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Management Historic Times

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1 Management Historic Times
Submitted by Mehta Jay ( ) Pratikbhai Patel ( ) Faculty Name: Prabir Chandra Padhy Department: Electrical engineering College: Shroff S R Rotary Institute of Chemical Technology

2 Contribution of Management by Management Gurus
F W Taylor Henri Fayol Max Weber Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs

3 F W Taylor ( ) Fredrick Winslow Taylor known as the father of Scientific Management. Fundamental principles of scientific approach are as follows:- Replacing rules of thumb with science. Achieving cooperation of human beings Working for maximum output, rather than restricted output. Developing all workers

4 F W Taylor The mechanism of management to achieve efficiency productivity & profit adopted by him are listed below. Time Study: determine the minimum time to complete a job. Work Study: best method to complete a job. Functional Foremanship: It is based on specialisations of functions performed at the supervisory level. Differential rate system: More productive workers to be paid at a higher rate than others. Routing System: Which specifies the sequence of activities to be performed for a job.

5 Henry Fayol ( ) Fayol laid heavy emphasis on administrative efficiency & advocated management has having the following main functions. Planning Organising Commanding Coordinating Controlling

6 Principles of Management
The 14 Management Principles from Henri Fayol ( ) are: Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan.

7 Principles of Management
Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always vital. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator for employees. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. Order. The work place facility must be in proper order.

8 Principles of Management
Equity. All the employees should be treated as equally as possible Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Esprit de Corps. Organization should try to promote team spirit and unity

9 Max Weber ( ) Max web developed a management theory that stressed the need for a strictly defined organizational hierarchy governed by clearly defined regulations and lines of authority. This system of managing organisation he labeled as Bureaucracy. The key features of bureaucracy are Division of work: High degree of division of work at both the operative & administrative level which leads to specialization. Hierarchy of Authority: where subordinates have superiors. Rules & Regulations: Clearly defined rules & regulation are applicable to all in the organization.

10 Max Weber ( ) 4. Impersonal Conduct: Decisions &b activities in the organization done according to the rules & regulation without any personal considerations, relation & emotion. 5. Appointment: Appointment done through fair selection based on merit & competence. 6. Records: The administration of the organisation done through an efficient record keeping.

11 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow defined a Hierarchy of Human Needs that stated the lower needs must be met before an individual can strive to meet the higher needs. NEEDS: a lack of something required or desired. *Needs motivate us to act!

12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

13 How does the Hierarchy Work?
- A person starts at the bottom of the hierarchy (pyramid) and will initially seek to satisfy basic needs (e.g. food, shelter) - Once these physiological needs have been satisfied, they are no longer a motivator. the individual moves up to the next level - Safety needs at work could include physical safety (e.g. protective clothing) as well as protection against unemployment, loss of income through sickness etc) - Social needs recognise that most people want to belong to a group. These would include the need for love and belonging (e.g. working with colleague who support you at work, teamwork, communication) - Esteem needs are about being given recognition for a job well done. They reflect the fact that many people seek the esteem and respect of others. A promotion at work might achieve this - Self-actualisation is about how people think about themselves - this is often measured by the extent of success and/or challenge at work Maslow's model has great potential appeal in the business world. The message is clear - if management can find out which level each employee has reached, then they can decide on suitable rewards.

14 Problems with the Abraham Harold Maslow Model
There are several problems with the Maslow model when real- life working practice is considered: - Individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs - not just one - The same need (e.g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals - There is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied" - The model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits - There is little empirical evidence to support the model. Some critics suggest that Maslow's model is only really relevant to understanding the behaviour of middle-class workers in the UK and the USA (where Maslow undertook his research).

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