Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control Sociology4/28/2017CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social ControlSection 1: DevianceSection 2: CrimeChapter 8
2 Objectives: Section 1: Deviance Explain the nature and social functions of deviance.Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance.
3 Nature of Deviance Section 1: Deviance Because there are so many norms governing behavior, occasional violations are unavoidableWhat is considered deviant varies from society to society
4 Social Functions of Deviance Section 1: DevianceSocial Functions of DevianceClarifying Norms – defines the boundaries of acceptable behaviorUnifying the Group – serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders” – the nonconforming membersDiffusing Tension – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society
5 Social Functions of Deviance Section 1: DevianceSocial Functions of Deviance(continued)4. Promoting Social Change – can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas5. Providing Jobs – provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people
6 Theories of Deviance Section 1: Deviance Functionalists – as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of societyConflict Theorists – as a result of competition and social inequalityInteractionists – as either natural in people with weak ties to the community (control theory), as a learned behavior (cultural transmission theory), or as a label (labeling theory)
7 Deviance SECTION 1 Perspective Theory Questions Functionalist How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion)StrainConflictWhat is the result of competition and social inequality? (deviance) Who decides what is deviant? (ruling classes)InteractionistWhy do people conform to norms? (The strength of social ties determines conformity.)ControlHow do people learn conformity or deviance? (through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (primary groups)Cultural TransmissionHow do people become identified as deviant? (through secondary deviance, or being labeled as deviant)Labeling
8 Objectives: Section 2: Crime Identify the principal types of crime in the United States.Explain the characteristics of the American criminal-justice system.
9 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S. Section 2: CrimePrincipal Types of Crime in the U.S.Violent Crime – includes murder, robbery; most victims are African AmericansRobbery- larceny from the person or presence of another by violence or threat.Crime Against Property – includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes.Burglary- the act of breaking and entering a dwelling at night to commit a felonyFelony- a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for mote than one year.Larceny- the unlawful taking and removal of another person's property.Victimless Crime – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use; offender is the only victim
10 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S. Section 2: CrimePrincipal Types of Crime in the U.S.(continued)White Collar Crime – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlementOrganized Crime – the pursuit of crime as a big businessBernie Madoff
11 SECTION 2CrimeQuestion:What are some characteristics of the American criminal-justice system?
12 AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM SECTION 2CrimeAMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEMPoliceHave the most control over who is arrested for crimes.The use of police discretion, has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling
13 AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM SECTION 2CrimeAMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEMCourtsDetermines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial.The court assigns a punishment.90 percent of cases are actually settles through plea bargaining.
14 AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM SECTION 2CrimeAMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEMCorrectionsIncludes probation, imprisonment, and parole, which serves four functions:Retribution- Revenge for the victims and for society.Deterrence- Discourage offenders and non offenders from committing future crimes.Rehabilitation- Serves to reform criminals so that they can return to society as law abiding citizens.Social protection- Limit the freedom of criminals sothey cannot commit additional crimes.
15 Juvenile-Justice System SECTION 2CrimeAMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEMJuvenile-Justice SystemApplies to offenders younger than 18.Guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults.Often provides more services.
16 Juvenile-Justice System SECTION 2CrimeAMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEMPolicehave the most control over who is arrested for crimes; use police discretion, which has raised the controversial issue of racial profilingCourtsdetermines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then assigns a punishment; actually settles 90 percent of cases through plea bargainingCorrectionsincludes probation, imprisonment, parole; serves four functions—retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and social protectionJuvenile-Justice Systemapplies to offenders younger than 18; guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults; often provides more services
17 Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 8 1. What are the functions of deviance? 2. How does labeling theory differ from other theories of deviance?3. Describe the five general categories of crime. Be sure to list the types of crime in each category.4. What purposes does the corrections system fulfill? How does the juvenile-justice system meet these same purposes?