Presentation on theme: "CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. I can select and apply specific terminology to the study of my language investigation (AO1). I can demonstrate critical understanding."— Presentation transcript:
I can select and apply specific terminology to the study of my language investigation (AO1). I can demonstrate critical understanding of a range of concepts and issues related to the construction of meanings (AO2). I can analyse and evaluate the influence of contextual factors on the production and reception of language (AO3). LEARNING OUTCOMES
Why is it important to look at how children learn language? Why is it important to look at how children learn written language? How can we effectively teach children written language skills?
What is phonics? WHAT IS PHONICS? Discuss: What issues might be associated with phonics spelling? What impact might spoken language acquisition have on written language acquisition? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4NTipfoU9k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--tgqXtiKJk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8ZSWZn3yR0https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8ZSWZn3yR0 2.26
SPELLING MILESTONES: 5-8 YEAR OLDS A 5-6 year old: language is broken into words developing phonemic awareness learning about sound letter relationships phonetic spellers use invented spelling may leave out vowels learn to spell their name will use environmental print to assist their spelling may reverse letters A 7-8 year old : spelling words they read and use frequently breaking words into syllables will begin to spell unknown words will begin to use rhyme to spell words will find and correct simple spelling errors will use sources around them for spelling consolidate how words are formed
ROBIN HOOD Work in of groups of 2-3. You will be given a collection of writing samples. Each group will be allocated a sample. Identify as many ‘areas of development’/common errors within the sample as possible. Areas of development – features of writing that the child as not yet fully mastered i.e. punctuation, spelling, etc. Prepare to share your ideas with the group. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx_4C1cyUZA Why is it important to look at children between 6-7 years old? Complete the table of spelling differences between A-C.
SPELLING ‘PROBLEMS’ Work in groups of 2-3. Focus on your chosen spelling problem. Why is this difficult to master at this stage of development? What differences are there between the children at mastering this skill? What strategies would help to overcome this problem?
COHESIVE FEATURES USED IN WRITING Connectives Punctuation – full stop, colon Order of the text Tenses used Paragraphs Headings, sub headings Consistency of audience Anaphoric references – referring to the past - last week Cataphoric references – referring to future – later on Continuity of style Conventions followed Structure Illustrations Layout Consistency of sentence lengths Can you identify any of these features in your texts?
THE WAYS IN WHICH A CHILD SPELLS Doubling consonants – e.g. breezzy, dissappeared Spell phonetically – e.g. ment, brite Stressed and unstressed letters – knife = nife, stomach = tomach Vowel combinations – i.e. ‘I comes before e’ e.g. coulourful Suffixing and prefixing – e.g. living = liveing Initial letter – e.g. England = Ingland Can you identify any of these features in your texts?
THEORY 1: BARRY KROLL (1981) Barry Kroll (1981) identified 4 phases of children’s development and further work by other researchers such as Katherine Perera added the suggested age ranges. Preparation – up to 6 yrs – basic motor skills are acquired alongside some principles of spelling. Consolidation – 7/8 yrs – writing is similar to spoken language including more colloquial and informal register. Also a string of clauses joined together by the conjunction “and”. Differentiation – 9/10 yrs – awareness of writing as separate from speech emerges. In addition, a stronger understanding of writing for different audiences and purposes is evident and becomes more automatic. Integration – mid-teens – this stage sees the use of the “personal voice” in writing. It is characterised by evidence of controlled writing, with appropriate linguistic choices being made consistently. Which phase would each of your texts fall into?
THEORY 2: DR CATHY BARCLAY (1996) 7 stages to a child developing their writing skills. Stage 1: Scribbling stage. Random marks on a page. Writing and scribbles are accompanied by speaking. Stage 2: Mock handwriting stage. Writing and drawings. Produce wavy lines which is their understanding of lineation. Cursive writing. Stage 3: Mock letters. Letters are separate things. Stage 4: Conventional letters. Usually involves writing the name as the first word. Child usually puts letters on a page but is able to read it as words. Stage 5: Invented spelling stage. Child spells in the way they understand the word should be spelt (own way). Stage 6: Appropriate/phonetic spelling stage. Attach spelling with sounds. Stage 7: Correct spelling stage. Able to spell most words. Which stage would each of your texts fall into?
SPOKEN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Children seem to acquire language by passing through a set of stages. Before birth – Mehler et al (1988). It is possible that even before birth babies are becoming acclimatised to the sounds of its native language. Babies as young as four days old are able to distinguish their native language from other languages. The suggestion is that babies become used to the rhythms and intonations of language whilst in the womb. Crying – during the first few weeks of life, the child expresses itself vocally by crying. Different types of crying can be identified (hunger, distress, pleasure). Cries are thought to be instinctive noises and cannot really be considered ‘language’. Cooing – (also known as gurgling or mewing) generally occurs when babies are around 6- 8 weeks old. They make sounds such as ‘coo’, ‘goo’, and ‘ga-ga’. It is thought that at this stage, the child is developing increased control over its vocal cords. Babbling – the most important stage during the first year of a child’s life. Begins at around 6-9 months old and often continues for some months after the child has started to use actual speech. At the onset, the child begins to make sound that more closely resemble adult language. Combinations of consonants and vowels are produced (‘ba’, ‘ma’, ‘ga’, ‘da’). Sometimes these sounds are repeated producing reduplicated monosyllables (‘baba’, ‘mama’). These sounds still have no meaning, but parents are often eager to believe that their baby is speaking its first words. Typically, the baby enjoys exercising the mouth and tongue at this stage (also blowing bubbles and spluttering). https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=_J mA2ClUvUY
SPOKEN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Children seem to acquire language by passing through a set of stages. Phonemic expansion and contraction – during the babbling stage, the number of different phonemes produced by the child increases. This is known as phonemic expansion. Usually, by 9-10 months a reduction in the number of phonemes occurs (phonemic reduction). The range of sounds the child makes shrinks, becoming increasingly restricted to those of the child’s native tongue. The baby retains the sounds of its native language, but discards those that will not be needed. Intonation and gesture – another development during the babbling stage is that patterns of intonation begin to resemble speech. Often, there is a rising tone at the end of an utterance, as if the child were asking a question. Other variations of emphasis or rhythm may suggest greeting or calling. Research has shown that, although children do not have the power of speech at this stage, they show through their gestures a desire to communicate. The may point at an object and look at an adult with a facial expression similar to ‘what’s that?’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdtD19tXX30 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5nPnz4MU7M