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South and East Asia. Geographical Context Essential Knowledge Remember prehistory? Ceramics in China date back as far as 18, ,500 BCE. Japanese.

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Presentation on theme: "South and East Asia. Geographical Context Essential Knowledge Remember prehistory? Ceramics in China date back as far as 18, ,500 BCE. Japanese."— Presentation transcript:

1 South and East Asia

2 Geographical Context

3 Essential Knowledge Remember prehistory? Ceramics in China date back as far as 18,300- 17,500 BCE. Japanese ceramics date back to 10,500 BCE. Sophisticated Neolithic and Bronze Age civilizations flourished across Asia including the Indus Valley civilization in Pakistan and India, the Yangshao and Longshan cultures and Shang Dynasty in China, the Dongsun culture in SE Asia, and the Yayoi and Kofun cultures in Japan. *Shared cultural and religious ideals helped to shape the regional identities of people in Asia.

4 Essential Knowledge/Religions The ancient view that dominated South Asia differentiated earthly and cosmic realms of existence while recognizing certain sites and beings as sacred. They believed time and life to be cyclic. All worked within this worldview and sought spiritual release and diving union. These ideals held strong even during numerous attempts at Indian occupation. Hinduism; Buddhism; Janism; Sikhism

5 Hinduism As groups, review the information from Khan Academy found from the following link: content/asian-art-museum/aam- hinduism/a/beliefs-of-hinduism content/asian-art-museum/aam- hinduism/a/beliefs-of-hinduism Take notes and prepare to discuss.

6 Buddhism As groups, review the information from Khan Academy found from the following link: content/asian-art- museum/buddhism/a/introduction-to- buddhism Take notes and prepare to discuss.

7 Janism Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live a life of harmlessness and renunciation. The aim of Jain life is to achieve liberation of the soul.

8 Sikhism Sikhism (/ ˈ s ɪ kz ə m/; Sikkh ī, Punjabi pronunciation: [ ˈ s ɪ k ːʰ i ː ]), or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), one of the youngest amongst the major world religions, is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent during the 15th century. Sikhism preaches a message of devotion and remembrance of God at all times, truthful living, equality of mankind and denounces superstitions and blind rituals.

9 Essential Knowledge/Religions East Asian religions emphasize the interconnectedness of humans with both the natural world and spirit world. Religions focused almost more on ethical set of behaviors. Daoism; Confucianism; Shinto *Make note that in large countries, multiple religions will be practiced.

10 Daoism As groups, review the information from Khan Academy found from the following link: content/asian-art-museum/aam- China/a/taoism-in-the-tang-and-song- dynasties Take notes and prepare to discuss.

11 Confucianism Video Introduction: RyToTo4 Take notes and prepare to discuss.

12 Essential Knowledge/Religions South, East, and Southeast Asia were also home to foreign cultures and religions. Islamic influence is particularly strong in India, Malaysia, and Indonesia- all fell under at least partial Islamic control during the 2 nd millennium CE. Today South and Southeast Asia are home to largest Muslim populations. Christianity is present across the region.

13 Enduring Understanding Trade greatly affected Asian Art and development. 2 important trading networks: 1) Silk Route- linked Europe to Asia, connecting the Indian subcontinent to overland trade routes throughout Asia. 2) Maritime Trade- utilized seasonal monsoon winds to move trade between North Africa, West Asia, South and Southeast Asia, and South China. These trade routes will prove vital in sharing ideas and artistic techniques across vast territories and into Europe.

14 Chinese Sculpture Large scale; sign of grandeur Despite enormous scale, artistic integrity remains intact Many sculptures are in situ- probably a technique imported from India At the same time, Chinese sculpture is also known for intricately designed miniature objects Those made of jade are particularly praised for beauty and durability.

15 Terra cotta warriors from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China (*IS- 2 images)

16 Qin Dynasty; c. 221-209 BCE Painted terra cotta About 8,000 warriors, 100 wooden chariots, 2 bronze chariots, and 30,000 weapons buried as part of the tomb of Emperor Shi Huangdi

17 Terra cotta warriors from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China (*IS- 2 images) Soldiers stand 6 feet tall; taller than the average person of the time Some fierce, some proud, some confident Symbolizes a Chinese army marching into the next world Daoism seen in the individualization of each soldier, despite large numbers Originally colorfully painted Discovered in 1974 t-prep/ap-art-history/south-east- se-asia/china-art/v/mausoleum-of- the-first-qin-emperor-unescotbs

18 Chinese Painting Many formats: album leaves; fans; murals; scrolls. Scrolls have 2 formats: 1) Hand scroll which is horizontal and can be read on a desk or table 2) Hanging scroll which is supported by a pole or hung for a time on a wall and unraveled vertically No scrolls were allowed to be permanent fixtures in a home; they were not for decoration Scrolls were stored away in specifically designed cabinets. Scrolls were read right to left Sometimes paper, but silk was preferred Silks were attached to wooden dowels; separated into panels Square red markings denote the artist.

19 Chinese Painting Landscapes are highly prized Like their European counterparts, they do not seek to represent a particular setting but an artistic construct yielding a philosophical ideal Typically some parts are barren while others are crowded- meant to represent the Daoist theory of yin and yang- opposites flow into one another.

20 Chinese Painting Another specialty is porcelain. Subtle and refined vase shapes were imaginatively painted. Appear to be utilitarian but are actually designed to stand alone as art. Sophisticated glazing techniques were applied to add sheen and also protection.

21 Literati The literati: artists who rejected the restrictive nature of the court and developed a highly individualized style. Worked as painters, furniture makers, landscape architects, and more. Often they were scholars and not professional artists By tradition, the literati did not sell their works but instead gave them to foends and connoisseurs.

22 Funeral Banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui) (*IS) 180 BCE Painted silk; over 6 feet long Han Dynasty, China Lady Dai died in 168 BCE Tomb discovered in 1972; contained over 100 objects The t-shaped banner covered the inner coffin of the intact body (Compare to…)

23 Funeral Banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui) (*IS) The banner was probably carried in a procession to the tomb then placed over the body to speed its journey to the afterlife Yin symbols on left; yang symbols on right; center mixes the two philosophies

24 Funeral Banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui) (*IS) Painted in 3 distinct regions Top: Heaven with a crescent moon at left; legend of the 10 suns at the right; in the center, two seated officers guard the entrance to the heavenly world Middle: Earth with Lady Dai in center on white platform about to make her journey with a walking stick found in the tomb; mourners by her side; dragon bodies are intertwined to represent yin and yang Bottom: the underworld; symbolic low creatures frame the underworld scene: fish, turtles, dragon tails; tomb guardians protect the body

25 Buddhist Architecture The principle place of early Buddhist worship is the stupa- a mound shaped shrine that has no interior. Stupas serve as reliquaries; worshippers gain spiritual merit through close proximity to its contents. A staircase leads the worshipper from the base to the drum. The stupa has cosmic symbolism because Buddhists pray while walking in a clockwise or easterly direction. The stupa’s distinctive shape is that of a hemisphere, thus cosmic symbolism.

26 Buddhist Architecture The stupa is also conceived as being a symbol of Mt. Meru, the mountain that connects the earth to the heavens according to Buddhist cosmology. Each stupa has a central mast of 3 umbrellas at the top of the monument. Umbrellas signify the 3 jewels of Buddhism: The Buddha, the Law, the Community of Monks. A square enclosure around the umbrella symbolizes a sacred tree surrounded by a fence. 4 toranas, at the cardinal points of the compass, act as elaborate gateways to the structure.

27 Great Stupa at Sanchi (*IS- 4 images)


29 Madhya Pradesh, India Late Sunga Dynasty C. 300 BCE- 100 CE Stone masonry, sandstone on dome Buddhist- all architecture from previous slides apply, see blueprint Originally painted white Hemispherical dome is symbolic of heaven On torana- richly carved scenes; high relief; empty throne or meditation tree represents Buddha who does himself appear 600 donor names are inscribed- men and well as women, common people as well as monks

30 C2F2- Writing Task Compare the Great Stupa at Sanchi to another religious site of your choice, but the second work must come from a different culture. Thoroughly explore all components of C2F2 in your written response.

31 Longmen Caves (*IS- 3 images)


33 asia/imperial-china/northern-wei/v/longmen-grottoes- unesconhk asia/imperial-china/northern-wei/v/longmen-grottoes- unesconhk Luoyang, China Tang Dynasty, 493-1127 CE Limestone Caves along the banks of the Yi River Sculptures and reliefs carved from the existing rock; some colossal, some small Documents attest that some 800,000 people worked on this site 110,000 Buddhist stone statues More than 60 stupas

34 Longmen Caves (*IS- 3 images) 2,800 inscriptions on steles One inscription states that Empress Wu Zetian was the principal patroness; she used private funds to finance the project Buddha is arranges to appear as if on an altar of a temple, deeply set into the rock face Vairocana Buddha with monk attendants, bodhisattvas, and guardians Elongated legs and exaggerated poses.

35 Borbudur Temple (*IS- 3 images)


37 Central Java, Indonesia Sailendra Dynasty, c. 750-842 CE Volcanic stone masonry Massive Buddhist monument that contains: 1. 504 life-size Buddhas 2. 1,460 narrative relief sculptures on 1,300 panels that were 8,200 feet long 3. 1,500 stupas and one million carved blocks of stone

38 Borbudur Temple (*IS- 3 images) Ichnographically complex and intricate; may reflect Buddhist cosmology Meant to be circumambulated on each terrace; six concentric square terraces topped by three circular tiers with a great stupa at the summit. 5 terraces of identical stepped square plan 72 openwork Buddhas each with a preaching mudra

39 Borbudur Temple (*IS- 3 images) Pyramidal in form; aligned with 4 cardinal points Lower stories represent the world of desire and negative impulses Middle areas represent the world of forms; people must control their negative impulses Top story is the world of formulas where the physical world and worldly desire is expunged

40 Borbudur Temple (*IS- 3 images) Queen Maya riding a horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Siddharta Gautama Densely packed= horror vacui Queen is majestic and at rest before giving birth Brought to the city in a great procession Ready to give birth to her son, the Buddha

41 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 5 images)

42 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 6 images)

43 Bit about Hindu architecture “Walk-through” https://www.khanaca content/asian-art- museum/southeast- asia1/Cambodia- Myanmar/v/angkor- temple-mountains

44 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 6 images) C. 800-1400 Stone masonry; sandstone Capital of medieval Cambodia built by Suryavarman II Main pyramid is surrounded by 4 corner towers; creates a temple mountain; 5 towers symbolize the 5 peaks of Mt. Meru The temple is dedicated to Vishnu (preserver and god of creation; one of 3 main deities in Hinduism) Horror vacui of sculptural reliefs Sculptures are in rhythmic dance poses; repetition of shapes

45 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 6 images) Complex constructed by successive kings installing various deities in the complex. Kings identified themselves with the gods they installed. (Just like?...) Influenced by Indian use of corbelled vaulting

46 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 6 images) Churning of the ocean of milk Story from the Hindu religion- trying to obtain the nectar of immortal life by churning the stars Both gods ( devas) and devils (asuras) churn the ocean to guarantee immortality Vishnu wraps a serpent around Mandara; mountain rotates the sea and churns it.

47 Temple of Angkor Wat and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia (*IS- 6 images) Jayavarman VII as Buddha Patron of Angkor Thom Most powerful and famous Khmer monarch Heavily influenced by his wives who were sisters; married the second after the first’s death. Devoted to Buddhism, but some Hindu iconography is present.

48 Lakshmana Temple (*IS- 4 images)


50 Khajuraho, India Hindu Chandella Dynasty c. 930-950 CE Ashlar masonry (finest); sandstone Corebelled roofs have a beehive quality Hindu temple grouped with a series of other temples

51 Lakshmana Temple (*IS- 4 images) Compact proportions Note the sandara- inner ambulatory East/west axis receives direct rays from the rising sun Harmonious integration of architecture and sculpture Figures are sensuous but clothed Regeneration is a theme.

52 Todai-ji (*IS- 4 images)

53 Bit about Japanese rchitecture and sculpture Nara, Japan Various artists including sculptors Unkei and KeiKei as well as the Kei School 743 CE; rebuilt c 1700 Bronze and wood (sculpture) Wood with ceramic roofing (architecture)

54 Todai-ji (*IS- 4 images) Great Eastern Temple- refers to its eastern location in the city of Nara Noted for its colossal sculpture of the seated image of the Vairocana Buddha The temple and Buddha have been raised many times during military unrest Seven external bays on façade Influenced by Chinese sculptures (Longmen) Once was the largest wooden building in the world.

55 Gold and Jade Crown (*IS- add to sheet) Three Kingdoms Period Silla Kingdom, Korea 5 th -6 th century CE Metalwork Uncovered in Korea in a royal tomb Symbolizes geometric trees Antler forms were influenced by Shamanistic practices in Siberia Very lightweight; probably ceremonial- perhaps only for burial

56 Travelers among Mountains and Streams (*IS) Fan Kuan C 1000 CE Ink on silk Taipei, Taiwan Daoist philosophy- artist isolates himself from civilization to study nature Different brushstrokes represent different trees

57 Travelers among Mountains and Streams Long waterfall on the right is balanced by mountain on the left Waterfall accents the height of the mountain Not a pure landscape: donkeys laden with firewood are being driven by 2 men, and there is a temple in the distance. Man is seen as small, insignificant Might be only surviving work of the artist- signature hidden in the bushes on the lower right Hanging scroll

58 Shiva as the Lord of the Dance (*IS) Hindu, India Chola Dynasty C. 11 th century CE Cast bronze Nataraja Vigorously ( ) dancing with one foot on dwarf, the Demon of Ignorance Rainbow of fire- Shiva is the creator, preserver, and destroyer- not in a negative way. Shiva periodically destroys the universe so that it may be born again

59 Shiva as the Lord of the Dance (*IS) Hair terminates in cobra heads 4 hands Shiva has a third eye- barely seen between the two. Once burned another god, Kama, with this eye. Epicene quality (indeterminate sex) Here he unfolds the universe out of the drum in one of his right hands; he preserves it by uplifting his other right hand in a caring gesture

60 Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace (*IS- 2 images)

61 A bit about Japanese painting Kamakura Period, Japan C. 1250-1300 CE Handscroll (ink and color on paper) Painted 100 years after the Civil War depicted occurred

62 Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace (*IS- 2 images) Elevated viewpoint Strong diagonals emphasize movement and action Swift, active brushstrokes Tangled mass of forms accentuated Japanese armor Depersonalized figures- many only have one brushstroke to denote eyes, mouth, and ears.

63 Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace (*IS- 2 images) A lone archer leads the escape from the burning palace with the equestrian Japanese commander behind him. Unrolls like a film- read right to left. As one unrolls, time advances. Military rule in Japan from 1185 on had an interest in the Code of the Warrior. Therefore, there is a large quantity of war-related art via literature and paintings.

64 Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace (*IS- 2 images) The burning was an attempt by rebel forces to capture the Emperor Coup stages in 1159 as Emperor Go-Shirakawa is taken prisoner and forced to board a cart to take him into captivity. Rebels kill the opposed, place their heads on sticks, and parade them around.

65 The David Vases (*IS) https://www.khanaca art-asia/imperial- china/yuan- dynasty/v/david-vases

66 The David Vases (*IS) Yuan Dynasty, China 1351 CE White porcelain with cobalt blue underglaze Named after Sir Percival David *One of the most important examples of blue and white porcelain in existence Made for the altar of a Daoist temple, along with an incense burner which has not be found. All typical for an altar

67 The David Vases (*IS) There is a dedication on the side of the neck of the vessels; believed to be the earliest known blue and white dedication Inscription on one of the vases reads… The blue color was imported from Iran; Chinese expansion into western Asia makes this possible Vases were modeled after bronzes (tradition and change)

68 The David Vases (*IS) Elephant-head shaped handles On the neck and foot of vases, there are leaves and flowers Central section: Chinese dragons with traditional long bodies and beards; dragons have scales and claws and are set in the clouds

69 Portrait of Sin Sukju (*IS) 1417- 1475; c. 15 th century Imperial Bureau of Painting Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk Of the Korean Prime Minister and soldier Great scholar Emphasizes how the subject made great contributions to the country and how the spirit of loyalty to king and country was valued by Confucian philosophy Repainted over the years, especially in 1475 after he died

70 Forbidden City (*IS- 5 images)



73 museum/aam-China/v/forbidden-city museum/aam-China/v/forbidden-city A bit about Chinese architecture Beijing, China Ming Dynasty; 15 th century CE and later Stone masonry; marble; brick; wood; ceramic tile

74 Forbidden City (*IS- 5 images) Largest and most complete Chinese architectural ensemble in existence 9,000 rooms Walls are 30 feet high to keep people out and those inside in Each corner of the rectangular plan has a tower representing the 4 corners of the wrold.

75 Forbidden City (*IS- 5 images) Focus is the Supreme Hall of Harmony, the throne room and seat of power Wooden structure made with elaborately painted beams Meant for grand ceremonies (New Year; emperor's birthday; winter solstice)

76 Forbidden City (*IS- 5 images) Yellow tile roofs and red painted beams placed on marble foundations unify the structures in the FC into a whole Surrounding wall of the FC is characteristic of a Chinese city- privacy, protection, and containment of culture.

77 FORBIDDEN CITY (*IS- 5 IMAGES) The Palace of Tranquility and Longevity


79 Ryoan-ji (*IS- 3 images)

80 se-asia/japan-art/a/ryoanji- Review link materials, notes, discussion se-asia/japan-art/a/ryoanji-

81 Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (*IS) Power sketch

82 Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (*IS) Artist= Bichitr C. 1620 Watercolor, gold, and ink on paper Jahangir wanted everything about his rule recorded Jahangir is the source of all light- notice his halo derived from the sun and the moon He himself takes the name Jahangir meaning “seizer of worlds”

83 Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (*IS) He sought to bring all people together. Notice the cross- cultural references: sits on a Renaissance carpet; figures of small cherubs- European Look at the content- he prefers meeting with the holy man over the secular rulers

84 Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (*IS) James I is in the bottom left and an Ottoman sultan stands on the second tier below the holy man A book is being passed, but by whom? The artist himself is in the bottom left corner- holds a miniature with 2 horses and an elephant- perhaps gifts from his patron; symbolically signs his name on the footstool beneath the Jahangir

85 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images)

86 Agra, India Masons; marble workers; mosaicists; and decorators under Ustad Ahmad Lahori- architect of the emporer 1632-1653 CE Stone masonry and marble with inlay pf precious and semiprecious stones Gardens

87 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images) A mausoleum for Shah Jahan’s favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal Seems to float magically over reflecting pools in a vast garden May have been conceived as the throne of God perched above the gardens of Paradise

88 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images) Note that monumental tombs were not part of either the Hindu or Buddhist traditions, but they are a large part of the Islamic tradition in architecture Taj Mahal means “Crown Palace” It eventually becomes the Shah’s tomb as well

89 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images) Dome on cube shape, but as opposed to earlier designs, these appear weightless Reinforcing the illusion of floating white marble is the absence of any visible means of ascent A stairway does exist, but it is deliberately hidden Proportions are key- the tomb is as wide as it is tall, and the height of the dome equals the height of the facade

90 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images) Follows the char- bagh or “four plot” plan of the Koranic Garden of Paradise Today, it stands at the northern end instead of in the center of the forma gardens as it should be in the char-bagh plan

91 Taj Mahal (*IS- 2 images) The tomb itself is octagonal in plan Interplay of light and shadowy voids Inlay of precious and semiprecious stones Pointed arches sweep the eyes upward

92 White and Red Plum Blossoms (*IS- 2 images)

93 Ogata Korin 1710-1716 Watercolor on paper Atami, Japan In the Japanese rinpa style: Rin for Korin and pa meaning “school” Influenced by yamato-e style of painting Stream cuts rhythmically through the scene; water currents are portrayed via swirls

94 White and Red Plum Blossoms (*IS- 2 images) White on left; red on right Think Bob Ross- paint is applied to a wet canvas- thus allows the artist to create a dripping effect for depicting steams and flowers

95 Under the Waves off Kanagawa (*IS) com/watch?v=NzGa WNjG80k Also known as The Great Wave, from the series Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji 1830-1833 CE Polychrome wood block print; ink and color on paper

96 Under the Waves off Kanagawa (*IS) *First time a landscape is important theme in Japanese prints The last in its series Mount Fuji, sacred to the Japanese, seems to be one of the waves Personification of nature- seems intent on drowning those in the boats Striking design of water and air elements with much negative space

97 Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan (*IS) Artist unknown Based on oil painting by Liu Chunhua C. 1969 CE Color lithograph https://www.khanacade al-culture/identity- body/identity-body- europe/a/liu-chunhua- chairman-mao

98 Attribution Attribute this painting to the correct artist. Identify a work by the same artist in the art history curriculum. Using specific details, justify your attribution by comparing the two works. How do both works demonstrate the Japanese view of landscape?

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