Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Significance of the Oceans

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Significance of the Oceans"— Presentation transcript:

1 Significance of the Oceans

2 The Ocean Ecosystem 1. Source of moisture 2. Source of oxygen
3. Source of protein supply 4. Source of energy

3 Source of Moisture

4 South Africa Uplift over the Drakensberg Durban 1008mm
Port Nolloth 150mm Less evaporation and little uplift, parrallel winds Warm Mozambique current More evaporation Onshore airflow Cold Benguela current Warm Agulhas

5 Activity On the sheet provided fill in the missing currents
Indicate if they are warm or cold currents Highlight areas where warm and cold currents meet

6 Ocean Currents

7 Causes of currents Prevailing wind e.g. the West wind drift current
Earths rotation e.g. Southern hemispheric anticlockwise currents Salinity – more saline the water, the heavier the water Temperature – the colder the water, the heavier it is

8 Oceanic circulation: Currents
Cyclones / Gyres

9 Source of oxygen Phytoplankton


11 Photolysis …. The part of photosynthesis that occurs
in the granum of a chloroplast where light is absorbed by chlorophyll, turned into chemical energy, and used to split apart the oxygen and hydrogen in water, releasing oxygen. (

12 Protein Source

13 Zooplankton

14 Where are all the fish found?
On the continental shelf where there is sunlight and therefore photosynthesis can occur. This means that there is much phytoplankton in the area i.e. food for zooplankton and fish Where warm currents carrying oxygenated water and cold currents bearing nutrients released by cold water washing across the ocean floor, meet

15 Two Levels of Fishing

16 Subsistence fishing

17 Commercial fishing

18 Sources of Energy Tidal Wave Oil and gas

19 Tidal Energy

20 Tidal Power

21 Wave Energy

22 Wave Power


24 Wave Power

25 Make your own wave energy system

26 Oil and Natural Gas

27 Various Rigs

28 Dangerous!

29 Mossgas


31 El Nino



34 El Nino Effects

35 La Nina El Nino La Nina is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, compared to El Nino, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.



38 La Nina Effects

39 Activity 5

40 Anomaly Positive anomaly
The surface temperature is warmer than the calculated temperature for that latitude Negative anomaly The surface temperature is colder than the calculated temperature for that latitude

41 Interesting facts Over 70 percent (70.8%) of the surface of the globe is ocean. In fact, all of the land mass of the Earth (continents and islands) would fit into the Pacific Ocean alone - and with room to spare.

42 Interesting facts Population - More than half the world’s population live within a   60 miles distance from the coast. This is more than 2.7 billion people. Rapid urbanization will lead to more coastal megacities containing 10 million or more people. By the end of the millennium 13 out of 15 of the world’s largest cities will be located on or near the coast.

43 Interesting facts The oceans contain 95% of the habitat space on the planet. Creatures, large and small - The number of ocean species known to man are 275,000. The largest animal and marine mammal in the world is the blue whale. It's up to 33 meters long and weighs as much as 40 rhinoceroses put together.

44 Interesting facts Some scientists estimate that the oceans contain as much as 50 quadrillion tons (50 million billion tons=50,000,000,000,000,000) of dissolved solids. If the salt in the ocean could be removed and spread evenly over the Earth’s land surface it would form a layer more than 500 feet  thick, about the height of a 40-story office building. - Atlantic sea water is heavier than Pacific sea water due to its higher salt content

45 The Impact of Humans on Oceans

46 The Impact of humans on Oceans
Ocean Pollution Mining Fishing Threats to estuaries and wetlands

47 Ocean pollution

48 Eutrophication

49 A bloom of phytoplankton - the well-known "red tide" - off the Cape west coast in April 2003.

50 Oil Spills


52 Plastic/garbage

53 Sewage

54 Radioactive waste

55 Chemicals

56 Thermal Pollution

57 Direct dumping Dumping chalk

58 Activity 4 Read about the Jolly Rubino, the MV Treasure and the Apollo Sea Activity 4.1 and 4.2

59 Pollution solutions Do the mindmap

60 Pollution solutions Global issue – currents “internationalize” the problem Banning – the dumping of plastics and industrial waste, untreated human waste and other dangerous material into the sea and rivers (which eventually feed the sea)

61 Over-fishing

62 Solutions to Overfishing?
P104 and 105

63 Role of the Oceans in World Trade and Tourism

64 Advantages of Shipping
Importance of shipping is increasing More efficient than before Cheap Bulky material Long distances – intercontinental

65 Oil Tankers

66 ULCC’s


68 Problems

69 Sink and Oil spills

70 Containerization

71 Advantages of Containers
Accessible to the general public Easy to track More protection against theft Easier to pack Weather proof

72 Ro Ro Ships

73 Cruise ships

74 Diver Pressure


76 Tourism What negative and positive effects do tourists have on the marine environment? Read p102 What do you believe would be the best way/s to manage the effect tourists have on the environment? This you have to think through…

77 Mining Diamond mining off west coast of South Africa
On shore zone - scars landscape/ ecosystems In shallow water – gravel is suctioned, destroying coral, plant and other animal habitats Mossgas – pipeline potential source of pollution

78 Managing mining’s impact
Is there such a thing as “environmentally friendly” mining? How can sea-mining be more environmentally friendly? Is it possible to ban sea-mining?

79 Threats to estuaries and wetlands

80 Threats to estuaries and wetlands
Estuaries can be drained and used for pastures or planting of crops Water table may fall and ecosystems are severely impacted. How? Tourism e.g. St Lucia Upstream industrial pollution

81 Managing wetlands Encourage research into wetland management
Train people National policy Plan for sustainable use of wetlands Work internationally and especially regionally

82 Sustainability Focus p104
“The development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Focus p104

83 Coastal Management: Internationally
Coastal population 75% of world population by 2025! Protect marine environment against unbridled development

84 Coastal Management: Internationally
UNCLOS Coastal countries can claim sovereign rights over the national area of the continental shelf for exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of all resources for 22,2km – 370km

85 Coastal Management: Internationally
Marine Protected Areas Beach villages in the West Indies

86 Coastal Management: Internationally
Blue Flag beaches Good management Safety Good facilities Education for beach users Water must meet minimum microbiological standards 8 Beaches in South Africa

87 Blue Flag Beaches

88 Coastal Management: South Africa
Coastal care Financial and technical assistance Education and training Research and coastal information projects Litter removal Security Maintenance of amenities

89 Coastal Management: South Africa
Marine and Coastal management 20 Marine Protected Areas (MPA’s) Sanctuary and breeding grounds to preserve marine species

90 Aliwal Shoal Cape Peninsula Namaqualand

91 Port St Johns

Download ppt "Significance of the Oceans"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google