Presentation on theme: "SINGAPORE - Every two years, Indonesia loses about 15,500 square miles of forest, an area roughly the size of Switzerland, to logging. Skies in northern."— Presentation transcript:
SINGAPORE - Every two years, Indonesia loses about 15,500 square miles of forest, an area roughly the size of Switzerland, to logging. Skies in northern China glow orange in sandstorms that cross the Pacific and lay dust on the western United States. In Hong Kong, raw sewage is in its pearl-blue harbor. From inner Mongolia to the Indian subcontinent and tropical Southeast Asia, says one senior United Nations environmental official, the region's ecology and environment is deteriorating as its factories and economies boom. Although governments are rolling out unprecedented initiatives to tackle Asian pollution - the policies are often badly enforced..
Landslides and mudslides in corners of Indonesia and the Philippines caused by illegal logging swept away or buried alive whole families. Six of the world's 15 most polluted cities are in Asia, and the region generates a third of the world's carbon dioxide emissions. In Asia's developing regions, around 785 million people lack regular access to safe water, UN statistics show.
The air quality in notoriously polluted Bangkok, Dhaka, New Delhi and several Chinese cities is healthier after most of Asia, except for Indonesia, phased out lead from gasoline. Bangladesh, which is spending $30 million over two years to bring natural gas to 100 gas stations, is replacing high- polluting two-stroke engines in its rickshaw taxis in the capital Dhaka with cleaner-burning natural gas power. Thailand's taxis now run on liquefied petroleum gas, while buses and taxis in New Delhi and Bombay are phasing out diesel and running instead on compressed natural gas.
The Ganges River begins high in the Himalayan Mountains and flows 1600 miles through India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal. This river provides water and transportation for the over 400 million people who live in its river valley. Although it is religiously important, the water has become extremely polluted. Chemicals used in fertilizer and industry are washed into the river everyday. Human and animal waste also foul the river. The bodies of dead animals as well as the cremated remains of human beings (bodies that are burned after death and whose ashes are scattered in the river) regularly float down the river. In spite of this, many Indians bathe in the Ganges and use the water for cooking and drinking.
Cities along the Ganges have the highest rates of water-born diseases (diseases found in drinking water) of any who live in India. Still, these cities pour millions of gallons of sewage into the river to be carried to cities and villages farther south. India did begin a program called the Ganges Action Plan in 1985 to try to clean up the river. Many sewage and water treatment plants have been built along the river. However, the growing population of India and the run- off from industrialized and farm production have meant that clean-up efforts fall short of what is needed.
China’s longest river, the Yangtze River, flows almost 4,000 miles from the northwestern part of the country to the East China Sea. The Yangtze River passes through over 185 towns where almost 400 million people live. Pumping stations along the river take water out to supply people with water for drinking, irrigation, and industrial uses. Millions of gallons of sewage are dumped into the river, along with chemicals from agricultural runoff and industrial wastes. Nitrogen from fertilizers and arsenic (poisonous chemical) from industrial uses are leading pollutants found in the Yangtze’s waters.
The pollution in the river puts all of the cities along its banks at risk. Many species of plants and animals that once lived in the river are disappearing. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphates lead to the growth of blue- green algae. This growth reduces the oxygen in the water causing fish to die. Contaminated fish are caught and eaten by the Chinese people, leading to other health problems. China is building more water treatment facilities (process of removing contaminants from wastewater). It is encouraging cities along the river to build sanitary landfills (areas where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe) for garbage rather than dumping the contaminants in the river.
International organizations like the World Bank have worked with Chinese authorities to organize such programs. The massive Three Gorges Dam is being built along the Yangtze River in central China to provide hydroelectric power to millions of Chinese who have not had electricity. Some people feel the dam project was begun without taking into account the effects such a project would have on the environment. A number of species of plants and animals that live along the river where the dam has been built are now threatened with extinction. Another concern is that the dam has been built in an area prone to earthquakes.
Increasing water drainage and pollution are putting many lakes around the world in serious danger. It is estimated that more than one-half of the world's five million lakes are at risk, threatening the economic and health benefits they bring local communities. Asia is no exception. The amount of water taken from rivers and lakes for irrigation, household, and industrial use has doubled in the last 40 years.
Almost every single lake has some sort of problem. A number of these lakes are shrinking in size and some are even disappearing. In China, thousands of lakes have disappeared throughout the country as rivers have been diverted and water taken out for water irrigation projects. In China, the disappearance of lakes has deprived the Yangtze River Basin of much-needed water-storage capacity and flood protection. This led to the devastating 1998 flooding, which killed some 3,600 people and caused more than 30 billion dollars in damages. Following the floods, the Chinese government pledged it would take action to restore the lakes.
1. Economy Economic loss The flooding in Jiangxi of China in 1998 caused great damage. The economic loss was $156 billion, 400 buildings surrounding the lake were inundated, leaving more than 1 million people homeless. Resources used in reconstruction After flooding, government has to input many resources for reconstruction, e.g., police force, fire control, aid worker, resources used for resisting flood, etc 2. Environment Traffic Flooding will lead to the damages of roads, collapse of bridges or traffic congestion, which may affect the daily operation. Damage to farmland Flooding brings too much water which will cause damage to farmland. 3. Human Beings People die and lose their homes Flooding will cause death and injuries. In 1998, 3 thousand people died, 1 million of people lost their homes. In 1996, the monsoon flood in India affected more than five million people in the northern and eastern part of the country. 4. Disease Flooding usually brings infectious diseases, e.g. military fever, pneumonic plague, dermatopathia, dysentery, common cold (type A), breakbone fever, etc. And for those areas which have no electric supply due to flooding, food poisoning may occur as food may not be properly frozen.
Vehicles Air Factories Water Soil People Pollution
A dense blanket of pollution, dubbed the "Asian Brown Cloud," is hovering over South Asia, with scientists warning it could kill millions of people in the region, and pose a global threat. In the biggest-ever study of the phenomenon, 200 scientists warned that the cloud, estimated to be two miles (three kilometers) thick, is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths a year from respiratory disease. By slashing the sunlight that reaches the ground by 10 to 15 percent, the choking smog has also altered the region's climate, cooling the ground while heating the atmosphere.
Think-Pair-Share Why should we care about the Asian Brown Cloud?
The potent haze lying over the entire Indian subcontinent -- from Sri Lanka to Afghanistan -- has led to some erratic weather, sparking flooding in Bangladesh, Nepal and northeastern India, but drought in Pakistan and northwestern India.
Asia's brown haze is altering the weather, creating acid rain. A cocktail of aerosols, ash, soot and other particles, the haze's reach extends far beyond the study zone of the Indian subcontinent, and towards East and Southeast Asia. While many scientists once thought that only lighter greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, could travel across the Earth, they now say that aerosol clouds can too. "Biomass burning" from forest fires, vegetation clearing and fossil fuel was just as much to blame for the shrouding haze as dirty industries from Asia's great cities, the study found. A large part of the aerosol cloud comes from inefficient cookers, where fuels such as cow dung and kerosene are used to cook food in many parts of Asia.
Using data from ships, planes and satellites to study Asia's haze during the northern winter months of 1995 to 2000, scientists were able to track its journey to pristine parts of the world, such as the Maldives, to see how it affected climate. They discovered not only that the smog cut sunlight, heating the atmosphere, but also that it created acid rain, a serious threat to crops and trees, as well as contaminating oceans and hurting agriculture. Pollution could be cutting India's winter rice harvest by as much as 10 percent.
Think-Pair-Share List the ways Acid Rain can affect people other than killing plants and animals.
The report calculated that the cloud -- 80 percent of which was made by people -- could cut rainfall over northwest Pakistan, Afghanistan, western China and western central Asia by up to 40 percent. While scientists say they still need more scientific data, they suggest the regional and global impact of the haze will intensify over the next 30 years. In the next phase of the project, scientists will collect data from the entire Asian region, over more seasons with more observation sites and refine their techniques. But because the lifetime of pollutants is short and they can be rained out, scientists are hopeful that if Asians use more efficient ways of burning fuel, such as better stoves, and cleaner sources of energy, time has not run out.
Vehicles Air Factories Water Soil People Pollution Asian Brown Cloud
By the year 2050, China will no longer be the most populous country in the world. India will see its population grow by 700 million people by 2050, the U.S. Census bureau estimates. That distinction will pass to India, where more than 1.8 billion people could be competing for their country's resources, according to the U.S. Census Bureau's International Data Base. The 2007 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau and the United Nations Population Division set China's current population at around 1.3 billion people, and India's at around 1.1 billion. If population continues to grow at the estimated rate, such rapid growth in India between now and mid- century could lead to overpopulation and an uncertain future for the environment and the people living there.
Overpopulation occurs when a population's density exceeds the capacity of the environment to supply the health requirements of an individual. Environmentalists have long been concerned about the resources threatened by rapidly growing human populations, focusing on phenomenon such as deforestation, desertification, air pollution and global warming. But the worst-case scenario for people experiencing overpopulation is a lack of fresh, clean water.
Nine billion is an exceptional amount of people, considering the world's population only reached 1 billion in 1830. By 1999, world population reached 6 billion, and in the relatively short time between 2007 and 2050, there could be roughly 2.4 billion more people on Earth needing clean water, space and other natural resources from their environment in order to survive. Governments facing overpopulation will also struggle to manage waste. When London, England, faced a population boom in the 1850s, for example, its infrastructure was not prepared for the excess waste, which resulted in Cholera outbreaks.
Birthrates make a difference The massive growth in developing nations is due in large part to fertility rates, where women during their reproductive years will have an average of five children. China's government has instituted population control methods in order to curb growth. Their controversial "one child" policies have garnered an uneasy reception, especially in rural populations, where people complain of stiff fines or forced sterilizations and abortions as a result of breaking population laws.
Traditionally, rural populations are larger than urban populations. This is because rural families need to be larger in order to work and live off the land, and urban populations -- with better education, health care and family planning opportunities -- offer parents the luxury of choosing how many children they will have. This year is the first year that rural and urban populations are nearly equal, according to the United Nations. This creates a mixed bag of concerns, that include susceptibility of young urban populations in poor countries with weak governments to recruitment for terrorism and conditions of instability.
With the growth of population and the decline of fresh water, what could we expect for economic growth? As deforestation removes trees, desertification increases the size of deserts, and soil degradation removes nutrients; what could we expect in terms of food production?
Air pollution is one of India’s most serious environmental problems. An enormous and growing population along with rapid growth of cities and development of industry have left many parts of India with some of the heaviest air pollution in the world. Indians living in several major cities have some of the highest rates of respiratory diseases in the world. In addition to industrial smoke, the growing number of automobiles and trucks in India contribute to the poor air quality. Some estimates say that automobile emissions are responsible for almost 70% of the air pollution in some urban areas of India. Many people in India are poor. They do not want to do anything that would slow down economic growth. For this reason, it has been difficult for the Indian government to enforce many of the laws on industry and transportation that might improve the country’s air. In rural areas, many families cook over open fires, using wood, animal dung, or coal as fuels. These fuel sources send carbon monoxide, soot, and many different chemicals into the air as well. The air inside the home is often as bad as the outside. This pollution can form brown clouds which reduce rainfall and temperatures.
When the Olympic Committee decided to have the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, one of the concerns among the athletes who were going to complete was the quality of the air in that Chinese city. Beijing, like many other major cities in China, has experienced tremendous growth in both population and industry during the past few decades. Much of China’s energy is provided by burning coal, a process that sends tons of soot, ash, and chemicals into the atmosphere. In addition, millions of Chinese people now drive automobiles and trucks, whose exhaust is another source of massive air pollution.
According to the People’s Republic of China’s own statistics, the leading causes of death in that country are respiratory and heart diseases that can be tied to long exposure to air pollution. This pollution also leads to acid rain. Before the 2008 Olympics, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau was established to work on the quality of the city’s air. Automobile traffic was greatly reduced and many factories were temporarily closed. As a result, many major air pollutants were reduced by as much as 45%. Because China and India have such enormous populations, almost one half of all the people on the planet, attention to health issues related to air and water pollution are of critical importance.
3-2-1 3. List 3 causes of pollution world wide. 2. Provide 2 solutions for pollution. 1. Give one reason why governments are not acting fast enough to solve pollution concerns.
Vehicles Air Factories Water Soil People Pollution Asian Brown Cloud Overpopulation
Chose one of the following to write a 4 paragraph essay: Pick a country in Asia (that we have studied) and describe why you would want to travel there. Your family has decided to move to a country in Asia (one that we have studied). Explain why you agree or disagree with the decision. Chose one of the countries we have studied and explain the most important issues you think they are facing now and how to fix those problems.
Write a 5 paragraph essay from one of the following choices using the Asian countries we have studied: 1. You own a large business and want to expand to Asia. Which country will you set up shop and why. 2. Working as a pollution control specialist you are assigned the Asian countries we have studied to help them with their pollution issues. Which country will you begin with and why? (Don’t forget to include the government-some may not be that eager to listen to you). 3. As a newly elected Senator, you want to expand U.S. influence in Asia. Choose a country in which the U.S. should have better relations. Explain why and how you would approach that country.
In Asia Pollution spreads as economies boom. Planet Ark. http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/23266/story.htm. December 4, 2007 Asia: Irrigation, Pollution Threaten Lakes. Payvand News. http://www.payvand.com/news/05/apr/1081.html. December 4, 2007 Asian Brown Cloud Poses Global Threat. CNN. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/08/12/asia.haze/index.html. December 4, 2007 Nasa. ttp://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A0S020yIlFxH544ASAOjzbkF/SIG=12iaogrmc/EXP=1197336072/**htt p%3A//nasadaacs.eos.nasa.gov/articles/2006/2006_hotspots.html. December 9, 2007 Acid Rain. http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A0S020kZllxHBvMA1WOjzbkF/SIG=12240pvhb/EXP=1197336473/** http%3A//uregina.ca/~briere1l/acidrain/rain.html. December 8, 2007 Overpopulation Could Be People, Planet Problem. CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/09/25/overpopulation.overview/index.html. December 4, 2007 BBC News. Yangtze Pollution. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6559407.stm September 20, 2008 Flooding Effects. http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/02054/effects.htm October 9, 2008