Ethos Strategies Make the reader respect you. ▫ One strategy: Admit that you do not know everything or that you can’t magically make everything better. ▫ “I don’t have all the answers.” “I’ve made my share of mistakes.” Make the reader like your character or personality. ▫ One strategy: Using humor to increase your likability and reliability. Make the reader trust and believe you. ▫ Emphasizing your training and/or you direct experience with the topic. ▫ Ex. “I’ve been teaching for 10 years…” ▫ Ex. “I’m not a professional mechanic, but I’ve worked on cars in my spare time for years. That sounds to me like the timing belt is loose.” ▫ Ex. Emphasize the ways you and your audience are similar. (Background, concerns, etc.) Use vocabulary and grammar appropriate to your audience. ▫ Ex:. Speaking casually with your peers, and formally with your boss or grandparents.
Ethos Example: Product: George Foreman and his Grilling Machine Credentials: Boxing Champ and a Preacher Do these ads rely more on Foreman’s credibility (his expertise on grilling and small appliances) or on character (he has a good reputation as a preacher and a famous athlete, he wouldn’t be dishonest )? What is another example of a person using ethos to increase the appeal of their argument?
Logos (Logical) Appeal to Logic Logos: persuasion by the use of reasoning Why It Works: It makes the reader think about facts, reasons, causes and effects, etc. It establishes a conclusion that is more difficult to dismiss as silly or refute as wrong. Reader Response: “That makes a lot of sense; it is hard to argue against that.”
Logos Strategies Clear and logical reasons to support claim. Provides a variety of evidence such as: ▫ Factual data and statistics ▫ Expert informed opinions Makes the reader rationally question a belief. Use mostly neutral language so there is no distraction from the reasonability of the argument.
Pathos This is an appeal to emotions or feelings. It can appeal to “higher” emotions or “lower” emotions. Why it Works: Emotions of fear, love, hope, etc. are extremely powerful and shape decisions we make everyday. It draws a personal connection between the readers’ experience and the issue at hand. Reader Response: “I am connected to this issue because _________. It makes me happy/sad/angry/ worried/ etc. about it. What can I do?”
Pathos Strategies ▫ Loaded, Emotionally-charged language (positive or negative connotations) ▫ Personal narratives (anecdotes) of emotional events ▫ Vivid description ▫ Makes the reader feel a particular emotion. (The advertisements for a product make you feel happy, so you come to connect happiness with the product. That little connection can be enough to make you pick it up instead of the competing product when you are choosing at the store.)
Pathos Example: How does this advertisement appeal to emotion? Why?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? What appeal are advertisers using to get you to buy their product?
Objective: As you view each advertisement that comes up on the screen, decide if it’s appealing to your sense of ethos, pathos, or logos.
ETHOS, PATHOS, and LOGOS AS YOU ANALYZE THE ADVERTISMENTS: Ethos: Is it Ethical? Pathos: Does it make you feel a strong emotion? Logos: Does it make you use your sense of reason?
Ethos Ethos : Ethics To make the audience decide right or wrong about what is being presented to it Political issues, national beliefs, religious issues, etc… Typically has contrasting colors symbolizing the difference between good and evil.
Pathos Pathos : Emotion To make the audience feel something about what is presented to it Children, animals, illness, memories, etc… “Tugs at your heart strings”
Logos Logos : Logic To make the audience think about what is presented to it Statistics, facts, authorities, etc… Very straightforward, and not “fluff”. It has a very scientific, factual approach.
Can some advertisements have more than one appeal? Yes! The more appeals used in an ad the more likely the consumer is to connect with it. For the case of this lesson or power point, pick the MOST emphasized appeal used in each ad to write onto your sheet.
Logical Appeals (logos)- convincing reasons and the logical evidence that supports those reasons Facts Statistics Expert opinion Example Factual anecdote
Emotional Appeals (pathos)- used to stir feelings in the reader (i.e., happiness or anger) ◦ Loaded words/language- really positive or negative sounding words ◦ Short anecdote that plays to audience’s emotions ◦ Appeal to senses by including vivid sensory details (taste, smell, hearing, touch, sight)
Ethical Appeals (ethos)- based on character, credibility, and/or reliability of the author Makes the audience believe the author is reasonable (willing to listen, compromise) Demonstrates the author’s knowledge, credibility and/or expertise of the topic Demonstrates that the writer “knows” the readers and respects them Focuses more on the author, not the topic
While all three appeals can be used and/or analyzed separately, the strongest and most persuasive arguments use a mixture of all three appeals. It is important that you consider who your audience is when you are using persuasive appeals.
Now you try: The animal shelter desperately needs your support. It is overflowing with lonely little kittens who spend their days mewing and whimpering and staring forlornly out of their cramped crates. Emotional appeal (pathos) I deserve the position because I have worked faithfully for the past 30 years. I always go above and beyond what is expected of me. I was even selected as “Employee of the Month.” Ethical appeal (ethos) According to a study by CNN, 28% of teenagers report that they could manage without a TV. Logical appeal (logos)
Each small group will be a different superhero. The earth is in danger and I must choose one superhero to defend mankind as we know it. Using logos, pathos, and ethos, your group must convince me that your superhero deserves the honor of saving the world. Superhero Battle Activity
Superhero Name Logos Pathos Ethos 5 things in each column Superhero Activity Poster