Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions Essential Questions: What key changes in Europe took place in the 15 th & 16 th centuries that allowed for overseas colonization?"— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions Essential Questions: What key changes in Europe took place in the 15 th & 16 th centuries that allowed for overseas colonization? How did European exploration in America impact native peoples? What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, & British patterns of colonization in America?
Europe in the Middle Ages Why was it often called the Dark Ages? Limited Exchange of Ideas Curiosity and New Learning De-emphasized Superstition Predominated Travel Limited When did this change? The Crusades
Europe in the Middle Ages What effect did the Crusades have on Europe? Interest in the products of the Middle East and the Far East Cheaper ways of getting these products TRANSPORTATION: Water vs. Land n What products? u Gold/Silver/Jewels u Silk u Spices
Why did the “Age of Exploration” Occur? What was the motivation of the individual explorer, conquistador, monarch? Materialism, personal wealth Glory, personal fame Religion, conversion of the “heathens” Nationalism, promoting the wealth and power of the nation Scientific Curiosity
How did the European Colonization affect Native Culture? New Products Especially Cutting tools, metal Loss of Land Loss of Liberty Diminishing of Culture Language Customs Religion
How did the European Colonization affect Native Culture? Diminishing of Numbers Extinction Example - Taino 90% death rate War Disease Small Pox Whooping Cough Measles Chicken Pox, etc.
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Money Three times the gold and silver in Europe Inflation More money in more hands … … More People wanting more goods … … More People making more goods … … Industrial Revolution
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Food Corn Tomatoes Peppers Chocolate Pineapples Sweet Potatoes Potatoes *** Health, Nutrition Economic
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Medicine Vitamins Anesthetics for Surgery and Dentistry Cocaine and derivatives Muscle relaxants for Lockjaw and Muscle spasms Curare Expectorants for cold remedies Guafenisen Poison treatment Ipecac Malaria “Fever Bark” - Quinine Analgesics Aspirin
How did Native American Culture affect Old World civilizations? Recreation Lacrosse Tobacco Chocolate Government Iroquois Confederacy “ Federalism” in the US Constitution
A World Transformed Native Americans were eager for European trade; they were not initially victims of Spanish exploration They became dependent on and indebted to Europeans Disease decimated perhaps 95% of Native American population
Spanish Conquests & Colonies Spanish missionaries focused heavily on converting Native Americans & establishing missions The Spanish used the encomienda system to create large cash crop plantations using Native American & African slave labor
From Plunder to Settlement By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards immigrated to the New World Mostly unmarried males came to New World; intermarriage led to mixed-blood mestizos & mulattos Distinguished between social classes: peninsulares & creoles The Spanish government operated strict control over the colonies Whites from Spain Whites born in America
Spanish Empire Its conquering of the Americas would allow Spain to become the most powerful empire in the world during the 16 th Century “We came here to serve God and King… and to get rich” Not only disease, but civil wars and religious superstitions also allowed the Europeans, namely the Spanish, to conquer the Native Americans (who GREATLY outnumbered the explorers) The advanced technology of the Europeans offered an incredible advantage in combat Gunpowder, cannon, and bullets vs. bows and arrows Horses (transport and cavalry) and also pigs, cattle, and goats (foodstuffs) played a very important role in conquest
Spanish-American Culture The Spanish conquerors would establish the encomienda system Encomienda – a system of villages granted to a privileged Spanish officer or aristocrat Was responsible for providing for Spanish missionaries and contributing wealth to the empire Extreme class discrepancy: at one end were the wealthy conquistadores and at the other the impoverished natives
The Spread of Catholicism Catholic missionaries quickly spread to the Americas in the wake of the conquistadors’ victories The Natives were viewed as pagans and the Catholic religion was in turn imposed upon the people The spreading epidemics were seen as the wrath of God upon the pagans and justified the actions of the god-fearing Spanish A few missionaries would become the only advocates that the Natives had among the Europeans Bartolome de la Casas and A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies Poet Staceyann Chin reads Bartolomé de Las Casas Poet Staceyann Chin reads Bartolomé de Las Casas
The Horse The introduction of the horse would forever transform the Native American cultures of the US Tribes such as those of the Great Plains converted from agriculturally domestic to nomadic within a very short period of time after acquiring and breeding a significant horse population Following the buffalo herds became the focus of Native society
What is point of view? The biggest thing to remember when discerning point of view is differentiating between the author’s “point” and their point of view. As you analyze a source, you should ask yourself: What’s the author’s point? Essentially, this boils down to what the author says. What is the message? What information should the reader take away from the source? In short, if you can summarize the document, you can get the point. What’s the author’s point of view? This can be expressed simply as why they said it. Several factors influence this: Name, Position, Nationality, Document Date and/or Document Type Is the author male/female? What is the author’s ethnicity? Is the author a government official? Of a particular class or region? How might the author’s position in society or title affect the author’s perspective? Different types of documents were authored to serve different purposes. Is this a public pronouncement? Diary? Letter? Speech? How will their audience affect point of view? When was it produced? Is it linked with a specific event? Who was the intended audience? What is the author’s motivation/purpose? What does the tone or vocabulary convey to you? Is there anger? Disdain? Hope? When you put all of this together, you reach Point of View: why is THIS person putting forth THIS message at THIS time? How do you find this information? Look carefully at the source information included with the document. There is no substitute for studying and knowing your history. Many of the documents will be from people/sources in your reading and/or lecture notes from class.