Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1900 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1900 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1900 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES

2 REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS Revolution Revolution A popular idea, means to an end A popular idea, means to an end A way to restructure society A way to restructure society Popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty Relocating sovereignty in the people Relocating sovereignty in the people Traditional monarchs Traditional monarchs Claimed a "divine right" to rule Claimed a "divine right" to rule Derived from God, unquestionable Derived from God, unquestionable Monarch unanswerable to people Monarch unanswerable to people Constitutional Limitations Constitutional Limitations Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king Glorious Revolution of 1688 Glorious Revolution of 1688 Made the monarch responsible to the people Made the monarch responsible to the people John Locke's theory of contractual government John Locke's theory of contractual government Authority comes from the consent of the governed Authority comes from the consent of the governed Freedom and equality Freedom and equality Demands for freedom of worship Demands for freedom of worship Freedom of expression, assembly Freedom of expression, assembly Demands for political and legal equality Demands for political and legal equality Condemned legal, social privileges of aristocrats Condemned legal, social privileges of aristocrats Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract Equality not extended to all Equality not extended to all Women, Peasants, laborers, slaves, or people of color Women, Peasants, laborers, slaves, or people of color Originally only extended to tax paying males with education Originally only extended to tax paying males with education Ideals of Enlightenment were significant global influence Ideals of Enlightenment were significant global influence

3 TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS Aristocratic Revolution Aristocratic Revolution Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges Often against royal absolutism Often against royal absolutism Rarely for other classes rights Rarely for other classes rights Usually ends with constitution, limits on monarchy Usually ends with constitution, limits on monarchy English Glorious Revolution (1688) is an example English Glorious Revolution (1688) is an example Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility Extension of franchise, ability to hold office Extension of franchise, ability to hold office Issues of taxation often involved Issues of taxation often involved Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise limited Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise limited American (1776), French (1789), Meiji Restoration (1867) American (1776), French (1789), Meiji Restoration (1867) Latin American Revolutions (1820s) Latin American Revolutions (1820s) Mass revolutions Mass revolutions Most of society effected and involved Most of society effected and involved Often goals are quite radical Often goals are quite radical Methods to achieve are often quite violent Methods to achieve are often quite violent Nationalist Revolutions Nationalist Revolutions China (1911) China (1911) Haitian Revolution (1793) Haitian Revolution (1793) Socialist Revolutions Socialist Revolutions Worker-Oriented or Peasant-Oriented Worker-Oriented or Peasant-Oriented Russian Revolution (1905), Mexican Revolution (1910) Russian Revolution (1905), Mexican Revolution (1910)

4 REFORM Often system allowed change without radical means, violence Often system allowed change without radical means, violence Reform was a theme of 1750 – 1914 Reform was a theme of 1750 – 1914 Reform movements Reform movements Increased, responsive democratic representation, institutions Increased, responsive democratic representation, institutions Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue One of the hallmarks of a democratic society One of the hallmarks of a democratic society Very successful in US, Western Europe, British settler colonies, Japan Very successful in US, Western Europe, British settler colonies, Japan Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia Less so in Latin America, Russia, Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia Abolition of slavery, serfdom Abolition of slavery, serfdom Abolition movement was very successful Abolition movement was very successful Other forms of coercive labor replaced them Other forms of coercive labor replaced them Racial, social equality did not follow Racial, social equality did not follow Women Rights Women Rights One goal was full female franchise One goal was full female franchise Not achieved until after 1914 but progress Not achieved until after 1914 but progress Foreign Reform Movements Foreign Reform Movements India Civil Service Act India Civil Service Act China Self-Strengthening China Self-Strengthening Tanzimat (Turkey) Tanzimat (Turkey) Meiji Reforms (Japan) Meiji Reforms (Japan)

5 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Tension between Britain, American colonies Tension between Britain, American colonies Legacy of Seven Years' War Legacy of Seven Years' War British debt, North American tax burden British debt, North American tax burden Colonists increasingly independent minded Colonists increasingly independent minded Colonial protest Colonial protest Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule Colonial boycott of British goods Colonial boycott of British goods Attacks on British officials; Boston Tea Party, 1773 Attacks on British officials; Boston Tea Party, 1773 Political protest over representation in Parliament Political protest over representation in Parliament Continental Congress, 1774 Continental Congress, 1774 British troops, colonial militia skirmished at the village of Lexington, 1775 British troops, colonial militia skirmished at the village of Lexington, 1775 The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776 The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776 Thirteen united States of America severed ties with Britain Thirteen united States of America severed ties with Britain Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's theory of government Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's theory of government The American Revolution, 1775-1781 The American Revolution, 1775-1781 British advantages: strong government, navy, army, loyalists in colonies British advantages: strong government, navy, army, loyalists in colonies American advantages: European allies, George Washington's leadership American advantages: European allies, George Washington's leadership Weary of a costly conflict, British forces surrendered in 1781 Weary of a costly conflict, British forces surrendered in 1781 Building an independent state: Constitutional Convention, 1787 Building an independent state: Constitutional Convention, 1787 Constitution guaranteed freedom of press, of speech, and of religion Constitution guaranteed freedom of press, of speech, and of religion Republic based on principles of freedom, equality, popular sovereignty Republic based on principles of freedom, equality, popular sovereignty Full legal and political rights were granted only to men of property Full legal and political rights were granted only to men of property

6 FRENCH REVOLUTION & NAPOLEON Summoning the Estates General Summoning the Estates General Financial crisis: half of government revenue went to national debt Financial crisis: half of government revenue went to national debt King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General to raise new taxes King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General to raise new taxes Many representatives wanted sweeping political and social reform Many representatives wanted sweeping political and social reform First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried to limit Third Estate (commoners) First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried to limit Third Estate (commoners) National Assembly National Assembly Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17 June 1789 Formed by representatives of Third Estate, 17 June 1789 Demanded a written constitution and popular sovereignty Demanded a written constitution and popular sovereignty Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked insurrections in many cities Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked insurrections in many cities National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" "Liberty, equality, and fraternity“: slogan and values of the National Assembly "Liberty, equality, and fraternity“: slogan and values of the National Assembly The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered the role of church The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered the role of church France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791 France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791 The Convention and the Reign of Terror The Convention and the Reign of Terror Replaced National Assembly under new constitution, 1791 Replaced National Assembly under new constitution, 1791 Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to restore ancien régime Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to restore ancien régime Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette executed, 1793 King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette executed, 1793 Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94 in "reign of terror" Radical Jacobins dominated Convention in 1793-94 in "reign of terror" Revolutionary changes: in religion, dress, calendar, women's rights Revolutionary changes: in religion, dress, calendar, women's rights The Directory, 1795-1799 The Directory, 1795-1799 A conservative reaction against the excesses of the Convention A conservative reaction against the excesses of the Convention Executed the Jacobin leader Robespierre, July 1794 Executed the Jacobin leader Robespierre, July 1794 Napoleonic France was Enlightened Despotism Napoleonic France was Enlightened Despotism Brought stability: blended monarchy, autocracy, democracy Brought stability: blended monarchy, autocracy, democracy Made peace with the Roman Catholic church and pope Made peace with the Roman Catholic church and pope Reformed French economic, banking system: mercantilism Reformed French economic, banking system: mercantilism Extended freedom of religion to Protestants and Jews Extended freedom of religion to Protestants and Jews Civil Code of 1804: political and legal equality for all adult men Civil Code of 1804: political and legal equality for all adult men Code Napoleon: becomes one of the world’s great legal traditions Code Napoleon: becomes one of the world’s great legal traditions Restricted individual freedom, especially speech and press Restricted individual freedom, especially speech and press

7 THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM

8 HAITIAN REVOLUTION Saint-Domingue Saint-Domingue Rich French colony on western Hispaniola Rich French colony on western Hispaniola Society dominated by small white planter class Society dominated by small white planter class 90 percent of population were slaves 90 percent of population were slaves Horrendous working conditions Horrendous working conditions Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons) Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons) Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks Free blacks fought in American war Free blacks fought in American war Widespread discontent Widespread discontent White settlers sought self-governance White settlers sought self-governance Gens de couleur sought political rights Gens de couleur sought political rights Slaves wanted freedom Slaves wanted freedom Slave revolt began in 1791 Slave revolt began in 1791 Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur, slaves battled each other Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur, slaves battled each other French troops arrived in 1792; British, Spanish intervened in 1793 French troops arrived in 1792; British, Spanish intervened in 1793 Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish part Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish part Whites driven into exile, executed Whites driven into exile, executed Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803) Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803) Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment Skilled organizer, built strong, disciplined army Skilled organizer, built strong, disciplined army Controlled most of Saint-Domingue by 1797 Controlled most of Saint-Domingue by 1797 Created a constitution in 1801 Created a constitution in 1801 Arrested by French troops; died in jail, 1803 Arrested by French troops; died in jail, 1803 Haiti Haiti Yellow fever ravaged French troops; defeated, driven out by slave armies Yellow fever ravaged French troops; defeated, driven out by slave armies Declared independence in 1803; republic established in 1804 Declared independence in 1803; republic established in 1804 Civil War followed until 1810; kingdom to 1820 Civil War followed until 1810; kingdom to 1820 Dominican Republic independent in 1844 Dominican Republic independent in 1844

9 INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA Latin American society rigidly hierarchical Latin American society rigidly hierarchical Social classes: peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, slaves, indigenous peoples Social classes: peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, slaves, indigenous peoples Creoles sought to displace the peninsulares but retain their privileged position Creoles sought to displace the peninsulares but retain their privileged position Mestizos form the largest part of population, wanted rights Mestizos form the largest part of population, wanted rights Mexican independence Mexican independence Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened royal control of colonies Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened royal control of colonies 1810: peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo, defeated by conservative creoles 1810: peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo, defeated by conservative creoles 1821: Mexico briefly a military dictatorship, then in 1822 a republic 1821: Mexico briefly a military dictatorship, then in 1822 a republic Southern Viceroyalty of New Spain split into several independent states in 1830s Southern Viceroyalty of New Spain split into several independent states in 1830s Simon Bolivar to 1822 Simon Bolivar to 1822 Led independence movement in South America Led independence movement in South America Inspired by George Washington, took arms against Spanish rule in 1811 Inspired by George Washington, took arms against Spanish rule in 1811 Creole forces overcame Spanish armies throughout South America, 1824 Creole forces overcame Spanish armies throughout South America, 1824 Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia failed in 1830s Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia failed in 1830s Jose de San Martin to 1825 Jose de San Martin to 1825 Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina, Chile Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina, Chile United efforts with Bolivar United efforts with Bolivar Brazilian independence Brazilian independence Portuguese royal court fled to Rio de Janeiro, 1807 Portuguese royal court fled to Rio de Janeiro, 1807 Brazil declared a separate kingdom during exilel Brazil declared a separate kingdom during exilel The king's son, Pedro, agreed to Brazilian independence, 1821 The king's son, Pedro, agreed to Brazilian independence, 1821 Became Emperor Pedro I in the independent Brazil (reigned 1822-1834) Became Emperor Pedro I in the independent Brazil (reigned 1822-1834) Creole dominance in Latin America Creole dominance in Latin America Independence brought little social change in Latin America Independence brought little social change in Latin America Principal beneficiaries were creole elites Principal beneficiaries were creole elites Creole elite merged with peninsulares to rule Latin America Creole elite merged with peninsulares to rule Latin America Mestizos acquired some benefits, Indians/blacks marginalized Mestizos acquired some benefits, Indians/blacks marginalized Caribbean remained largely under European control Caribbean remained largely under European control

10 THE NEW AMERICAN MAP

11 LATIN AMERICA Old Problems confront new realities Old Problems confront new realities Leaders came from Enlightenment: spoke of equality, freedom Leaders came from Enlightenment: spoke of equality, freedom No allowance freedom of religion No allowance freedom of religion Slavery ended but not exploitation of poor, Indians Slavery ended but not exploitation of poor, Indians Equality was too threatening to elite Equality was too threatening to elite Democracy uncommon, rich men voted Democracy uncommon, rich men voted Old color distinctions did not disappear rapidly, easily, or at all Old color distinctions did not disappear rapidly, easily, or at all Political fragmentation Political fragmentation Political instability after independence Political instability after independence Creole leaders ruled but had little experience with self-government Creole leaders ruled but had little experience with self-government White minority dominated politics White minority dominated politics Peasant majority was without power Peasant majority was without power Political instability aggravated by division among elites Political instability aggravated by division among elites Constant argument between centralizing and federalizing pressures Constant argument between centralizing and federalizing pressures Conflicts between farmers, ranchers, indigenous peoples common Conflicts between farmers, ranchers, indigenous peoples common Intense fighting in Argentina, Chile; modern weapons against native peoples Intense fighting in Argentina, Chile; modern weapons against native peoples Colonists had pacified most productive land by 1870s Colonists had pacified most productive land by 1870s Caudillos, Caudillism, Politics and the Church Caudillos, Caudillism, Politics and the Church Military leaders who held power after revolutionary era Military leaders who held power after revolutionary era Used military to seize power, stay in control; interested only in power for own sake Used military to seize power, stay in control; interested only in power for own sake Opposed liberalizing effects; often made alliances with aristocratic elites, land owners Opposed liberalizing effects; often made alliances with aristocratic elites, land owners Ruled through the church and opposed an secularization, reform of society Ruled through the church and opposed an secularization, reform of society Mexico: war and reform from 1821-1911 Mexico: war and reform from 1821-1911 Shifted from monarchy to republic to caudillo rule Shifted from monarchy to republic to caudillo rule La Reforma: liberal movement in 1850s led by President Benito Juarez La Reforma: liberal movement in 1850s led by President Benito Juarez Granted universal male suffrage; limited power of priests and military Granted universal male suffrage; limited power of priests and military Reforms strongly opposed by landowning elites Reforms strongly opposed by landowning elites

12 NATIONALISM Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad during French Revolution Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad during French Revolution Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used by conservatives Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used by conservatives An idea which could unify society across social classes An idea which could unify society across social classes Many aspects similar to religion, faith Many aspects similar to religion, faith Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to church, monarch Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to church, monarch Dominated 19 th century Dominated 19 th century Cultural nationalism Cultural nationalism An expression of national identity An expression of national identity Emphasized common historical experience Emphasized common historical experience Used folk culture, literature, music Used folk culture, literature, music Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness Political nationalism more intense in the nineteenth century Political nationalism more intense in the nineteenth century Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group Minorities sought independence as national community Minorities sought independence as national community Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini World-wide spread World-wide spread Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea of nationalism Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea of nationalism Nationalism often brought with it western ideas, structures Nationalism often brought with it western ideas, structures Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan Zionism Zionism Jewish nationalism as a response to European anti-Semitism Jewish nationalism as a response to European anti-Semitism Movement founded by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in Palestine Movement founded by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in Palestine Jewish state of Israel finally created in 1948 Jewish state of Israel finally created in 1948

13 EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES Conservatism Conservatism Called the Ancien Regime Called the Ancien Regime Resisted change, opposed revolutions Resisted change, opposed revolutions Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy Edmund Burke Edmund Burke Viewed society as organism that changed slowly over time Viewed society as organism that changed slowly over time American Revolution: natural, logical outcome of history American Revolution: natural, logical outcome of history French Revolution: violent and irresponsible French Revolution: violent and irresponsible Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration Restored Balance of Power; ruled through great powers Restored Balance of Power; ruled through great powers Monarchy was at heart of conservatism Monarchy was at heart of conservatism Liberalism Liberalism Welcomed controlled change as an agent of progress Welcomed controlled change as an agent of progress Strongly middle class, support economic reform, education to help industrialization Strongly middle class, support economic reform, education to help industrialization Wanted to reform political structure, increase electorate slightly Wanted to reform political structure, increase electorate slightly Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written constitutions Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written constitutions Limits on state power, interference in individual freedoms Limits on state power, interference in individual freedoms John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom and minority rights John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom and minority rights Radicalism Radicalism Accepted liberal ideas but wanted universal voting rights Accepted liberal ideas but wanted universal voting rights Many wanted outright democracy, social reforms in interests of lower classes Many wanted outright democracy, social reforms in interests of lower classes A few were socialists, attacked all private property, class status A few were socialists, attacked all private property, class status Saw radical solutions (revolution) as only way to status quo Saw radical solutions (revolution) as only way to status quo Represented by French Revolution, democracy, early nationalism Represented by French Revolution, democracy, early nationalism Nationalism often both radical and liberal but largely anti-conservative Nationalism often both radical and liberal but largely anti-conservative

14 IMAGINED COMMUNITIES Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860 Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860 Congress of Vienna, 1814-15 Congress of Vienna, 1814-15 Conservative victory: restore old order after defeat of Napoleon Conservative victory: restore old order after defeat of Napoleon Maintained balance of power in Europe for a century Maintained balance of power in Europe for a century Failed in repressing nationalist and revolutionary ideas Failed in repressing nationalist and revolutionary ideas Concert of European great powers called Holy Alliance Concert of European great powers called Holy Alliance UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in “concert” UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in “concert” Attempted to prevent revolutions, change Attempted to prevent revolutions, change Intervened militarily to oppose change Intervened militarily to oppose change Often forced to limit, control changes Often forced to limit, control changes Nationalist rebellions Nationalist rebellions Against old order throughout nineteenth century Against old order throughout nineteenth century 1800s: Haiti, Latin America 1800s: Haiti, Latin America 1820s 1820s Greek Revolution: rebels overcame Ottoman rule in 1827 Greek Revolution: rebels overcame Ottoman rule in 1827 Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English, Russians Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English, Russians 1830/1848 1830/1848 Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Austria, Germany Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Austria, Germany Conservatism usually restored but revolutionary ideals persisted Conservatism usually restored but revolutionary ideals persisted Imagined Communities Imagined Communities Groups begin to form based on a perceived sense of community Groups begin to form based on a perceived sense of community Each group defined by agreed upon set of values, goals Each group defined by agreed upon set of values, goals

15 THE SOCIALIST CHALLENGE Socialism Socialism Arose as an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution Arose as an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution Accelerated by the horrible conditions of the workers in the cities Accelerated by the horrible conditions of the workers in the cities Utopian socialists Utopian socialists Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their followers Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their followers Established model communities based on principle of equality Established model communities based on principle of equality Stressed cooperative control of industry, education for all children Stressed cooperative control of industry, education for all children Marxian Socialists (Communists) Marxian Socialists (Communists) Marx (1818-1883), Engels (1820-1895), leading socialists Marx (1818-1883), Engels (1820-1895), leading socialists Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic, unproductive Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic, unproductive Critique of industrial capitalism Critique of industrial capitalism Unrestrained competition led to ruthless exploitation of working class Unrestrained competition led to ruthless exploitation of working class State, courts, police: all tools of the capitalist ruling class State, courts, police: all tools of the capitalist ruling class The Communist Manifesto, 1848 The Communist Manifesto, 1848 Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead to a communist revolution Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead to a communist revolution Revolution would wipe away capitalism and establish a socialist society Revolution would wipe away capitalism and establish a socialist society “Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy capitalism “Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy capitalism Socialism would follow; a fair, just, and egalitarian society Socialism would follow; a fair, just, and egalitarian society Ideas dominated European, international socialism throughout 19 th century Ideas dominated European, international socialism throughout 19 th century Revisionism: Democratic Socialism and Reform Socialism Revisionism: Democratic Socialism and Reform Socialism Combined aspects of socialism with democracy Combined aspects of socialism with democracy Public ownership of means of production, regulation of industries Public ownership of means of production, regulation of industries Limits to private property, accumulation of wealth Limits to private property, accumulation of wealth Power achieved democratically through elections, trade unions Power achieved democratically through elections, trade unions Social reform came gradually, through legislative measures Social reform came gradually, through legislative measures Regulated hours and restricted work for women and children Regulated hours and restricted work for women and children Under Bismarck, Germany provided medical insurance and social security Under Bismarck, Germany provided medical insurance and social security Trade unions formed to represent interests of industrial workers Trade unions formed to represent interests of industrial workers Faced stiff opposition from employers and governments Faced stiff opposition from employers and governments Forced employers to be more responsive to workers' needs; averted violence Forced employers to be more responsive to workers' needs; averted violence Socialist parties began to compete in elections, seek expanded electorate Socialist parties began to compete in elections, seek expanded electorate

16 UNIFICATION OF ITALY, GERMANY Italy Italy After Congress of Vienna After Congress of Vienna Italy divided into small states: all states except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign dynasties Italy divided into small states: all states except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign dynasties Austria was the preeminent power in Italy Austria was the preeminent power in Italy Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired uprisings against foreign rule Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired uprisings against foreign rule 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian troops 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian troops Sardinia and Cavour Sardinia and Cavour Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of nationalists Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of nationalists Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy, 1859 with French aide Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy, 1859 with French aide Garibaldi Garibaldi Revolutionary nationalist, democrat Revolutionary nationalist, democrat Staged revolutions, later seized control of Southern Italy Staged revolutions, later seized control of Southern Italy 1860-1870: Italian states united under Sardinia 1860-1870: Italian states united under Sardinia Germany Germany After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian von Metternich After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian von Metternich German Confederacy a collection of independent states dominated by Austria German Confederacy a collection of independent states dominated by Austria Prussia the largest German state but limited in action by Austria Prussia the largest German state but limited in action by Austria Metternich’s System: preserved conservatism, persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism Metternich’s System: preserved conservatism, persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism 1848 Revolution 1848 Revolution Destroyed by Austria Destroyed by Austria Ended hope of liberalism, constitutionalism, national unification Ended hope of liberalism, constitutionalism, national unification Left Prussia humiliated, looking for revenge Left Prussia humiliated, looking for revenge Prussian and Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Prussian and Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Created a united Germany through blood and iron Created a united Germany through blood and iron Used conservatism, militarism married with nationalism Used conservatism, militarism married with nationalism Bismarck provoked three wars that swelled German pride Bismarck provoked three wars that swelled German pride Defeated Austria, France to unify Germany under Prussia Defeated Austria, France to unify Germany under Prussia 1871, Prussian king proclaimed emperor of the Second Reich 1871, Prussian king proclaimed emperor of the Second Reich

17 MAPS OF UNIFICATION

18 THE UNITED STATES Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian Democracy Expansion of electorate to include poorer, western Americans Expansion of electorate to include poorer, western Americans By 1820s all adult white men could vote and hold office By 1820s all adult white men could vote and hold office Constant tension between states rights, federal powers Constant tension between states rights, federal powers Rapid westward expansion after the revolution Rapid westward expansion after the revolution Britain ceded lands east of Mississippi to US Britain ceded lands east of Mississippi to US 1803, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory 1803, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory By 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion was claimed as “manifest destiny” By 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion was claimed as “manifest destiny” The Mexican-American War, 1845-1848 The Mexican-American War, 1845-1848 Conflict with indigenous peoples followed Conflict with indigenous peoples followed 1830, Indian Removal Act forced eastern Indians to move west of Mississippi 1830, Indian Removal Act forced eastern Indians to move west of Mississippi Thousands died on the "Trail of Tears" to Oklahoma Thousands died on the "Trail of Tears" to Oklahoma Stiff resistance to expansion: Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876, Sioux victory Stiff resistance to expansion: Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876, Sioux victory U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian Wars U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian Wars An Era of Compromise Avoided Conflict 1820-1854 An Era of Compromise Avoided Conflict 1820-1854 North had the population, dominated House of Representatives North had the population, dominated House of Representatives South wanted to preserve slavery but would lose a vote in House South wanted to preserve slavery but would lose a vote in House Missouri Compromise in 1820 admitted one slave, one free state Missouri Compromise in 1820 admitted one slave, one free state South able to block abolition of slavery in Senate South able to block abolition of slavery in Senate Sectional conflict Sectional conflict 19 th century cotton cultivation in south was dependent on slave labor 19 th century cotton cultivation in south was dependent on slave labor Northern states did not want slavery expanded into new territories Northern states did not want slavery expanded into new territories Expansion, new states, fugitive slave law made compromise impossible Expansion, new states, fugitive slave law made compromise impossible Abraham Lincoln elected president, 1860; publicly opposed to slavery Abraham Lincoln elected president, 1860; publicly opposed to slavery The U.S. Civil War, 1861-1865 The U.S. Civil War, 1861-1865 With Lincoln's election, eleven southern states seceded from the Union With Lincoln's election, eleven southern states seceded from the Union Southerners believed their economy of cotton and slaves was self-sufficient Southerners believed their economy of cotton and slaves was self-sufficient Northerners fought to preserve the Union as much as in opposition to slavery Northerners fought to preserve the Union as much as in opposition to slavery In 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made abolition goal of the war In 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made abolition goal of the war By 1865, the industrial north defeated the agricultural south By 1865, the industrial north defeated the agricultural south The war ended slavery, enhanced authority of the federal government The war ended slavery, enhanced authority of the federal government

19 USA IN MAPS

20 CANADIAN DOMINION Independence came without war Independence came without war Autonomy and division characterized Canadian history Autonomy and division characterized Canadian history Distance from England, isolation in north and interior led to self-government, autonomy Distance from England, isolation in north and interior led to self-government, autonomy Always a contest between English speaking, French speaking groups Always a contest between English speaking, French speaking groups Immigrants and Amerindians dominated in the interior Immigrants and Amerindians dominated in the interior Eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Maritime Provinces) dominate Canada Eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Maritime Provinces) dominate Canada French Quebec taken by Britain after the Seven Years' War French Quebec taken by Britain after the Seven Years' War Quebec Act was a large cause of war with American colonies Quebec Act was a large cause of war with American colonies British authorities made large concessions to French Canadians British authorities made large concessions to French Canadians After 1781, many British loyalists fled United States to seek refuge in Canada After 1781, many British loyalists fled United States to seek refuge in Canada The War of 1812 unified Canada against U.S. invaders The War of 1812 unified Canada against U.S. invaders Anti-U.S. sentiments due to US invasions, pillaging Anti-U.S. sentiments due to US invasions, pillaging Created sense of unity among French and British Canadians Created sense of unity among French and British Canadians 1830s 1830s Increased Irish, English, Scottish, German immigration Increased Irish, English, Scottish, German immigration Tensions between French, growing English population Tensions between French, growing English population Metis Rebellion: French Indians rebel in west Metis Rebellion: French Indians rebel in west 1840-1867, British granted home rule to Canadians 1840-1867, British granted home rule to Canadians Dominion of Canada created in 1867 Dominion of Canada created in 1867 Federal constitutional monarchy Federal constitutional monarchy Government with a governor-general acting for British monarch Government with a governor-general acting for British monarch Canadian Parliament and Provincial governments share rule Canadian Parliament and Provincial governments share rule Britain retained jurisdiction over foreign affairs until 1931 Britain retained jurisdiction over foreign affairs until 1931 Prime Minister John Macdonald strengthens Canadian independence Prime Minister John Macdonald strengthens Canadian independence Persuaded western and maritime provinces to join the Dominion, 1860s Persuaded western and maritime provinces to join the Dominion, 1860s Transcontinental railroad completed, 1885 Transcontinental railroad completed, 1885 Settlement of Western plains by Scandinavian, German, Ukrainian immigrants Settlement of Western plains by Scandinavian, German, Ukrainian immigrants Development of Canada as major exporter of grain, dairy products Development of Canada as major exporter of grain, dairy products

21 CANADA IN IMAGES

22 EURASIAN SOCIETIES AT A CROSSROAD Threatened Societies Threatened Societies SW Asia: Ottoman Empire, Persia SW Asia: Ottoman Empire, Persia Eastern Europe: Russia, Austria-Hungary Eastern Europe: Russia, Austria-Hungary East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Thailand Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Thailand Common problems Common problems Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign threats Military weakness, vulnerability to foreign threats Internal weakness especially from disaffected groups Internal weakness especially from disaffected groups Economic problems, financial difficulties Economic problems, financial difficulties Corruption and unresponsive elites Corruption and unresponsive elites Issues of westernization vs. modernization Issues of westernization vs. modernization Western interests often dominate government, economy Western interests often dominate government, economy Reform efforts Reform efforts Attempts at political and educational reform Attempts at political and educational reform Attempts at industrialization Attempts at industrialization Often turned to western models Often turned to western models Different results of reforms Different results of reforms Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Iran, and China Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Iran, and China Reforms unsuccessful Reforms unsuccessful Societies on the verge of collapse Societies on the verge of collapse Japan Japan Reform in Japan was more thorough Reform in Japan was more thorough Japan emerged as an industrial power Japan emerged as an industrial power Korea, Vietnam, Thailand Korea, Vietnam, Thailand Issues complicated by colonialism, imperialism Issues complicated by colonialism, imperialism Korea annexed by Japan; Indochina annexed by France Korea annexed by Japan; Indochina annexed by France Thailand maintains independence as a buffer between France, Great Britain Thailand maintains independence as a buffer between France, Great Britain

23 EURASIA IN 1871

24 OTTOMAN DECLINE Military decline since the late seventeenth century Military decline since the late seventeenth century Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training Janissary corps politically corrupt, undisciplined, unable to fight Janissary corps politically corrupt, undisciplined, unable to fight Provincial governors gained power, private armies Provincial governors gained power, private armies Russia made war on Ottomans to divert domestic problems Russia made war on Ottomans to divert domestic problems Austria, other European powers support local Christians independence Austria, other European powers support local Christians independence Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia Lost Caucasus and central Asia to Russia Western frontiers to Austria Western frontiers to Austria Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia Balkan provinces to Greece and Serbia Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798 Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798 Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province France annexes Muslim Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia in 1882 France annexes Muslim Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia in 1882 The State The State Government was cumbersome, bureaucratized, medieval Government was cumbersome, bureaucratized, medieval State was multinational and not all Muslim State was multinational and not all Muslim Power resided often with the provincial governors, elite Power resided often with the provincial governors, elite Unwilling to adopt modern European methods or reform infrastructure Unwilling to adopt modern European methods or reform infrastructure Dominated by bureaucrats, landed elite unwilling to change Dominated by bureaucrats, landed elite unwilling to change Sultan does not wish to change; Islam unwilling to admit it has fallen Sultan does not wish to change; Islam unwilling to admit it has fallen Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest Corruption, overtaxation of peasants further weakens Ottoman state Corruption, overtaxation of peasants further weakens Ottoman state Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882 Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882 The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports Deprived empire of desperately needed income Deprived empire of desperately needed income Similar problems in most Muslim states including Persia, Morocco Similar problems in most Muslim states including Persia, Morocco

25 OTTOMAN REFORM, REORGANIZATION Attempt to reform military Attempt to reform military Led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808), suppression of Janissaries Led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808), suppression of Janissaries Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; reforms followed Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; reforms followed He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph Legal, educational reforms Legal, educational reforms Called Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876) Called Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876) Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic code Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic code State reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869) State reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869) Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authority Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authority Opposition to Tanzimat reforms Opposition to Tanzimat reforms Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's power High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's power Cycles of reform and repression Cycles of reform and repression 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional government 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional government New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) Proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberals Proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberals Reformed army and administration: became source of the new opposition Reformed army and administration: became source of the new opposition The Young Turks The Young Turks After 1889, an active body of opposition led by army, navy officers After 1889, an active body of opposition led by army, navy officers Called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights Called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights Forced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909) Forced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909) Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistance Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistance The empire survived only because of distrust among European powers The empire survived only because of distrust among European powers

26 MUSLIM RESISTANCE Resistance Resistance Muslim universities Muslim universities Frequently organized education around western model Frequently organized education around western model Educated several generations of students Educated several generations of students Muslim Army Officers in Service of Europeans Muslim Army Officers in Service of Europeans Often educated in western style universities, learned western ideas Often educated in western style universities, learned western ideas Become source of anti-Western activities even while supporting reform Become source of anti-Western activities even while supporting reform Revolt in the Sudan Revolt in the Sudan Egypt nominally ruled Sudan, attempted to enforce control Egypt nominally ruled Sudan, attempted to enforce control Egypt able to control Nile farmers; opposition comes from nomads, herders Egypt able to control Nile farmers; opposition comes from nomads, herders Rule greatly resented as it was corrupt, overtaxed peasants Rule greatly resented as it was corrupt, overtaxed peasants British pressure Egyptians to eradicate slavery, upsetting Muslims (Koran allows) British pressure Egyptians to eradicate slavery, upsetting Muslims (Koran allows) Muhammad Achmad “The Mahdi” (1870s) Muhammad Achmad “The Mahdi” (1870s) Direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad; proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British masters Direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad; proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British masters Wahhabis Reformer: A very puritanical form of Islam, seeks to purify Islam Wahhabis Reformer: A very puritanical form of Islam, seeks to purify Islam Purge Islam of problems; reform, modernize but not at expense to Islam Purge Islam of problems; reform, modernize but not at expense to Islam Overran all of Sudan, threatens Egypt, killed British commander at Khartoum Overran all of Sudan, threatens Egypt, killed British commander at Khartoum Khalifa Abdallahi and the Mahdist state Khalifa Abdallahi and the Mahdist state The Mahdi dies; his successor builds an Islamic state under rule of Koran The Mahdi dies; his successor builds an Islamic state under rule of Koran Threatens to overrun all of Middle East, drive out foreigners, westernizers; British intervene Threatens to overrun all of Middle East, drive out foreigners, westernizers; British intervene Reality: Reformers Discredited Reality: Reformers Discredited Religious revivalists who wanted a return to a pure Islam proved unsuccessful Religious revivalists who wanted a return to a pure Islam proved unsuccessful Reformers willing to borrow some western ideas could not win over people Reformers willing to borrow some western ideas could not win over people British (Europeans) will send in army to crush revolts, threats to Europeans British (Europeans) will send in army to crush revolts, threats to Europeans

27 QING (MANCHU) CHINA Qing China (1622 – 1911) Qing China (1622 – 1911) Nomadic dynasty from Manchuria Nomadic dynasty from Manchuria To rule, maintained strict separation of Chinese, Manchu To rule, maintained strict separation of Chinese, Manchu Chinese not allowed to settle in Manchuria Chinese not allowed to settle in Manchuria Manchurians not allowed to marry Chinese Manchurians not allowed to marry Chinese Retained much of Chinese political traditions, institutions Retained much of Chinese political traditions, institutions Retained examination system Retained examination system Ruled through Confucian scholars Ruled through Confucian scholars Qing Army Qing Army Manchurian nomadic army based on cavalry Manchurian nomadic army based on cavalry Unwilling to use modern weapons Unwilling to use modern weapons Rot from Within begins in 18 th century Rot from Within begins in 18 th century Emperor isolated, ineffective Emperor isolated, ineffective Surrounded by eunuchs, advisors who kept him isolated Surrounded by eunuchs, advisors who kept him isolated Lived in Forbidden City at center of Beijing Lived in Forbidden City at center of Beijing Extreme politics amongst bureaucrats, eunuchs, harem Extreme politics amongst bureaucrats, eunuchs, harem Bureaucracy Bureaucracy Too large and cumbersome, corrupt and conservative Too large and cumbersome, corrupt and conservative Examination system riddled with favoritism, elitism, cheating Examination system riddled with favoritism, elitism, cheating Wealthy buy positions in bureaucracy Wealthy buy positions in bureaucracy Bureaucrats had no qualifications, training Bureaucrats had no qualifications, training Diversion of state funds to private families Diversion of state funds to private families Public works (dikes, water management) reduced, river silted Public works (dikes, water management) reduced, river silted Military in decline, fleet in trouble, armies unreliable Military in decline, fleet in trouble, armies unreliable Peasants lot deteriorated Peasants lot deteriorated Food shortages, landlord demands Food shortages, landlord demands Bandits on roads, beggars everywhere Bandits on roads, beggars everywhere Lack of innovation, reform or insight Lack of innovation, reform or insight

28 CHINA UNDER PRESSURE The Taiping rebellion The Taiping rebellion Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth century Internal turmoil in China in the later nineteenth century Population grew by 50 percent; land and food more slowly; poverty strained resources Population grew by 50 percent; land and food more slowly; poverty strained resources Other problems: official corruption, drug addiction Other problems: official corruption, drug addiction Four major rebellions in 1850s and 1860s; the most dangerous was the Taiping Four major rebellions in 1850s and 1860s; the most dangerous was the Taiping The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by Hong Xiuquan The Taiping ("Great Peace") program proposed by Hong Xiuquan Called for end of Qing dynasty; resented Manchu rule Called for end of Qing dynasty; resented Manchu rule Radical social change: no private property, footbinding, concubinage Radical social change: no private property, footbinding, concubinage Popular in southeast China; seized Nanjing (1853), moved on Beijing Popular in southeast China; seized Nanjing (1853), moved on Beijing Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign troops Taiping defeat by combined Qing and foreign troops Gentry sided with government; regional armies had European weapons Gentry sided with government; regional armies had European weapons Taipings defeated in 1864; the war claimed twenty to thirty million lives Taipings defeated in 1864; the war claimed twenty to thirty million lives Reform frustrated Reform frustrated The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895) The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-1895) Blended Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology Blended Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology Built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries, steel foundries, academies Built shipyards, railroads, weapon industries, steel foundries, academies Not enough industry to make a significant change Not enough industry to make a significant change Powerful empress dowager Cixi opposed changes Powerful empress dowager Cixi opposed changes The hundred-days reforms (1898) The hundred-days reforms (1898) Two Confucian scholars advised radical changes in imperial system Two Confucian scholars advised radical changes in imperial system Young emperor Guangxu inspired to launch wide-range reforms Young emperor Guangxu inspired to launch wide-range reforms Movement crushed by Cixi; emperor imprisoned; reformers killed Movement crushed by Cixi; emperor imprisoned; reformers killed The Boxer rebellion The Boxer rebellion Real name: the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, 1899-1900 Real name: the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, 1899-1900 Local militia attacked foreigners, foreign legations, Chinese Christians Local militia attacked foreigners, foreign legations, Chinese Christians Crushed by European and Japanese troops Crushed by European and Japanese troops Chinese forced to sign humiliating treaties Chinese forced to sign humiliating treaties Collapse of Qing dynasty in 1912 Collapse of Qing dynasty in 1912

29 JAPAN: SHOGUN TO EMPEROR Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century Crisis and reform in early nineteenth century Emperor isolated, secluded; shogun = military dictator Emperor isolated, secluded; shogun = military dictator Centralized bureaucracy; alliances with feudal lords Centralized bureaucracy; alliances with feudal lords Japan not unaware of what was going on in wider world Japan not unaware of what was going on in wider world Dutch allowed to visit Japan at Nagasaki once a year Dutch allowed to visit Japan at Nagasaki once a year Crisis Crisis Crop failure, high taxes on agriculture, rising rice prices Crop failure, high taxes on agriculture, rising rice prices All led to protests and rebellions All led to protests and rebellions Reforms and ideas conflict Reforms and ideas conflict Government: Neo-Confucian conservative reforms Government: Neo-Confucian conservative reforms Dutch Learning: Support western studies, reforms, working with west; anti-Chinese Dutch Learning: Support western studies, reforms, working with west; anti-Chinese National Studies: praised Japanese traditions, emperor, Shinto led to ultranationalism National Studies: praised Japanese traditions, emperor, Shinto led to ultranationalism Foreign pressure on Japan Foreign pressure on Japan European wanted her to reverse long-standing closed door policy European wanted her to reverse long-standing closed door policy Europeans wanted to trade, wanted safe ports for whaling fleets Europeans wanted to trade, wanted safe ports for whaling fleets 1844 requests by British, French, U.S. for the right of entry rebuffed 1844 requests by British, French, U.S. for the right of entry rebuffed 1853 1853 U.S. Commodore Perry sailed U.S. fleet to Tokyo Bay, demanded entry U.S. Commodore Perry sailed U.S. fleet to Tokyo Bay, demanded entry Japan forced to accept unequal treaties with U.S., other western countries Japan forced to accept unequal treaties with U.S., other western countries The end of Tokugawa rule The end of Tokugawa rule British, French, Russians demand, receive similar treaties to US British, French, Russians demand, receive similar treaties to US Widespread opposition to shogun rule, especially in provinces Widespread opposition to shogun rule, especially in provinces Dissidents rallied around emperor in Kyoto, attack foreigners Dissidents rallied around emperor in Kyoto, attack foreigners Tosa-Satsuma Samurai Rebellion/Civil War breaks out in 1866 Tosa-Satsuma Samurai Rebellion/Civil War breaks out in 1866 The Meiji restoration, 1868 The Meiji restoration, 1868 Dissident Samurai militia loyal to emperor defeats Shogun’s troops Dissident Samurai militia loyal to emperor defeats Shogun’s troops The boy emperor Mutsuhito, or Meiji, regained authority; Shogunate abolished The boy emperor Mutsuhito, or Meiji, regained authority; Shogunate abolished End of almost seven centuries of military rule in Japan End of almost seven centuries of military rule in Japan

30 JAPAN: MEIJI ERA Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise Meiji government welcomed foreign expertise Fukuzawa Yukichi studied western constitutions and education Fukuzawa Yukichi studied western constitutions and education Ito Hirobumi helped build Japanese constitutional government Ito Hirobumi helped build Japanese constitutional government Social Revolution: 1873 - 1876 Social Revolution: 1873 - 1876 Abolition of the feudal order essential to new government Abolition of the feudal order essential to new government Daimyo and samurai lost status, privileges; class abolished Daimyo and samurai lost status, privileges; class abolished Samurai issued bonds to pay for loss, but inflation led to impoverishment Samurai issued bonds to pay for loss, but inflation led to impoverishment Samurai rebelled but the new national conscript army put rebellion down Samurai rebelled but the new national conscript army put rebellion down Some went into business, created western-style companies (Mitsubishi) Some went into business, created western-style companies (Mitsubishi) Districts reorganized to break up old feudal domains Districts reorganized to break up old feudal domains Emperor created new nobility based on English style House of Peers Emperor created new nobility based on English style House of Peers Revamping tax system Revamping tax system Converted grain taxes to a fixed money tax: more reliable income for state Converted grain taxes to a fixed money tax: more reliable income for state Assessed taxes on potential productivity of arable land Assessed taxes on potential productivity of arable land Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift" to the people in 1889 Constitutional government, the emperor's "gift" to the people in 1889 Emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of the people Emperor remained supreme, limited the rights of the people Less than 5 percent of adult males could vote Less than 5 percent of adult males could vote Legislature, the Diet, was an opportunity for debate and dissent but limited powers Legislature, the Diet, was an opportunity for debate and dissent but limited powers Remodeling the economy and infrastructure Remodeling the economy and infrastructure Transportation: railroads, telegraph, steamships Transportation: railroads, telegraph, steamships Education: universal primary and secondary; competitive universities Education: universal primary and secondary; competitive universities Industry: privately owned, government controlled arms industry Industry: privately owned, government controlled arms industry Zaibatsu: powerful financial combines merged banking, manufacturing, merchants Zaibatsu: powerful financial combines merged banking, manufacturing, merchants Costs of economic development borne by Japanese people Costs of economic development borne by Japanese people Land tax Land tax Cost peasants 40 percent to 50 percent of crop yield Cost peasants 40 percent to 50 percent of crop yield Provided 90 percent of state revenue Provided 90 percent of state revenue Peasant uprisings crushed; little done to alleviate suffering Peasant uprisings crushed; little done to alleviate suffering Labor movement also crushed; Meiji law treated unions and strikes as criminal Labor movement also crushed; Meiji law treated unions and strikes as criminal Japan became an industrial power in a single generation Japan became an industrial power in a single generation Ended unequal treaties in 1899 Ended unequal treaties in 1899 Defeated China in 1895 and Russia in 1904 Defeated China in 1895 and Russia in 1904

31 AFRICA Africa 1750 – 1850 Africa 1750 – 1850 North Africa nominally part of the Ottoman Empire North Africa nominally part of the Ottoman Empire Sudan, Sahel Africa had most powerful, developed states Sudan, Sahel Africa had most powerful, developed states West Africa forest kingdoms part of the Atlantic slave trade West Africa forest kingdoms part of the Atlantic slave trade East Africa dominated by native kingdoms, Swahili trading states East Africa dominated by native kingdoms, Swahili trading states South Africa: population dispersal, state building of the Ngoni South Africa: population dispersal, state building of the Ngoni Few European possessions in Africa Few European possessions in Africa Atlantic (not Islamic) slave trade ended in early 19 th century Atlantic (not Islamic) slave trade ended in early 19 th century Age of Exploration leads to Imperialism Age of Exploration leads to Imperialism Europeans explore Africa, developed interest in Africa Europeans explore Africa, developed interest in Africa Permitted by technology Permitted by technology Transportation, weaponry made it easy Transportation, weaponry made it easy Medicines made it possible Medicines made it possible Africa was the center, objective of imperialism Africa was the center, objective of imperialism Africa was partitioned between Europeans Africa was partitioned between Europeans Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent Infrastructures and Changes Infrastructures and Changes Political Political Colonial powers ignored indigenous peoples almost totally Colonial powers ignored indigenous peoples almost totally Set boundaries to states, destroying tribes, unity Set boundaries to states, destroying tribes, unity Ruled indirectly through local elites, who they could remove at will Ruled indirectly through local elites, who they could remove at will Undermined traditional systems of rule Undermined traditional systems of rule Chiefs derived authority from gods Chiefs derived authority from gods Missionaries challenge traditional religion Missionaries challenge traditional religion Chiefs lost prestige associated with land as people earned money Chiefs lost prestige associated with land as people earned money Western educated locals challenge traditional ways Western educated locals challenge traditional ways Economic Economic Exploitation is the key word Exploitation is the key word Minerals solely for benefit of mother country Minerals solely for benefit of mother country Cash crops and agriculture dominated by European crops, interests Cash crops and agriculture dominated by European crops, interests Europeans take best, richest lands for cattle, farming Europeans take best, richest lands for cattle, farming Building of railroads, infrastructure especially ports Building of railroads, infrastructure especially ports Breakdown of African barter system; replaced by monetary system Breakdown of African barter system; replaced by monetary system Africans forced to work on European farms, in European factories by tax, levies, force Africans forced to work on European farms, in European factories by tax, levies, force Loss of African self-sufficiency Loss of African self-sufficiency

32 MAPPING AFRICA, 1830

33 AFRICA 1914

34 RUSSIA: EMPIRE UNDER PRESSURE Post-1812 Post-1812 Great concern with defense, liberal ideas as threat to old order Great concern with defense, liberal ideas as threat to old order Government introduced reforms to improve bureaucracy Government introduced reforms to improve bureaucracy Made an alliance with the conservative powers of Europe to maintain order Made an alliance with the conservative powers of Europe to maintain order December Uprising 1825 December Uprising 1825 Death of Alexander I prompted some western-oriented officers to rebel Death of Alexander I prompted some western-oriented officers to rebel Suppressed mercilessly by new tsar Suppressed mercilessly by new tsar Nicholas I Nicholas I Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality State became very repressive, secret police State became very repressive, secret police Policeman of Europe: used army to suppress revolutions Policeman of Europe: used army to suppress revolutions Suppressed rebellion in Poland Suppressed rebellion in Poland Policy of foreign wars to divert domestic problems Policy of foreign wars to divert domestic problems Serfdom Issue Serfdom Issue Russia needed work force in order to industrial Russia needed work force in order to industrial Serfdom not efficient Serfdom not efficient Lack of workers in cities an obstacle to economic development Lack of workers in cities an obstacle to economic development Gap between western, eastern Europe economic systems Gap between western, eastern Europe economic systems Emancipation of serfs by Alexander II begun in 1863 Emancipation of serfs by Alexander II begun in 1863 Due to loss in Crimean War Due to loss in Crimean War Serfs gained right to own land, got most of the land from nobles Serfs gained right to own land, got most of the land from nobles Nobles kept best and gave worst to serfs Nobles kept best and gave worst to serfs Serfs had no political rights; had to pay a redemption tax on land: kept them in permanent debt Serfs had no political rights; had to pay a redemption tax on land: kept them in permanent debt Emancipation did not increase agricultural production Emancipation did not increase agricultural production Tsar was careful to preserve aristocratic order; serfs received no political rights Tsar was careful to preserve aristocratic order; serfs received no political rights Political and legal reforms followed Political and legal reforms followed 1864: creation of zemstvos 1864: creation of zemstvos Local assemblies with representatives from all classes Local assemblies with representatives from all classes Tended to only see local interests and not national concerns; legal reform more successful Tended to only see local interests and not national concerns; legal reform more successful A weak system: nobles dominated, tsar held veto power A weak system: nobles dominated, tsar held veto power Small middle class grew; improved corps of army officers; middle class politicians, bureaucrats Small middle class grew; improved corps of army officers; middle class politicians, bureaucrats Literacy increased; readership spread; some women enter intellectual community Literacy increased; readership spread; some women enter intellectual community

35 RUSSIAN REPRESSION & MARXISM Cycles of protest and repression Cycles of protest and repression Peasants Peasants Often landless, no political power Often landless, no political power Frustrated by lack of meaningful reform Frustrated by lack of meaningful reform Peasant uprisings become more common than serf as frustration heightened Peasant uprisings become more common than serf as frustration heightened Population increased as potato introduced, increasing pressures on society Population increased as potato introduced, increasing pressures on society Social Protest Social Protest Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity increased in 1870s Antigovernment protest and revolutionary activity increased in 1870s Middle Class, some aristocrats advocated rights, political representation Middle Class, some aristocrats advocated rights, political representation Radical Intelligentsia advocated socialism and anarchism, recruited in countryside Radical Intelligentsia advocated socialism and anarchism, recruited in countryside Repression by tsarist authorities: secret police, censorship Repression by tsarist authorities: secret police, censorship Russification: sparked ethnic nationalism, attacks on Jews tolerated Russification: sparked ethnic nationalism, attacks on Jews tolerated Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition Terrorism emerges as a tool of opposition Radicals wanted solution to social issue from a Russian perspective Radicals wanted solution to social issue from a Russian perspective Young intellectuals went directly to the peasants Young intellectuals went directly to the peasants Most opposed westernization, autocracy, capitalism Most opposed westernization, autocracy, capitalism Many became peasant anarchists Many became peasant anarchists Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by a bomb in 1881 Alexander II, the reforming tsar, assassinated by a bomb in 1881 Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive, conservative ruler Nicholas II (1894-1917), more oppressive, conservative ruler Marxism and the Reality of Russia Marxism and the Reality of Russia Marx foresaw a revolution by workers Marx foresaw a revolution by workers Russia lacked lack worker base; society was largely peasant Russia lacked lack worker base; society was largely peasant Workers tended to be radical but misdirected Workers tended to be radical but misdirected Russia lacked a middle class running society prior to revolution Russia lacked a middle class running society prior to revolution The Bolsheviks (Russian Marxists) & Vladimir Ilyich Lenin The Bolsheviks (Russian Marxists) & Vladimir Ilyich Lenin From middle class bureaucratic family, was an intellectual From middle class bureaucratic family, was an intellectual Argued that proletariat was developing in advance of revolution Argued that proletariat was developing in advance of revolution Felt Russia could have a revolution without a middle class phase Felt Russia could have a revolution without a middle class phase Organized an elite revolutionary party to lead workers, peasants Organized an elite revolutionary party to lead workers, peasants Organized the Bolsheviks Organized the Bolsheviks Party was secretive as Russian secret police everywhere Party was secretive as Russian secret police everywhere Infiltrated unions, workers organizations, peasant groups Infiltrated unions, workers organizations, peasant groups Agitated against government, organized secret cells to lead revolution Agitated against government, organized secret cells to lead revolution

36 MARXISM: Workers will stage a revolution and overthrow capitalism, state LENINISM: Will o nly succeed with the leadership of an elite group of revolutionaries

37 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905 Russian Revolution of 1905 Russian Revolution of 1905 Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese War was cause Military defeat, humiliation in Russo-Japanese War was cause Russia always diverted domestic tension by short, successful wars Russia always diverted domestic tension by short, successful wars In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman Empire In 1870s, 1880s had expanded against Ottoman Empire Massive protests followed news of defeat Massive protests followed news of defeat Workers mounted general strikes in St. Petersburg, Moscow Workers mounted general strikes in St. Petersburg, Moscow Peasant insurrections in countryside against landlords Peasant insurrections in countryside against landlords Police repressions ineffective, just upset people Police repressions ineffective, just upset people Bloody Sunday massacre Bloody Sunday massacre Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to ask tsar for help Poor workers of St. Petersburg march to palace to ask tsar for help Unarmed workers shot down by government troops Unarmed workers shot down by government troops Peasants seized landlords' property, killed landlords Peasants seized landlords' property, killed landlords Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in cities, factories Workers formed soviets (worker councils) in cities, factories Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists; Marxists marginalized Workers tended towards non-Marxist socialists; Marxists marginalized Sought to achieve ends without full scale revolution Sought to achieve ends without full scale revolution A Fizzled Revolution A Fizzled Revolution Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the Duma Tsar forced to accept elected legislature, the Duma Many parties elected with conflicting interests Many parties elected with conflicting interests Unable, unwilling to cooperate Unable, unwilling to cooperate Rendered ineffective by tsar, bureaucracy Rendered ineffective by tsar, bureaucracy Stolypin Reforms Stolypin Reforms Reforms allowed peasants to buy land; end redemptive payments Reforms allowed peasants to buy land; end redemptive payments Small group of very successful peasant landowners began to arise Small group of very successful peasant landowners began to arise Rights for workers gradually ignored, cancelled Rights for workers gradually ignored, cancelled Army failed to support revolution Army failed to support revolution For the Future For the Future Nicholas II was weak, ill-advised, unwilling to end autocracy Nicholas II was weak, ill-advised, unwilling to end autocracy Russian Marxists emboldened, reorganized, radicalized Russian Marxists emboldened, reorganized, radicalized Peasants, workers radicalized, unlikely to cooperate in future Peasants, workers radicalized, unlikely to cooperate in future

38 A MULTINATIONAL EMPIRE Austria 1750 – 1814 Austria 1750 – 1814 A collection of states ruled by the Hapsburg family who were also the Holy Roman Emperors A collection of states ruled by the Hapsburg family who were also the Holy Roman Emperors The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman nor an empire The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman nor an empire No common government, few common institutions (save Catholicism) No common government, few common institutions (save Catholicism) Austria in 1815 – 1860 Austria in 1815 – 1860 One of the victors against Napoleon: extremely conservative and reactionary One of the victors against Napoleon: extremely conservative and reactionary The weakest, most threatened of Europe’s great powers The weakest, most threatened of Europe’s great powers Prime Minister Metternich dominated German Confederation, Italy Prime Minister Metternich dominated German Confederation, Italy Used force, coercion to prevent German, Italian nationalism Used force, coercion to prevent German, Italian nationalism Opposed nationalism, liberalism, democracy Opposed nationalism, liberalism, democracy 1848 Revolution nearly destroyed state 1848 Revolution nearly destroyed state Russia intervened to suppress revolutions Russia intervened to suppress revolutions Austria then intervened in Germany, Italy to suppress revolutions Austria then intervened in Germany, Italy to suppress revolutions Prussia fights to isolate Austria, unify Germany w/o Austria Prussia fights to isolate Austria, unify Germany w/o Austria Austria in 1866 – 1870 Austria in 1866 – 1870 Defeated in 1858 by French-Sardinian Alliance; 1866 by Prussia Defeated in 1858 by French-Sardinian Alliance; 1866 by Prussia Driven from German Confederation, Italy Driven from German Confederation, Italy Sees nationalism, German unification triumph under rival Prussia Sees nationalism, German unification triumph under rival Prussia Sees Italy united under Sardinia; Papal states erased Sees Italy united under Sardinia; Papal states erased 1867 Ausgleich with Hungarians 1867 Ausgleich with Hungarians Hungarians formed resistive group; 2 nd largest nationality in empire Hungarians formed resistive group; 2 nd largest nationality in empire Agree to rule jointly with Hungarians; name changed to Austria-Hungary Agree to rule jointly with Hungarians; name changed to Austria-Hungary Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenians, Serbo-Croats, Poles, Ruthenians, Rumanians disenfranchised Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenians, Serbo-Croats, Poles, Ruthenians, Rumanians disenfranchised Magyars insist upon assimilation of its peoples Magyars insist upon assimilation of its peoples Austria 1870 – 1914 Austria 1870 – 1914 Industrialization occurs in Czech area but remains largely agrarian Industrialization occurs in Czech area but remains largely agrarian Many citizens immigrate due to hardships, repressive rule of Magyars Many citizens immigrate due to hardships, repressive rule of Magyars State unable to reform as it is blocked by aristocrats, Germans, Magyars State unable to reform as it is blocked by aristocrats, Germans, Magyars State threatened by Pan-Slavic nationalism State threatened by Pan-Slavic nationalism Russia became a permanent enemy in Balkans along with Serbia Russia became a permanent enemy in Balkans along with Serbia Forms an alliance with Germany to protect state Forms an alliance with Germany to protect state Opposes any form of national independence for Balkan Slavs, own Slavs Opposes any form of national independence for Balkan Slavs, own Slavs

39 MAP OF CONFUSION

40 NATIONALISM & IMPERIALISM Nationalism heavily involved in imperialism Nationalism heavily involved in imperialism Source of national pride, strength to acquire colonies Source of national pride, strength to acquire colonies Non-Westerners soon learned to be nationalist Non-Westerners soon learned to be nationalist Many studied in Western schools, learned western knowledge to get ahead Many studied in Western schools, learned western knowledge to get ahead Many defined their sense of nation as response to imperialism Many defined their sense of nation as response to imperialism India India Two types of state-structures in India Two types of state-structures in India Princely States: States ruled by Indian princes, assisted by British officials Princely States: States ruled by Indian princes, assisted by British officials British possessions: States ruled directly by British British possessions: States ruled directly by British Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), "father of modern India" Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), "father of modern India" Sought an Indian society based on European science and traditional Hinduism Sought an Indian society based on European science and traditional Hinduism Used press to mobilize educated Hindus and advance reform Used press to mobilize educated Hindus and advance reform The Indian National Congress, founded 1885 The Indian National Congress, founded 1885 Educated Indians met, with British approval, to discuss public affairs Educated Indians met, with British approval, to discuss public affairs Congress aired grievances about colonial rule, sought Indian self-rule Congress aired grievances about colonial rule, sought Indian self-rule 1906, All-India Muslim League 1906, All-India Muslim League Formed to advance interests of Indian Muslims Formed to advance interests of Indian Muslims Limited reform, 1909; Limited reform, 1909; Wealthy Indians could elect representatives to local councils Wealthy Indians could elect representatives to local councils Indian nationalism Indian nationalism A powerful movement, achieved independence in 1947 A powerful movement, achieved independence in 1947 India served as a model for anti-colonial campaigns in other lands India served as a model for anti-colonial campaigns in other lands Other Examples Other Examples Sepoy Rebellion in India (1856) Sepoy Rebellion in India (1856) Meiji Restoration in Japan Meiji Restoration in Japan 1898 Boxer Rebellion in China 1898 Boxer Rebellion in China Late 1800s Mahdist Rebellion and State in the Sudan Late 1800s Mahdist Rebellion and State in the Sudan 1898 Boer War in South Africa 1898 Boer War in South Africa 1905 Iranian, 1910 Mexican, 1911 Chinese Revolutions 1905 Iranian, 1910 Mexican, 1911 Chinese Revolutions

41 NATIONALIST RIVALRIES Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Self-determination: each ethnic group had a right to a sovereign state Self-determination: each ethnic group had a right to a sovereign state Concept was ignored or opposed by dynastic powers Concept was ignored or opposed by dynastic powers Considerable nationalistic tensions in Ottoman, Hapsburg, and Russian empires Considerable nationalistic tensions in Ottoman, Hapsburg, and Russian empires Slavic nationalism in the Balkans Slavic nationalism in the Balkans Stressed kinship of all Slavic peoples Stressed kinship of all Slavic peoples Pan-Slavism was a movement to unite all Slavs under the Russian tsar Pan-Slavism was a movement to unite all Slavs under the Russian tsar Ottoman empire shrank as first Greece, then others, gained independence Ottoman empire shrank as first Greece, then others, gained independence Serbs of Austria-Hungary sought unification with independent Serbia Serbs of Austria-Hungary sought unification with independent Serbia Russians promoted Pan-Slavism in Austria-Hungarian empire Russians promoted Pan-Slavism in Austria-Hungarian empire Germany backed Austria-Hungary to fight ethnic nationalism Germany backed Austria-Hungary to fight ethnic nationalism The naval race between Germany and Britain increased tensions The naval race between Germany and Britain increased tensions Germany's rapid industrialization threatened British economic predominance Germany's rapid industrialization threatened British economic predominance Both states built huge iron battleships, called dreadnoughts Both states built huge iron battleships, called dreadnoughts Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century Germany unified in 1871; came late to the colonial race Germany unified in 1871; came late to the colonial race German resentment and antagonism toward both France and Britain German resentment and antagonism toward both France and Britain France and Germany nearly fought over Morocco in 1905 France and Germany nearly fought over Morocco in 1905 Balkan wars (1912-13) further strained European diplomatic relations Balkan wars (1912-13) further strained European diplomatic relations Public opinion supported national rivalries Public opinion supported national rivalries Attitudes of aggressive patriotism among European citizens Attitudes of aggressive patriotism among European citizens Leaders under pressure to be aggressive, to take risks Leaders under pressure to be aggressive, to take risks

42 IRANIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905-1911 Causes Causes Intellectuals feel that to save Iran they would have to limit Shah’s power Intellectuals feel that to save Iran they would have to limit Shah’s power Encroachment by Russians, British on Iranian territory upset Iranians Encroachment by Russians, British on Iranian territory upset Iranians Initiated by the Majilis or Iranian Parliament Initiated by the Majilis or Iranian Parliament 1905: A year of demonstrations and strikes 1905: A year of demonstrations and strikes Parliamentarians tended to be educated, merchants, clerics, young Parliamentarians tended to be educated, merchants, clerics, young Introduced the constitutional concept of government Introduced the constitutional concept of government People were sovereign and their representatives were delegated to enact the laws People were sovereign and their representatives were delegated to enact the laws Old Shah abdicates, new shah accepts constitutional limitations Old Shah abdicates, new shah accepts constitutional limitations 1906 1906 Constitutionalists failed to protect victory against domestic, international threats Constitutionalists failed to protect victory against domestic, international threats Trade Russian influence for British control Trade Russian influence for British control Took at face value Mohammed Ali Shah's pledges to respect constitution Took at face value Mohammed Ali Shah's pledges to respect constitution 1907-1908 1907-1908 UK, Russia prepare to divide Iran into “spheres of influence” UK, Russia prepare to divide Iran into “spheres of influence” Mohammed Ali Shah used opportunity to overthrow constitution Mohammed Ali Shah used opportunity to overthrow constitution Shah attempts to kill constitutionalists, forced to abdicate, flees Shah attempts to kill constitutionalists, forced to abdicate, flees Spheres of influence Spheres of influence Anglo-Russian convention signed on August 31, 1907 Anglo-Russian convention signed on August 31, 1907 Divided Iran into three zones Divided Iran into three zones Russia took Northern part Russia took Northern part British zone paralleled the Persian Gulf, Indian empire British zone paralleled the Persian Gulf, Indian empire Neutral zone across center of country open to both interests Neutral zone across center of country open to both interests 1910 1910 Russia invades Russia invades Helps old Shah reestablish his rule in Iran Helps old Shah reestablish his rule in Iran

43 MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911- 1920 The Revolution (1910-1920) The Revolution (1910-1920) Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow Diaz Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow Diaz Class Factions Class Factions 1910-1914: all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta 1910-1914: all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta 1914-20: Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa 1914-20: Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa Regional Revolutions: North, South, Yucatan Regional Revolutions: North, South, Yucatan Course of the Revolution Course of the Revolution Liberal Middle Class Leaders Liberal Middle Class Leaders Francisco Madero rules at first Francisco Madero rules at first Seeks middle class constitutional democracy Seeks middle class constitutional democracy Opposes land reform; landless peasants attack large landowners Opposes land reform; landless peasants attack large landowners Peasant armies win pitched battles against government troops Peasant armies win pitched battles against government troops General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills Madero General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills Madero Venustiano Carranza Venustiano Carranza Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta resigns US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta resigns Peasant, Common Rebels Peasant, Common Rebels Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially landless peasants Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially landless peasants Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the Southern areas he controls Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the Southern areas he controls US Intervenes in 1914 (Veracruz) and 1916 (Chasing Pancho Villa) US Intervenes in 1914 (Veracruz) and 1916 (Chasing Pancho Villa) Civil War 1914 – 1917: Constitutionalists (Carranza) win, reestablish control Civil War 1914 – 1917: Constitutionalists (Carranza) win, reestablish control Women’s Roles: Soldaderas (camp followers), Soldiers, Political Activists Women’s Roles: Soldaderas (camp followers), Soldiers, Political Activists New Constitution of 1917 brought sweeping reform New Constitution of 1917 brought sweeping reform Advanced nationalist, radical views Universal male suffrage (hostile to women) Power, property of Church restricted Free, secular, obligatory primary education Returned lands seized illegally; curbed foreign ownership 8 hour work day, Minimum wage, Strikes legal

44 CHINESE REVOLUTION Reform Fails Reform Fails Chinese elites unwilling, unable to reform Chinese elites unwilling, unable to reform Boxer Rebellion shows weakness of state, humiliating to Chinese Boxer Rebellion shows weakness of state, humiliating to Chinese Chinese leaders Chinese leaders Leaders educated abroad, especially Japan, US Leaders educated abroad, especially Japan, US Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat-sen Founds United League in Tokyo using Chinese foreign funds Founds United League in Tokyo using Chinese foreign funds Wins support of many military officers, foreign exiles Wins support of many military officers, foreign exiles Sun’s Three Principles of the People Sun’s Three Principles of the People Nationalism: Overthrow Manchus, end foreign hegemony Nationalism: Overthrow Manchus, end foreign hegemony Democracy: Popularly elected republican form of government Democracy: Popularly elected republican form of government People's Livelihood: help people, regulate means of production, land People's Livelihood: help people, regulate means of production, land 1911 Revolution broke out in Hubei 1911 Revolution broke out in Hubei Local army rebellion followed by many armies Local army rebellion followed by many armies Joined by United League members Joined by United League members 2/3 of provinces join rebels 2/3 of provinces join rebels 1912 1912 Last Emperor abdicates Last Emperor abdicates Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as first president Sun Yat-sen inaugurated as first president General Yuanshikai in Beijing takes control General Yuanshikai in Beijing takes control Sun resigns as president to unify the state Sun resigns as president to unify the state Results Results Revolution did not establish a stable republic Revolution did not establish a stable republic China fell into warlords' rule China fell into warlords' rule Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China Growth of Chinese nationalism, radicalism Growth of Chinese nationalism, radicalism


Download ppt "MODERN ERA: 1750 - 1900 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE STRUCTURES."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google