remained unchanged Risk of ketoacidosis Not the best diet, but not considered unsafe Condense!! keep the info for each fad diet between 2-3 slides Kidney problems because of high protein Very little evidence to support heart health claims, as well as its ability to prevent or control diabetes Triglycerides and systolic bp dropped slightly Generally, low GI helps control A1C (blood sugar) Since it’s heavy on fat and low on carbs, it’s not the best diet Person to person diet - not necessarily recommended or backed by evidence, but is effective for weight loss and is not considered unsafe or extremely nutrient deficient. Should take an omega 3 supplement Can accommodate kosher, vegan and gluten free. Also a good diet for people who are controlling their sodium Again, too wordy.. Add some pics instead that can describe what you are saying here

8 The Raw Food Diet Raw fruits and vegetables
Unpasteurized meats, fish, and dairy Foods can be warmed Organic Cooking makes foods “toxic” Most people aim for a 75-85% raw diet Eating raw fruits, vegetables, as well as raw nuts and grains Dairy, meat, fish, and eggs that are eaten must be unpasteurized All foods should be organic Toxic - destroys nutrients and natural enzymes which boost digestion and helps with chronic disease Food can be warmed, but not more than 118 degrees ADD pictures of raw food!! :D

9 Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Good for vegetarians, vegans, and gluten-free Could control blood pressure, and reduce risk of stroke, heart failure and other diseases Typically results in weight loss High in fiber, low in calories Resulted in favorable beta-carotene concentrations May need supplements Expensive ingredients and kitchen equipment Inadequate in essential nutrients More susceptible to food poisoning Often results in dental erosions Practically impossible to eat out Fruits and veggies help manage blood pressure. Could reduce risk of stroke, heart disease, osteoporosis, kidney disease, and stomach cancer. Losing weight is good for T2DM (low cholesterol [LDL and triglycerrides]) Organic ingredients and equipment (blenders, dehydrators, juicers) Food poisoning : bacteria doesn’t get killed from cooking B-carotene good for preventing CVD Inadequate in many essential nutrients like protein, iron, calcium, and B12 Eating out - even if you get a salad, dressing may or may not have raw/natural ingredients ONE OF THE HARDEST DIETS TO FOLLOW NICE slide!

10 Is the Raw Food Diet Recommended?
Considerations: Foodborne illnesses Not for pregnant women, children, seniors, people with chronic conditions, or weak immune systems Not recommended for any specific condition Can be effective for weight loss Some argue that it can relieve headaches and allergies, boost immunity and memory, and improve arthritis and diabetes More susceptible to foodborne illnesses, so extra food precautions are necessary - washing foods Not cooking some foods make them indigestible, thus you can’t get all the nutrients PICTURES - put a picture of a person having a headache, allergies, arthritis and say bullet point 1 put pictures of children, pregnancy and seniors and say bullet point 3

11 The DASH Diet The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, better known as the DASH diet Lots of fruits and vegetables Including whole grains, lean meats, fish, poultry, nuts and beans Great as a family eating plan

12 The DASH Diet is Scientifically Based
Clinically based, well researched diet Most current DASH diet has been proven to lower blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and improve insulin sensitivity Differs from the previous fad diets Long term Manageable

13 Advantages and Disadvantages of DASH
Lowering blood pressure Great option for anyone who wants to adopt a healthy diet Long-term potential Health benefits Better nutrition overall Disadvantages: Does not outline a specific way to lose weight Some can find it difficult to adjust eating this much fiber Can lead to discomfort or bloating Again, great content but condense!! 2-3 slides for the DASH diet advantages outweigh the disadvantages

14 In Conclusion, Easier to maintain in the long term
Fad diets offer quick results They often compromise health and are cannot be maintained long term The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) Alternatives to fad diets Easier to maintain in the long term ALL foods fit (in Moderation) Simple portion control When in doubt, utilize MyPlate

15 My plate is the US government’s primary food group symbol to help consumers adopt healthing eating habits conistant with the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans

16 Stresses a Healthy Eating Pattern
Represents the totality of what individuals eat and drink Individualized Vary according to calorie level Everyone has a role in helping to create and support healthy eating patterns in multiple settings An eating pattern is more than the sum of its parts; it represents the totality of what individuals habitually eat and drink, and these dietary components act synergistically in relation to health. A healthy eating pattern should be tailored to the individual’s personal, cultural and traditional preferences as well as food budget. An individual’s healthy eating pattern will vary according to their calorie level to help achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, support nutrient adequacy, and reduce risk for chronic disease

17 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Tips
Make our Calories Count Focus on Variety Know your Fats Making calories count: think nutrient-rich foods instead of labeling “good” or “bad” food. Majority of your food choices should be backed with vitamins, minerals, fibers and other nutrients, and lower in calories Focusing on Variety of the foods we eat is important. Eating foods from all food groups to get the nutrients our bodies need. Ex: vary protein sources with more fish, beans, peas. Eat whole grain cereals from bread, crackers, rice or pasta. More dark green vegetables from leafy greens and broccoli Knowing which fats can lead to heart disease and prevent heart disease. Its important to look for foods low in saturated/trans fats and eat more with unsaturated fats

18 References Atkins Nutritionals. “The Benefits of a Low Carb Diet: How Does Atkins Work?” Atkins Nutritionals Accessed September 30, Kvernelan, M. et al. “Modified Atkins diet may reduce serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs”. Acta Neurol Scand Mar;131(3): doi: /ane Epub by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 2014 Oct 14. Nakamura, Y., Okuda, N. et al. “Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular and total mortality in Japanese: a 29-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80”. The British Journal of Nutrition Sep 28;112(6): Elle “The Biggest Losers: Battle of the Fad Diets.” Web. May 24, Accessed Merino, J., Jones, R. et al. “Negative effect of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet on small peripheral artery reactivity in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.” British Journal of Nutrition Apr 14;109(7):1241-7 Sjogren, P., Becker, W. et al. “Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Oct;92(4): ossoff EH., Dorward JL. “The modified Atkins diet.” Epilepsia. 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:37-41. Ganss C. et al. “Dental Erosions in Subjects Living on a Raw Food Diet”. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers Nov 26; 1999(33): Occhipinti, A. “The Raw Truth About the Raw Foods Diet”. American Fitness Professionals and Associates May 21. Accessed 2016 Oct 8. blog/raw-foods-diet Garcia, A.L., Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, et al. “Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans”. British Journal of Nutrition June 1;99(6), 1293–1300. L. Kathleen Mahan, Janice L. Raymond.Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process 2017;14(1): 395. St. Louis, Missouri : Else “How South Beach Diet Works”. South Beach Diet Accessed 2016 Oct 8. -works Agatston, Arthur. The South Beach diet: the delicious, doctor-designed, foolproof plan for fast and healthy weight loss. Macmillan Accessed 2016 Oct 8. Chalasani, S and Fischer, J. “South Beach Diet associated with ketoacidosis: a case report”. Journal of Medical Case Reports Feb 11; 2(1): 45 “South Beach Diet: What to Know” US News Best Diets Accessed 2016 Oct 8. /south-beach-diet Aloia, D. “Uncooked Foods and How to Use Them: A History of the Raw Food Diet” New York Academy of Medicine Dec 2. Accessed 2016 Oct 8. “Raw Food Diet: What to Know” US News Best Diets Accessed 2016 Oct 8. raw-food-diet "Why Blood Pressure Matters." American Heart Association. 10 Oct < Heller, Marla. "What Is the DASH Diet?" The DASH Diet Eating Plan. 10 Oct < Casey, John “How Safe is the Atkins Diet?” Web MD, Inc. Accessed October 12, Foster, GD. “A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity”. N Eng J Med. May 22, (21): Accessed October 12, "About the Dietary Guidelines for Americans." Eat Right. 14 Oct <

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