Presentation on theme: "What’s all the hype about? Do they work?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What’s all the hype about? Do they work? FAD DIETSWhat’s all the hype about?Do they work?Diet 3155 Wellness PresentationUConn Dietetics ProgramOctober 24, 2106Presenters: Sarah Chau, Laura Gottfried, Aimee Jovino
2 What are fad diets? Promise quick weight loss Usually unhealthy and restrictiveToo good to be trueMainly lose water weightTarget people who are desperate to lose weightUsually result in all/more weight gain backPromise quick weight loss (water) bc glycogen is stored with H2O in the liver and muscle tossue. This is lost first.The difference between fad diets and a diet that simply follows the Academy’s basic DRIs is that fad diets tend to be weight-loss oriented rather than nutritionally driventend to emphasize certain foods or macronutrients over others,whereas the a diet that follows the DRIs creates a sound, stable, balanced intake, which addresses the entire nutritional spectrum.before starting any diet, you should always review the pros and cons of it with your doctor or RD
3 Examples of different types of fad diets fad diets are popular - info about them disperses and disseminates through the population rather quickly. rather than seeking out info about cuh diets, these are part of popular culture and people see and hear about them every day through conversations, book and magazines, and all other forms of media.
4 The aim The claim The theory What does What does this mean for the RD? A and C: For fast, sustainable weight loss,T: Limiting carbsFocusing on protein and fats and low-glycemic fruits and vegetablesPopular since the 70’sProven by over 80 clinical studies to effect weight loss safely and for the long term. There was a study by Foster that showed it did help weigth loss, but it was not sustainable. It’s probable becomes boring like all fad diets get to be.Registered Dietitians take:*It can “jump start” weight loss for some, which can be motivating*It is not HEALTHY to limit CHOs. They are a critical nutrient for nearly all metabolic processes in the bodyThe Atkins diet was first introduced in 1972 when Dr Robert Atkinspublished his first book, “Dr Atkins Diet Revolution”.I will be talking about this diet. Robert Coleman Atkins was an American physician and cardiologist, best known for creating the "Atkins Diet", Popular but controversial way of eating where less carbohydrates emphasizing protein and fat as the primary sources of dietary calories. Carbs mainly come from vegetables.His diet became so popular around the world, that Time Magazine named him one of the ten most influential people in 2002, In the medical and fitness communities, there continue to be both proponents and critics of his diet approach.Atkins: low carb, high protein and high fat, lifestyle change, permanent dietWhat does this mean for the RD?
5 The Atkins Diet: Why some people may want to follow it Types of foodWeight lossEating habitsMedicalAtkins productsThe Atkins Diet says that eating too many carbohydrates — especially sugar, white flour and other refined carbs — leads to blood sugar spikes and lows (so your sugar is never balanced), weight gain, and cardiovascular problems. The Atkins Diet restricts carbohydrates and encourages eating more protein and fat.It has been evolving since it’s introduction. Now applicable to vegetarian and vegan dietsSeems to be best when followed in a healthy way, for younger, disease-free populations.According to the Atkins Diet, obesity and related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease, are the fault of the typical low-fat, high-carbohydrate American diet. The Atkins Diet says that you don't need to avoid fatty cuts of meat or trim off excess fat. Rather, controlling carbs is what's important.As far as potential medical benefits, a modified-Atkins diet has been proven to reduce dependency on Anti-epileptic drugs in people with seizuresSomeone who already has high cholesterol or heart disease would want to eat more fiber and less fat, so Atkins would not be as beneficial for them.Ketone diet for epilepsy pts. Once you've used nearly all your stored glycogen, you enter a chemical state called ketosis. In this state, your cells make chemicals called "ketone bodies" from fats. While the brain runs primarily -- and most efficiently -- on glucose, it can use ketone bodies in an emergency. Ketone bodies have an odd odor to them; they're not unlike fingernail polish remover in their smell.LDL conc increases more. However, long term, cholesterol remained close to baseline values.decreases in serum Triglycerides, incr HDLTherefore, at the present time, there is not enough information to determine whether the beneficial effects of the Atkins diet outweigh its potential adverse effects on the risk of coronary heart disease in obese persons.HOWEVER…Tthere have not been enough studies done in poplulations that naturally have a high carb intake or those pre-disposed to ketoacidosis. There have been documented reports of this diet causing that in pts admittied to the emrgency room.Can anyone think of other reasons why someone might try Atkins?
6 The South Beach Diet Phase 1 2 weeks long Typically results in 8-13 lbs lostEat high protein and healthy fatsPhase 2Lasts until weight goal is metTypically lose 1-2 lbs per weekSlowly adds in carbs, fruits and vegetablesPhase 3All foods in moderationMaintains desired body weightBullet points: Limits carbs Promote Fats and lean protein Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables Glycemic index (ask your audience if they know what that is), then talk about how glycemic index of foods basically describes how fast the sugar from a food is absorbed into your blood!) low glycemic index → normal insulins levels → reduction in fat stores (? I don’t really know if this is right, im just guessing) Created by cardiologist Arthur Agatston to promote heart health for his patients, now widely recognizedCarbs limited to no more than 40%, 30% proteins and fatsCarbs are often not more than 30% howeverLimits saturated and focuses on unsaturated.Glycemic index determines which carbs should be avoided.The low glycemic index helps to keep insulin at normal limits. The insulin is responsible for fat stores, so this diet often results in weight lossDelete the first bullet point and write in on your notes so you can say it. It doesn’t have to be on the slideAdd a picture!Limits carbohydratesPromotes fats and lean proteinsEncourages fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fiberGlycemic indexClaims to keep insulin under control
7 But is it Recommended? Not for people with kidney problems Not evidence basedLDL cholesterol remained unchangedRisk of ketoacidosisNot the best diet, but not considered unsafeCondense!! keep the info for each fad diet between 2-3 slides Kidney problems because of high proteinVery little evidence to support heart health claims, as well as its ability to prevent or control diabetesTriglycerides and systolic bp dropped slightlyGenerally, low GI helps control A1C (blood sugar)Since it’s heavy on fat and low on carbs, it’s not the best diet Person to person diet - not necessarily recommended or backed by evidence, but is effective for weight loss and is not considered unsafe or extremely nutrient deficient.Should take an omega 3 supplementCan accommodate kosher, vegan and gluten free. Also a good diet for people who are controlling their sodiumAgain, too wordy.. Add some pics instead that can describe what you are saying here
8 The Raw Food Diet Raw fruits and vegetables Unpasteurized meats, fish, and dairyFoods can be warmedOrganicCooking makes foods “toxic”Most people aim for a 75-85% raw dietEating raw fruits, vegetables, as well as raw nuts and grainsDairy, meat, fish, and eggs that are eaten must be unpasteurizedAll foods should be organicToxic - destroys nutrients and natural enzymes which boost digestion and helps with chronic diseaseFood can be warmed, but not more than 118 degreesADD pictures of raw food!! :D
9 Advantages vs. Disadvantages Good for vegetarians, vegans, and gluten-freeCould control blood pressure, and reduce risk of stroke, heart failure and other diseasesTypically results in weight lossHigh in fiber, low in caloriesResulted in favorable beta-carotene concentrationsMay need supplementsExpensive ingredients and kitchen equipmentInadequate in essential nutrientsMore susceptible to food poisoningOften results in dental erosionsPractically impossible to eat outFruits and veggies help manage blood pressure. Could reduce risk of stroke, heart disease, osteoporosis, kidney disease, and stomach cancer. Losing weight is good for T2DM (low cholesterol [LDL and triglycerrides])Organic ingredients and equipment (blenders, dehydrators, juicers)Food poisoning : bacteria doesn’t get killed from cookingB-carotene good for preventing CVDInadequate in many essential nutrients like protein, iron, calcium, and B12Eating out - even if you get a salad, dressing may or may not have raw/natural ingredients ONE OF THE HARDEST DIETS TO FOLLOWNICE slide!
10 Is the Raw Food Diet Recommended? Considerations:Foodborne illnessesNot for pregnant women, children, seniors, people with chronic conditions, or weak immune systemsNot recommended for any specific conditionCan be effective for weight lossSome argue that it can relieve headaches and allergies, boost immunity and memory, and improve arthritis and diabetesMore susceptible to foodborne illnesses, so extra food precautions are necessary - washing foodsNot cooking some foods make them indigestible, thus you can’t get all the nutrientsPICTURES - put a picture of a person having a headache, allergies, arthritis and say bullet point 1put pictures of children, pregnancy and seniors and say bullet point 3
11 The DASH DietThe Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, better known as the DASH dietLots of fruits and vegetablesIncluding whole grains, lean meats, fish, poultry, nuts and beansGreat as a family eating plan
12 The DASH Diet is Scientifically Based Clinically based, well researched dietMost current DASH diet has been proven to lower blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and improve insulin sensitivityDiffers from the previous fad dietsLong termManageable
13 Advantages and Disadvantages of DASH Lowering blood pressureGreat option for anyone who wants to adopt a healthy dietLong-term potentialHealth benefitsBetter nutrition overallDisadvantages:Does not outline a specific way to lose weightSome can find it difficult to adjust eating this much fiberCan lead to discomfort or bloatingAgain, great content but condense!! 2-3 slides for the DASH diet advantages outweigh the disadvantages
14 In Conclusion, Easier to maintain in the long term Fad diets offer quick resultsThey often compromise health and are cannot be maintained long termThe Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND)Alternatives to fad dietsEasier to maintain in the long termALL foods fit (in Moderation)Simple portion controlWhen in doubt, utilize MyPlate
15 My plate is the US government’s primary food group symbol to help consumers adopt healthing eating habits conistant with the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans
16 Stresses a Healthy Eating Pattern Represents the totality of what individuals eat and drinkIndividualizedVary according to calorie levelEveryone has a role in helping to create and support healthy eating patterns in multiple settingsAn eating pattern is more than the sum of its parts; it represents the totality of what individuals habitually eat and drink, and these dietary components act synergistically in relation to health.A healthy eating pattern should be tailored to the individual’s personal, cultural and traditional preferences as well as food budget. An individual’s healthy eating pattern will vary according to their calorie level to help achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, support nutrient adequacy, and reduce risk for chronic disease
17 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Tips Make our Calories CountFocus on VarietyKnow your FatsMaking calories count: think nutrient-rich foods instead of labeling “good” or “bad” food. Majority of your food choices should be backed with vitamins, minerals, fibers and other nutrients, and lower in caloriesFocusing on Variety of the foods we eat is important. Eating foods from all food groups to get the nutrients our bodies need. Ex: vary protein sources with more fish, beans, peas. Eat whole grain cereals from bread, crackers, rice or pasta. More dark green vegetables from leafy greens and broccoliKnowing which fats can lead to heart disease and prevent heart disease. Its important to look for foods low in saturated/trans fats and eat more with unsaturated fats
18 ReferencesAtkins Nutritionals. “The Benefits of a Low Carb Diet: How Does Atkins Work?” Atkins Nutritionals Accessed September 30,Kvernelan, M. et al. “Modified Atkins diet may reduce serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs”. Acta Neurol Scand Mar;131(3): doi: /ane Epub by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 2014 Oct 14.Nakamura, Y., Okuda, N. et al. “Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular and total mortality in Japanese: a 29-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80”. The British Journal of Nutrition Sep 28;112(6):Elle “The Biggest Losers: Battle of the Fad Diets.” Web. May 24, AccessedMerino, J., Jones, R. et al. “Negative effect of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet on small peripheral artery reactivity in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.” British Journal of Nutrition Apr 14;109(7):1241-7Sjogren, P., Becker, W. et al. “Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Oct;92(4): ossoff EH., Dorward JL. “The modified Atkins diet.” Epilepsia. 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:37-41.Ganss C. et al. “Dental Erosions in Subjects Living on a Raw Food Diet”. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers Nov 26; 1999(33):Occhipinti, A. “The Raw Truth About the Raw Foods Diet”. American Fitness Professionals and Associates May 21. Accessed 2016 Oct 8.blog/raw-foods-dietGarcia, A.L., Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, et al. “Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans”. British Journal of Nutrition June 1;99(6), 1293–1300.L. Kathleen Mahan, Janice L. Raymond.Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process 2017;14(1): 395. St. Louis, Missouri : Else“How South Beach Diet Works”. South Beach Diet Accessed 2016 Oct 8.-worksAgatston, Arthur. The South Beach diet: the delicious, doctor-designed, foolproof plan for fast and healthy weight loss. Macmillan Accessed 2016 Oct 8.Chalasani, S and Fischer, J. “South Beach Diet associated with ketoacidosis: a case report”. Journal of Medical Case Reports Feb 11; 2(1): 45“South Beach Diet: What to Know” US News Best Diets Accessed 2016 Oct 8./south-beach-dietAloia, D. “Uncooked Foods and How to Use Them: A History of the Raw Food Diet” New York Academy of Medicine Dec 2. Accessed 2016 Oct 8.“Raw Food Diet: What to Know” US News Best Diets Accessed 2016 Oct 8.raw-food-diet"Why Blood Pressure Matters." American Heart Association. 10 Oct <Heller, Marla. "What Is the DASH Diet?" The DASH Diet Eating Plan. 10 Oct <Casey, John “How Safe is the Atkins Diet?” Web MD, Inc. Accessed October 12,Foster, GD. “A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity”. N Eng J Med. May 22, (21): Accessed October 12,"About the Dietary Guidelines for Americans." Eat Right. 14 Oct <