Presentation on theme: "1 As the colonies grew in the 1600’s and 1700’s, they became the home to people of many lands. These people brought their own customs and traditions. In."— Presentation transcript:
1 As the colonies grew in the 1600’s and 1700’s, they became the home to people of many lands. These people brought their own customs and traditions. In time, they shaped these old ways into a new American Culture. Slide Powerpoint by Mr. Zindman Chapter 3
2 1.The First English Settlement The Spanish settled through out the Americas. The people from England were also determined to set up colonies in the Americas. How did the English set up their first colonies? 1-The French settled in the land we call Canada today.
3 English Seeks Colonies 3-Within a year the colonists ran short of food and they were quarreling with their neighboring Indians. In 1565, Queen Elizabeth of England allowed Sir Walter Raleigh to raise money for a colony in the Americas. 2-The colonists landed on Roanoke an island off the coast of present day North Carolina. Roanoke When an English ship stopped in the harbor, Raleigh and many of the settlers sailed home.
4 In 1567, Sir Walter Raleigh, sent John White, one of the original settlers, including women and children. When supplies ran low, White returned back to England leaving 117 colonists behind. Their was a war in England with Spain so White could not return back for three years to help the colonists.Sir Walter RaleighJohn White 4-When White finally came back to Roanoke he found that the settlers disappeared without a trace. Today no one knows what happened to these colonists.
5 Founding of Jamestown About twenty years later, in 1606, King James I sent a charter to the Virginia Company of London.King James I 5-A charter is a legal document giving certain rights to a person or company. The land was called Virginia. The charter granted the people of Virginia the same rights as English citizens. 6-The charter gave the Virginia Company the right to settle in the on the Atlantic coastline, called Virginia.Virginia Company
6 By 1609-1610 the town was near failure due to poor management. 8- Captain John Smith saved the settlement by forcing the settlers to farm. Soon afterwards Jamestown settlers faced many hardships during this time.Captain John Smith 7-The Virginia Company named their settlement Jamestown, in 1607, after their King, James I.Jamestown, 9-The relationship with the Powhatan Indians worsened so they did not supply the settlers with food. In addition the settlers faced the worst winter of their lives. The settlers quickly were forced into starvation.
7 Since the 1580’s smoking tobacco became fashionable, this made growing tobacco plants very profitable for the colonists in Jamestown. Soon afterwards the Jamestown colony prospered and attracted more settlers. 10-The colony survived by switching over to growing tobacco.
8 To attract more people to move to Jamestown, the Virginia Company set also up a different type of government. The new government made a point to consult the settlers on every important decision made in the colony. They set up a Virginia charter modeled from English government. They elected male representatives to the government, called burgesses. The burgesses met in an assembly called the House of Burgesses. Together with the governor and his council, they made the laws for the colony.House of Burgesses The House of Burgesses marked the beginning of a representative government. 12- In a representative government, voters elect representatives to make laws for them. Learn more about the House of Burgesses by reading page 69 in your textbook
9 Click on the Magna Carta to learn more about it English Traditions The idea that people had political rights was deeply rooted in English history. In 1215 English nobles forced the King John to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter. 13-This document said the King could not raise taxes without first consulting the great nobles and church leaders.Magna Carta In time these rights were extended to other people and this council grew into a representative assembly, called the Parliament. The Parliament was divided into the House of Lords, made up of nobles, and the elected House of Commons.representative assemblyParliamentHouse of Lords How is the Parliament similar to the government in the United States of America? 14-They both elected representatives to make laws.
10 Women in Virginia The colonies first women arrived in 1619. The Virginia company sent 100 women to help “make the men more settled.” Living in the colonies was a hardship for the women. 15-They had to make everything from scratch- including clothing, food, and medicines.
11 Africans come to America Records show that 15 black men and women were living in the colonies. In 1619, a Dutch ship landed in Jamestown with 20 Africans. The Dutch sold the Africans to the Virginians to help grow tobacco. By 1644 about 300 Africans lived in the colonies. Some were slaves for life. Records show that some Africans were slaves in the colonies and some were not. Until this time Africans could own land and property in Virginia. 16-It was not until the 1600's that Virginia would set up a system allowing colonists to enslave Africans.
12 The Plymouth Colony It was not easy to practice your religion in the colonies. Protestants, Christians, and Jews did not get along. Most European countries believed the country had to support a chosen religion, or established church. established church People that did not follow the established church were often prosecuted. 17-Religious prosecution 17-Religious prosecution is the mistreatment or punishment of certain people because of their beliefs.
13 All Pilgrims wanted was to practice their religion freely. They were often jailed or executed for their beliefs that differed from the English Church. In September they got permission to set up a colony in Virginia. They boarded the ship called the Mayflower and landed two months later on the shore of Cape Cod. This is present day Massachusetts.Mayflower In 1620, the Pilgrims sailed to the Americas. They did not seek gold or silver. Pilgrims 18-A Pilgrim is a person who takes a religious journey. 19-They named their colony, Plymouth.Plymouth
14 In time they set up a government in which adult male colonists elected a governor and council. Like Virginia’s Great Charter, a representative government was set up.Virginia’s Great Charter The desire for the Pilgrims to worship freely set up a precedent, or example, for others to follow. The Mayflower Compact Gathering together the pilgrims set up their own government. They signed the Mayflower Compact.Mayflower Compact 20-The compact said that they would all agree to consult each other about the laws of the colony.
15 He taught the settlers how to fish. In the fall the settlers had a good harvest. They invited the Native American Indians to share their thanks for the wonderful harvest. The Native American Indians helped the settlers face many hardships, like the first harsh winter. 21-An Indian named Squanto brought the Pilgrims seeds of native plants-corn, beans and pumpkins.Squanto 22-Americans today celebrate this day as Thanksgiving Day, a national holiday.Thanksgiving Day
16 13 colonies 2. The New England Colonies How did religious beliefs and dissent influence the New England Colonies? The New England Colon ies
17 Over the next 100 years, English settlers would build towns and farms throughout New England. Click on the rock to learn more. More than 1,000 men, women and children left England in 1630 to settle in the Americas. 23-They set up their colony in Massachusetts Bay, North of Plymouth.
18 They were different from the Pilgrims, who wanted to separate entirely from the English church.Pilgrims Puritans in Massachusetts Bay The Puritans wanted a simpler form of worship. Puritans were a powerful group in England. Many were well-educated merchants. The Puritans were convinced that the English church was not moving with modern times so the asked for a charter to set up the Massachusetts Bay Company in New England. Massachusetts Bay Company 25-The Puritans did not believe in religious toleration-recognition that other people have the right to different opinions.toleration 24-The Puritans were a religious group that wanted to reform the church in England.Puritans
19 As the new governor he passed laws without the people say and heavily taxed the colonists. The Puritans sailed to New England and set up their colony in Massachusetts. 26-John Winthrop 26-John Winthrop was elected the first governor of the colony.
20 Winthrop quickly realized that people must have say in their government if things were to run smoothly. The Massachusetts Bay Company was set up under the leadership of Winthrop and other Winthrop I want people to have a voice in government Winthrop Under the leadership of Winthrop the town grew and later was called Boston.Boston 27-Puritans they granted up their own assembly to govern themselves. This was called the General Court.General Court
21 In 1639, the settlers wrote up a plan of government called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. 30-Under the Orders you did not have to be a male church member to vote. It also limited the governments’ power. As a result the towns thrived. In 1662 the King of England granted a charter to the settlers. Soon 15 towns were located along the Connecticut River. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Thomas Hooker Settles Connecticut In May 1636, about 100 settlers, led by a Puritan minister named Thomas Hooker, left Massachusetts Bay Colony. They moved west and settled in a town they called Hartford.Thomas Hooker 28-Hooker left Massachusetts because he felt the government had too much power. He wanted to set up a government that did not have strict laws and limit government powers. 29-Thomas Hooker founded the State we call Connecticut today.
22 Roger Williams Roger Williams was another settler that disagreed with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Problems in Massachusetts Bay Williams also believed in religious Toleration. Toleration means a willingness to let others practice their own beliefs. Puritans and non-Puritans could not practice their religions freely. In 1635, Williams was ordered by the Massachusetts court to leave the colony.Toleration 31-Williams felt the duty of the church and state should be separate. He also felt that the Indians should be paid for the land that was taken from them.
23 Fearing that he would be sent back to England, Roger Williams escaped to Narragansett Bay. There he made friends with the Indians and purchased some land from them.Narragansett Bay. He allowed complete freedom of religion, or toleration, for all Protestants, Jews and Catholics 32-He later settled in this land he called Rhode Island.Rhode Island.
24 She was put on trial for her religious beliefs. She lost the trial but became a symbol of religious freedom. Hutchinson established a settlement on an island that is now a part of Rhode island today. Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out In 1634, Anne Hutchinson, left the Massachusetts Bay Colony.Anne Hutchinson 33-She held bible readings in her home in Rhode Island. She criticized the religious beliefs of the Puritans.
25 Settling Connecticut John Wheelright as also forced to leave Massachusetts because he agreed with some of Anne Hutchinson’s views. The king tried to control New Hampshire but he was unsuccessful. Finally in 1680, the King of England made New Hampshire a separate colony. 34-In 1638, Wheelright and some followers moved to New Hampshire, where they founded their own town.
26 Growth and Change Membership to town meetings was restricted to male heads of households. Each Puritan town governed itself by setting up town meetings. 35-A town meeting was an assembly of townspeople that decided on local issues.
27 The war lasted about a year. At the end of the war the colonists captured 1,000 of the Indians and sold them into slavery in the West Indies. The English people killed King Philip and expanded their colonies. Puritans at War With Native Americans King Philip’s War 36-In 1675, the Wampanoag Indians led my chief Metacom, also known as King Philip, attacked the colonists of New England for taking over their land.
28 Some Native Americans helped the settlers. Pocahontas and John Smith Click on the pictures on the left and right to learn more about them.
29 38-The woods were full of deer, hogs and turkeys for hunting. New Englanders fished in coastal waters for cod and halibut. In the 1600’s many New Englanders began hunting whales. In the 1700 to1800’s whaling grew into a big business.codhalibuthunting whales Life in New England Towns and Villages After some time colonists learned how to grow Native American crops such as corn, beans and squash.cornbeanssquash New England was a difficult land for the colonists. 37-The soil was rocky and poor for farming.
30 In 1692, Puritans executed 20 men and women as witches in the Salem village, Massachusetts. During the 1600’s, Puritan people were very religious. They took the Sabbath (Sunday) very seriously. No one could work or play games on that day. Women had to sit on the other side of the men in the church.Sabbath They saw children as a blessing of God. As a result of the climate many people reached the age of 70. Blacks and Indians had to stay in the back or balcony. 39-Many crimes were punished by the death penalty. One crime punished by death was witchcraft.witchcraft 40-The average Puritan family had 7-8 children.
31 The Dutch set up a colony of New Netherlands along the Hudson River. The colonists traveled with the Indians and built the settlement of New Amsterdam. Rich people in New Amsterdam were granted large parcels of land. One grant was as big as the State of Rhode IslandHudson RiverNew Amsterdam 3.The Middle Colonies By the mid-1700’s, England had four colonies in the region of New England. Because of their location between New England and the Southern Colonies they were known as the Middle Colonies.New England. How did the diverse Middle Colonies develop and thrive? 41-Owners of these huge lands or manors were called patroons.patroons
33 New Netherlands Becomes New York In return for the grant, each patroon promised to settle 50 European families on the land. Most Dutch colonists were Protestants but they allowed other religions to practice their own religion on their land. In 1664, England and the Netherlands fought in a war over trade in Europe. War broke out over trade and the King of England; King Charles II took over the city of New Amsterdam.King Charles II New York City Today The city used to be called New Amsterdam. Click on the picture to learn more about New York City. He gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York. New York and New Jersey 42-K i ng Charles II renamed it the colony of New York after the Duke of York.New York
34 The people in charge of this land were called proprietors. The proprietors were free to divide up their land to others. They were also free to make up the laws for their land. Many people were attracted to New Jersey from many lands. New Jersey Separates From New York 44-In 1702, New Jersey became a royal colony, which was a colony under control of the English crown.New Jersey New York was too big for the Duke of York to govern so he decided to give some of the land to his friends Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.Sir George Carteret. 43-They set up a proprietary colony- proprietary colony was a colony created by a grant of land from a monarch to an individual or a family.proprietary colony
35 Pennsylvania and Delaware At the age of 22 he joined a despised group called the Quakers. Like Pilgrims and Puritans, Quakers were protestant reformers.Quakers William Penn, a proprietor or a large tract of land, appealed to King Charles for help. King Charles made Penn a proprietor of a large tract of land in North America. He named the new colony Pennsylvania. Penn wanted equal treatment for all people and religions. People went to Pennsylvania to escape religious persecution. Soon afterwards the English officials forced Penn to turn away Catholic and Jewish settlers. 45-William Penn, 45-William Penn, an Englishman, founded the colony of Pennsylvania.Pennsylvania To most English people the beliefs of the Quakers were wicked. Quakers were hanged and arrested for their beliefs. 46-Quakers believed that all people were equal in the eyes of God. All men, women, nobles and commoners were equal.
36 Among the new arrivals were large numbers of German speaking Protestants. They became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. African slaves were also brought to Pennsylvania. Settlers in the lower countries did not want to send delegates to a far away assembly in Philadelphia. In 1704 William Penn allowed the people in the lower countries to elect their own assembly. Later the lower countries broke away to form the colony of Delaware. The next slide will show pictures from Pennsylvania.Delaware 47-Penn also called for equal treatment for Native American Indians and Africans.
37 Life in the Middle Colonies Farmers found better growing conditions in the Middle Colonies than in England. The land of the Hudson and Delaware was great for planting crops. The land was called the backcountry. The back country was a frontier region extending through several colonies, from Pennsylvania to Georgia. The winters in the Middle Colonies were warmer and the growing season was longer.
38 Farmers in the middle colonies also raised cattle and pigs. They sent tons of beef, pork, and butter to ports in New York. Farmers produced surpluses of wheat, barley, and rye. 48-These were cash crops, or produce that was sold for money in the world market.cash crops 49-The Middle colonies exported so much grain that they were called the Breadbasket Colonies.
39 Skilled German settlers, encouraged by William Penn, set up their shops in Pennsylvania. In time Pennsylvania became the center of manufacturing and crafts. 50-They made hardware, clocks, watches locks, glass, stoneware, nails and paper.
40 The different groups that settled in the Middle Colonies had their own favorite way of building homes. Swedish settlers built log cabins. The Dutch used red bricks to build their homes. German settlers developed a wood burning stove that heated a home better. In the 1700’s, thousands of German and Scottish-Irish settlers arrived in Philadelphia’s booming port. From Philadelphia they headed west into the backcountry, the area of land along the eastern slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.built log cabinsAppalachian Mountains The Back Country To farm settlers had to clear thick forests. From Indians, settlers learned how to make candles from pine trees to light their homes. They made dishes from wooden logs and hunted wild animals for food. Many settlers that arrived in the backcountry alarmed the Indians. Disputes between the Indians and settlers occurred very often. 51-Settlers followed the old Iroquois trail. This trail became known as the Great Wagon Road.Great Wagon Road.
41 They called this boundary the Mason-Dixon Line. Below the Mason Dixon Line, the Southern Colonies developed their own way of life different from the other English Colonies.Mason-Dixon Line Do not cross my line! 4.The Southern Colonies How did the diverse Middle Colonies develop and thrive? In 1763 to Englishmen, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon began to look over the 244-mile boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania (or between the Southern and Middle colonies.)Charles Mason Jeremiah Dixon 52-They carefully laid two stone markers at the borders of the two colonies (Maryland and Pennsylvania.)
42 Many people had settled in Virginia. They were lured there because of the promise of the profits from tobacco. Wealthy planters took the best land near the coast. Newcomers had to move inland near the Indians. Indians and settlers had many clashes and wars over the land. The Governor would not take action against the Indians.Virginia Bacon’s Rebellion He led a revolt against the Native American villages. Then he burned down Jamestown. This uprising became known as Bacon’s Rebellion. The government stopped Bacon and his followers. Twenty-three of Bacon’s follows were hanged. Bacon was killed in a revolt.Jamestown. Bacon’s Rebellion 53-Finally, in 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a young planter, organized some angry men and women against the Indians.Nathaniel Bacon
43 54-He planned to build a colony called Maryland, where Catholics could practice their religion freely. When Sir George died his son, Lord Baltimore pushed on with his dad’s project. Lord Baltimore’s Maryland In the spring of 1634, two hundred colonists landed in the Chesapeake Bay, across from England’s first southern colony. Maryland was truly a land of plenty. Chesapeake Bay was full of fish, oysters and crabs. Across the bay Virginians were already growing tobacco for profit. Chesapeake Baytobacco Lord Baltimore welcomed Catholics and Protestants to the colony. In 1649, he asked the people to pass an Act of Toleration.Act of Toleration In 1632, Sir George Calvert convinced King Charles I to grant him land for a colony in the Americas. Calvert was Protestant but he changed his beliefs to the Catholic Religion.Sir George Calvert King Charles I He gave out generous land grants to encourage people to settle in Maryland. 55-Lord Baltimore 55-Lord Baltimore was appointed the Governor of Maryland. 56-The act provided religious freedom for all Christians. This freedom did not extend to Jewish people.
44 The issue of slavery led to the differences between the two areas. They could not settle their differences so they separated into 2 different settlements called North and South Carolina. Slave house in South Carolina 1860 The Carolin as In the North of the Carolinas settlers were poor tobacco farmers. In the South, a group of eight rich nobles set up a larger colony. Before long, Carolina Rice became a valuable crop traded around the world. The planters also grew indigo, a plant used to make valuable blue dye. The farmers needed large numbers of workers to grow rice and grow indigo. They tried to enslave the Indians to do the work but they died of diseases or mistreatment. Planters turned to slaves from Africa. By 1700, most people coming to Carolina were African men and women brought against their will. The North part of Carolina did not have slaves. T he South part did have slaves.Carolina Rice 57-South of Virginia and Maryland, English colonists settled in a region called the Carolinas.Carolinas 58-In 1685, a few planters discovered that rice grew well in the lowly swamplands along the coast.
45 He wanted Georgia to be a place where people were jailed for debts in England could find a new life. People that owed money were called debtors. Under English law, if you owed money, you were a debtor, and did not “pay up” you could be placed in jail. In 1733 Oglethorpe and 120 colonists built the colonies first settlement named the Savannah. Georgia: A Haven for Debtors He forbid slavery and did not allow very large farms. He attracted the poor people to settle in his lands. Soon afterwards, Oglethorpe changed his rules. He allowed large plantations and slavery. Slavery grew very rapidly in Georgia on the plantations. The last colony was carved out of the southern part of South Carolina. 59-James Oglethorpe59-James Oglethorpe, a respected solider, founded Georgia in 1732. Georgia
46 5. Spanish Colonies on the Borderlands The Spanish wanted to weaken English control on the colonies. They would be given land if they helped protect the Spanish. By the 1700’d hundreds of enslaved Africans escaped to Florida. How did the Spanish establish colonies on the borderlands? The Spanish wanted to weaken English control on the colonies. They would be given land if they helped protect the Spanish. By the 1700’s hundreds of enslaved Africans escaped to Florida. 60-In 1693 the Spanish colonies offered freedom to enslaved Africans that escaped to Florida. 61-In 1693 the Spanish colonies offered freedom to enslaved Africans that escaped to Florida.
47 The most important Spanish colonies were in Mexico and South America. Its territories north of Mexico were called borderlands, meaning lands along the frontier. Settling the Spanish Borderlands Juan de Onate in New Mexico He aimed to find gold, convert the Native Americans to Christianity, and establish a permanent colony. Ornate never found gold but he set up a colony he called Santa Fe. 62-The main function of the Spanish borderlands was to protect Mexico from other European powers. 63-In 1598 Juan de Onate led a Spanish expedition into New Mexico.
48 Roman Catholic missionaries set up churches on the Spanish borderlands. Junipero Serra set up a mission that later became the city of San Diego. Soon after wards he established a mission in the cities of San Francisco and Los Angles. He founded 20 missions in California between 1769 and 1800. 65-The Spanish also set up civilian towns they called pueblos. presidio pueblo 64-Along with missions, Spain set up military outposts or forts called presidios.
49 66-They were severely punished if they failed to follow the rules. They farmed and built churches. The Spanish used the native Americans to labor on the missions.