India Pakistan Afghanistan Sri Lanka Bangladesh The Maldives Nepal South Asia Bhutan
Indus River Himalaya Mountains Ganges River Ganges and Indus rivers flood, and deposit silt to fertilize soil
Himalaya Mountains The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia. Many Himalayan peaks are sacred in both Buddhism and Hinduism. Three of the world's major rivers — the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra — arise in the Himalayas. This range is home to nine of the ten highest peaks on Earth, including the highest, Mount Everest Himalaya Mountains help to Keep the Indian Subcontinent at a mild temperature
The IVC’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, The IVC may have been the first civilization to use wheeled transport. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million IVC was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km 2 In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization's collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization
A “little”Colonial History This region experienced colonialism by European nations, which provided the region with European cultural diffusion, primarily from Great Britain. Great Britain has had the greatest influence then any other European Country on South Asia Mohandas Gandhi led Indians to independence from Great Britain through peaceful protests.
A “little” History - A “little” Future East India Company 1612-1940s Independence came to the region in the 1940s and the government(s) that typically replaced British rule were democratic, but have had varying degrees of success (India claims to be the world’s largest democracy. Pakistan has suffered several military coups). This region has experienced rapid population growth. India’s population growth rate is greater than China and the Indian population will pass China by 2025
Comparison CountryGovernmentReligion IndiaFederal RepublicHindu PakistanFederal RepublicIslam BangladeshParliamentary DemocracyIslam NepalFederal Democratic Republic Hindu Sri LankaRepublicBuddhist MaldivesRepublicIslam BhutanConstitutional MonarchyBuddhist
Bangladesh is a Parliamentary Republic Islam is the largest religion of Bangladesh, making up 86.6% of population The service sector accounts for 51% of GDP, the industrial sector 30% and agriculture 18% More than 98% of Bangladeshis speak Bengali as their native language, which is also the official language. English is also used as a second language among the middle and upper classes and is also widely used in higher education and the legal system
Constitutional Monarchy-made the switch from Absolute Monarchy in 2008 Inhabited as early as 2000 BC Bhutan is located on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, and is landlocked. Bhutan's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydroelectric power to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for 55.4 percent of the population
Bhutan The national language is Bhutanese 75% Population is Buddhist Bhutan has a rich and unique cultural heritage that has largely remained intact because of its isolation from the rest of the world until the early 1960s
Nepal has eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, ex- Mount Everest Hinduism is practiced by about 81.3% of Nepalis, Nepal is a developing country with a low income economy Federal Parliamentary Republic
Sri Lanka is a Democratic Republic, the oldest democracy in South Asia 70% are Buddhists English is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes. The culture of Sri Lanka dates back over 2500 years. It is influenced primarily by Buddhism and Hinduism
It is the Earth’s lowest country- 4 ft. 11in above sea level, The highest point is 7 ft. 11in – What is their great environmental concern? Maldives is a Presidential republic The Maldivian economy is largely based on tourism
Maldives Maldives designates Islam as the official state religion. The Government requires that all citizens must be Muslims. Freedom of religion is restricted significantly. The law prohibits the practice by Maldivian citizens of any religion other than Islam, and the Constitution states that non-Muslims from voting, obtaining citizenship, and holding public positions. Does this sound like an limited Government?
180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country Pakistan is the second most populous Muslim- majority country - About 97.0% (174,600,000) Pakistan's economy is the 24th largest in the world. The Pakistani economy has moved from mainly agricultural to a strong service base. It is a Nuclear Power
Pakistan Pakistan is listed as a Federal Republic the Pakistani government has experienced instability and frequent military takeovers. Example from the constitution- 12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored 15 December 2007; last amended 28 February 2012
The second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people. Is a Nuclear Power Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. Hinduism - 80.5% of the population (800,000,000 people) Four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here
India India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. India’s labor force is English speaking and highly educated, and many foreign companies are investing in India’s service and manufacturing sectors to take advantage of low labor costs; now that more people have disposable income, foreign wholesale and retail companies are moving into India.
India Bollywood - The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. The movies that often reflect Indian traditions and Hindu themes and modern Indian Culture. At the end of 2010 it was reported that in terms of annual film output, India ranks first, followed by Hollywood and China.
India and Pakistan Relations The greatest difference between India and Pakistan is a religious differences In India - Hinduism, with over 800 million adherents (80.5% of the population) In Pakistan - About 97% of Pakistanis are Muslim
India and Pakistan Relations There has been great debate over who has control of the Kashmir territory. Leading to three different wars over the territory. Kashmir territory
South Asia – Economy The Next Eleven are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran,Mexico, Ni geria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam. They all have high potential of becoming, along with the BRICs, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century. Developing countries
South Asia – Economy Agriculture Manufacturing and industry Apparel Gems and jewelry Pharmaceuticals Petroleum products and chemicals Mining Tourism Banking and finance
South Asia – Economy Microcredit-is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history. It is designed not only to support entrepreneurship and alleviate poverty, but to create new jobs, new businesses, and help communities. Muhammad Yunus – Founder of Grameen Bank.
Hinduism Third largest religion in the world Due to the wide diversity in the beliefs, practices and traditions encompassed by Hinduism, there is no universally accepted definition on who a Hindu is, or even agreement on whether the term Hinduism represents a religious, cultural or socio- political entity Often noted as a Polytheistic Religon Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion” or the "oldest living major religion" in the world
Hinduism Diwali -popularly known as the "festival of lights," is primarily a five day Hindu festival – Diwali - "row of lamps". – Over the centuries, Diwali has become a national festival that is enjoyed by most Indians regardless of faith: Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, and Sikhs. – Rangoli, also known as Kolam, is a folk (traditional) art from India that can be traced back 5000 years. – is India's biggest and most important holiday of the year. This festival is as important to Hindus as the Christmas holiday is to Christians.
Buddhism Fourth Largest Religion in the world Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha. The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent Buddhists generally classify themselves as either Theravada or Mahayana
Sikhism Fifth largest Religion in the world. a monotheistic religion which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The five Ks (panj kakaar) are five articles of faith which all baptized Sikhs are obliged to wear. The symbols represent the ideals of Sikhism: honesty, equality, fidelity, meditating on God and never bowing to tyranny
Responsibilities in a Democracy: Personal responsibilities (such as taking care of themselves, accepting responsibility for the consequences of their actions, taking advantage of the opportunity to be educated, and supporting their families) Civic responsibilities are actions a citizen needs to perform (such as respecting the right of others; being informed and attentive to the needs of their community, staying informed about issues impacting the decisions of elected leaders; paying attention to how well their elected leaders are doing their jobs; communicating with their representatives in their school, local, state, and national governments; voting; paying taxes
Responsibilities in a Democracy: Like in the United States, in India and many South Asian Countries voting is considered a Civic responsibility. – as is tolerating the many different opinions of people. – And religious beliefs. A Bhutanese citizen shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. No person shall be compelled to belong to another faith by means of coercion or inducement. —Article 7 Fundamental Rights, Section 4 of the Constitution of Bhutan
Monsoons: To the people of India, the monsoons are a source of life. They are seasonal reversal of winds that brings heavy rainfall. Monsoons bring: Widespread flooding Property damage Destruction to agricultural lands Damage to transportation infrastructure Homelessness Disease Malnutrition Serious injury Death
Monsoons Monsoons help to provide fresh water for most of the countries in South Asia But the rain fall in the mountains causes destructive floods throughout much of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan.
Adapting to the Environment 1. Adaptation - is the evolutionary process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat or habitats Humans Change Themselves or practices.
Dams help support agriculture through irrigation.
Modifying the Environment Humans change the Environment – The human response to the characteristics of a physical environment comes with consequences for both the human culture and the physical environment – clear forest for timber and agricultural land, build cities with concrete, raise livestock, grow crop plants build dams, burn fossil fuel, destroy habitat of other animals, fishery
Green Revolution Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, that increased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s
Green Revolution Norman Borlaug is the "Father of the Green Revolution" is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains (Wheat). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for ”both for bread and for peace”
Quiz 1 1. List the three major religions of South Asia? 2. Why has Pakistan's Government been so unstable? 3. What is the majority religion of India? 4. Explain How the Himalaya mountains influenced South Asia’s culture 5. What is the IVC?
South Asia – Economy Read – “Mining Bill Makes Profit Sharing Mandatory” The Indian Express Newspaper – The Proposed bill would tax mining companies, these funds are to be given to remote villages. The government is hoping to improve conditions in the villages. How would this combat the recruitment of communist rebels?
“Mining Bill Makes Profit Sharing Mandatory” Scenario: You are an elected leader of a small village in India. You have just been informed about a bill (a proposed law) that would require mining companies in your region to share part of their profit with the people living in the community. Discuss ways in which your community might influence the government to pass this bill. Once the bill becomes a law, mining companies will have to share their profit with the community and the national government
Global Vipassana Pagoda This is the tallest stone-only structure in the world. It is located near Mumbai and honors the practice of Vipassana, related to Buddhism. Not only that, but it is Gilded, and looks amazing. It was completed in 2009