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Week 4 Material Culture and Human Behavior Principles of Archaeology Chuntaek Seong Kyung Hee University.

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Presentation on theme: "Week 4 Material Culture and Human Behavior Principles of Archaeology Chuntaek Seong Kyung Hee University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 4 Material Culture and Human Behavior Principles of Archaeology Chuntaek Seong Kyung Hee University

2 Archaeology and Past Human Culture 고고학은 절차상 과학을 추구하지만, 그 근본 목적인 인간 에 대한 탐구라는 측면에서는 인문학 (Renfrew 3 판 :12) The humanities are academic disciplines that study humanity and human culture..academic disciplines Social science refers to the academic disciplines concerned with the society and the relationships of individuals within a society, which primarily rely on empirical approaches.academic disciplinesempirical Archaeology is unique in that it does not have direct access to human behavior. While the fundamental goal of archaeology is understanding humanity, it take different route by looking at past material culture.

3 The Concept of Culture The term "culture" appeared first in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, to connote a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the 19th century, the term developed to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education. … In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be attributed to genetic inheritance. (Wikipedia) cultivationagriculture horticulture educationanthropology

4 Culture and anthropology Edward Tylor (1832-1917), 《원시문화》 Primitive Culture, 1871: Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. // 문화, 곧 문명이란 ‘ 지식, 믿음 ( 신앙 ), 예술, 도덕, 법, 관습, 그리고 사회의 구성원으 로서 얻게 되는 다른 모든 능력들이나 습관 등을 모두 포괄하는 복합적인 것 ’ Culture Culture: shared, learned, and transmitted Traditionally, anthropology is regarded as a study of culture. Sociocultural anthropology( 사회문화인류학 ) and ethnology( 민 족학 ) – modern and living culture Physical( 체질 ) or biological( 생물 ) anthropology – focusing on the relationship between culture and biological representations 고고학과 인류학의 공동 관심사는 문화와 문화 변동

5 Culture

6 Alfred Kroeber, 1876 - 1960 Cultural Configuration: 어떤 문화 가 마구 흐트러진 부스러기들의 단 순한 축적이 되지 않도록 통합성 또는 설계도를 부여하는 내적 관계 의 배열이나 체계 His theory of the "superorganic" asserts the culture develops its own unique "style patterns.“ “ 문화는 곧 초개인적인 것이 되고 익명성을 띠게 되며, 유형이나 형 태, 스타일, 의미의 규칙성으로 ” 귀 속된다. (< 인류학의 거장들 : 117)

7 Archaeology as a Study of Culture Culture vs. Nature (artifact vs. ecofact) – Culture “uniquely human additions that provide potential principles for human behavior. While humans broadly share those principles, regional groups have different views that lead to different patterns in human behavior and material culture. Material culture: the physical artifacts created by a society Archaeology attempts to reconstruct past human behavior and culture based on material remains that are buried and unearthed.

8 Archaeology as a study of past human material culture 고고 문화 (archaeological culture): An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place, which are thought to constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society. (Wikipedia)assemblageartifactsmaterial culturesociety Archaeologists are more concerned with the context ( 정황, 맥락 ) and relational meaning of past material remains rather than specific artifacts and features. They attempts to infer what happened in the past by examining various material evidence, not just notable artifacts.

9 Different perspectives on culture While culture is the focal point for many disciplines, different views emerged leading to schools of thought in anthropology and archaeology. Unilinear evolutionism in the late 19 th century: Savagery  Barbarianism  Civilization Functionalism: culture as function to satisfy human needs Many archaeologists prefer the definition of culture as “nonbiological means of human adaptation to the environment.” Symbolism: culture as a system of symbols

10 Culture as a System A cultural (or sociocultural) system is the interaction of different elements of culture. It is a totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. A Cultural system is composed of interconnected subsystems of religion, subsistence economy, environment, technology, and social relations. While material remains are most closely related to technological subsystem, they also reflect a total sociocultural system given the interrelationship among various subsystems..

11 David Clarke ’ s model of cultural subsystems A static and schematic model of the dynamic equilibrium between the subsystem networks of a single sociocultural system and its total environment system.

12 사회문화체 계의 구성 David Clarke: dynamic equilibrium

13 Hawkes ’ onion: 고고문화 복원의 어려움


15 Goals of Archaeology pp. 10-11 Form, Function, Process, and Meaning

16 Goals, or tasks, of archaeology Form, function, process and meaning (1) Form: establishing time-space chart  when and where? basic element and fundamental purpose of archaeological research  Establishing Culture History (2) Functional determination: how they were used? What activities were represented at the archaeological sites?  Reconstructing Past Human Behavior (3) Process: how and why past cultures changed over time  Explaining culture change (4) Meaning: interpreting past human attitudes and beliefs.

17 Establishing Culture History Archaeology is about making statements about human prehistory of tens of thousands of years ago. Chronology ( 編年 ) building is one of the most fundamental tasks of archaeological research Chronology is ordering archaeological entities in that they existed in a time series and spatial charts. Placing archaeological data in a time-space chart is the first step for further research.

18 김원용 한국고 고학 편년표

19 Reconstructing past human behavior reconstruction of the lifeways of the people responsible for the archaeological remains – why they lived that way: why they had those patterns of behavior, and how their lifeways and material culture came to take the form they did. Functional determination of objects: observations, analogy and experimental analysis How past humans lived in a given environmental settings, how they interacted with other groups


21 Explaining and interpreting culture change  Culture Process ( 문화과정 ) Explaining how and why the society and culture took the path is one of the prime goals of modern archaeology The emergence of modern humans and behavior, origins and dispersals of agriculture, emergence of social ranks and early states. Explanation ( 설명 ): Answering the why questions is about elucidating the causal relations between the observed phenomena.  인과관계의 규명 세계의 다양한 지역에서 다양한 문화들이 왜 어떤 과정을 겪어 그와 같은 다양성에 도달하였는지를 설명하는 것 예를 들어 왜 농경이라는 식량생산 경제가 세계 도처에서 비슷 한 시기에 발달하게 되었는가 ? Mechanisms for change: Diffusion, Migration, Invasion, or Adaptation (to external conditions), Evolution

22 고고학의 목적 : 학사적으로 끊임없이 변화 We (archaeologists) are certainly interested in having a clear picture of how people lived, and how they exploited their environment. But we also seek to understand why they lived that way: why they had those patterns of behavior, and how their lifeways and material culture came to take the form they did. Archaeologists are interested, in short, in explaining change. …. (Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn 2000:12-16)

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