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Smoke This! The CMB, the Big Bang, Inflation, and WMAP's latest results Spergel et al, 2006, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Three Year results: Implications for Cosmology, astro-ph/0603449, submitted to Ap. J.

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I.Four Basic Concepts in Cosmology A. Robertson-Walker Metric B. Comoving Coordinates C. Cosmological Redshift D. Distance = Time II.A History of the Universe III.The Cosmic Microwave Background A. What it is B. What the power spectrum is C. Why the power spectrum has structure IV.What's new? A. Damn, that's good agreement B. Polarization C. Reionization D.Inflation's Smoking Gun

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The Robertson-Walker Metric R = scale factor k = curvature (-1 = open, +1 = closed, 0 = flat) Compare to special relativistic metric: r, µ, Á = “comoving coordinates” Cosmology Concept #1

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R R t0t0 t1t1 x y x y x, y = comoving coordinates R = scale factor Comoving Coordinates Cosmology Concept #2

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Redshift = Amount of Expansion em = Emitted wavelength obs = Observed wavelength Cosmology Concept #3

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Distance = Time Standard candle magnitude= “luminosity distance” = lookback time Age of Universe = size of horizon (how far a photon can have gone) Cosmology Concept #4 (Please do not look under the rug.)

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z R t R(t) governed by H 0, R, M, tot = M + R + tot < 1: Open tot = 1: Flat tot > 1: Closed H 0 = present expansion rate (Hubble Constant) M = Mass Density = Cosmological Constant (Dark Energy Density) R = Radiation Density

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A History of the Universe 10 -42 10 -32 10 -22 10 20 10 25 10 -12 10 15 10 -1 10 10 9 10 5 t (s) z Inflation; Grand Unification;... “The beginning?” T 10 13 GeV10 8 GeV 1 TeV100 eV 10 MeV Electroweak Unification Protons/Neutrons Form Nucleosynthesis; Cosmic Neutrinos t z T 10 5 10 4 10 3 100 10 0 10 kyr440 kyr17 Myr480 Myr13.7 Gyr30 yr Matter Domination “Re”combination; Cosmic Microwave Background Reionization You Are Here End of Galaxy Cluster Formation; Acceleration Begins 2.7 K27 K270 K2700 K Sun Forms Dark Ages Here be Dragons

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Opaque Universe Transparent Universe Surface of Last Scattering You Are Here

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The Cosmic Microwave Background Photons emitted from the “surface of last scattering” at recombination when the universe became transparent. z ≈ 1100 Size of universe = 10 -3 today's size Spectrum = Blackbody Temperature today: 2.7 K Temperature at emission: 3000 K Spatially very smooth (isotropic)

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WMAP Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Launch June 30, 2001 Orbits at L 2 Mission ~3 years Two 1.4m × 1.6m reflectors Detectors at 94, 61, 41, 33, and 23 GHz

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CMB Anisotropy 1 : Dipole COBE Data (1992) Motion of Sun (Galaxy, Local Group) Relative to CMB 3.346 ± 0.017 mK towards (l,b) = (263.85 °, 48.25 ° )

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CMB Anisotropy 2 : Fluctuations 3-year WMAP Data Maximum fluctuation amplitude : 75 K

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Quantifying Temperature Fluctuations Power Spectrum: Average over many Universes and over m Observed Power Spectrum: Average over m

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Source of Fluctuations “Primordial” fluctuations in density left over from inflation. Radiation: ∝ T 4 Density Fluctuation = Temperature Fluctuation ( = Presure Fluctuation) ( = Gravitational Potential Fluctuation) Primordial fluctuations are almost scale invariant.

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Fourier expand the temperature field (k = “comoving wave number”): Small perturbations → linear evolution → Fourier modes evolve independently Euler equations for pressure-driven oscillations yeild: Time variable =“conformal time”=comoving horizon c s = sound speed = c/3

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Fluctuation growth is small for modes larger than the horizon s = comoving “sound horizon” = / √3 TkTk First PeakSecond Peak

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Curvature of the Universe (Flat) Dark Matter density; inconsistent with pure baryons, MOND Baryon Density (must be small) Grey = “Cosmic Variance” (Only one Universe)

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What's New #1 : Damn, that's good agreement! “The CDM model is still an excellent fit to the WMAP data.” H 0 = 73 ± 3 km/s/Mpc b h 2 = 0.0223 ± 0.0008 m h 2 = 0.126 ± 0.009 m = 0.24 ± 0.04

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What's New #1a : What is Dark Energy?

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What's New #1b : Neutrinos More massive neutrinos damp out smaller-scale fluctuations, slow structure growth. Total Mass (in eV): Number of Relativistic Species: CMB fluctuations sensitive to epoch of matter/radiation equality ; more 's needs more CDM, which in turn effects structure growth. (Question : only light neutrinos??)

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What's New #2: Polarization

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x y z x y z To Observer Dipole : No polarizationQuadrapole : Polarization Polarization from Compton Scattering off electrons (After Dodelson)

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Later Reionization (higher ) enhances low-multipoles

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Simple Model x e =0z > z reion =x e 0 z reion > z > 7 =1z < 7 Ionization Fraction & Redshift of Reionization

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What's New #4: Inflation's Smoking Something True Scale Invariant Fluctuations

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Conclusions The Big Bang's smoking gun? That happened decades ago! Inflation's smoking gun? Maybe. The inflation paradigm still stands up! Reionization Maybe later (lower z) than we thought? Becoming accessible for Galaxies/GRBs/Quasars. Precision Cosmology Precise parameters, damn good agreement with the Big Bang model and other observations.

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