4 South Africa Uplift over the Drakensberg Durban 1008mm Port Nolloth 150mmLess evaporation and little uplift, parrallel windsWarm Mozambique currentMore evaporationOnshore airflowCold Benguela currentWarm Agulhas
5 Activity On the sheet provided fill in the missing currents Indicate if they are warm or cold currentsHighlight areas where warm and cold currents meet
7 Causes of currents Prevailing wind e.g. the West wind drift current Earths rotation e.g. Southern hemispheric anticlockwise currentsSalinity – more saline the water, the heavier the waterTemperature – the colder the water, the heavier it is
11 Photolysis …. The part of photosynthesis that occurs in the granum of a chloroplast where light is absorbed by chlorophyll, turned into chemical energy, and used to split apart the oxygen and hydrogen in water, releasing oxygen.(
14 Where are all the fish found? On the continental shelf where there is sunlight and therefore photosynthesis can occur. This means that there is much phytoplankton in the area i.e. food for zooplankton and fishWhere warm currents carrying oxygenated water and cold currents bearing nutrients released by cold water washing across the ocean floor, meet
35 La Nina El NinoLa Nina is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, compared to El Nino, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.
40 Anomaly Positive anomaly The surface temperature is warmer than the calculated temperature for that latitudeNegative anomalyThe surface temperature is colder than the calculated temperature for that latitude
41 Interesting factsOver 70 percent (70.8%) of the surface of the globe is ocean. In fact, all of the land mass of the Earth (continents and islands) would fit into the Pacific Ocean alone - and with room to spare.
42 Interesting factsPopulation - More than half the world’s population live within a 60 miles distance from the coast. This is more than 2.7 billion people. Rapid urbanization will lead to more coastal megacities containing 10 million or more people. By the end of the millennium 13 out of 15 of the world’s largest cities will be located on or near the coast.
43 Interesting factsThe oceans contain 95% of the habitat space on the planet. Creatures, large and small - The number of ocean species known to man are 275,000. The largest animal and marine mammal in the world is the blue whale. It's up to 33 meters long and weighs as much as 40 rhinoceroses put together.
44 Interesting factsSome scientists estimate that the oceans contain as much as 50 quadrillion tons (50 million billion tons=50,000,000,000,000,000) of dissolved solids. If the salt in the ocean could be removed and spread evenly over the Earth’s land surface it would form a layer more than 500 feet thick, about the height of a 40-story office building. - Atlantic sea water is heavier than Pacific sea water due to its higher salt content
60 Pollution solutionsGlobal issue – currents “internationalize” the problemBanning – the dumping of plastics and industrial waste, untreated human waste and other dangerous material into the sea and rivers (which eventually feed the sea)
76 TourismWhat negative and positive effects do tourists have on the marine environment?Read p102What do you believe would be the best way/s to manage the effect tourists have on the environment?This you have to think through…
77 Mining Diamond mining off west coast of South Africa On shore zone - scars landscape/ ecosystemsIn shallow water – gravel is suctioned, destroying coral, plant and other animal habitatsMossgas – pipeline potential source of pollution
78 Managing mining’s impact Is there such a thing as “environmentally friendly” mining?How can sea-mining be more environmentally friendly?Is it possible to ban sea-mining?
80 Threats to estuaries and wetlands Estuaries can be drained and used for pastures or planting of cropsWater table may fall and ecosystems are severely impacted. How?Tourism e.g. St LuciaUpstream industrial pollution
81 Managing wetlands Encourage research into wetland management Train peopleNational policyPlan for sustainable use of wetlandsWork internationally and especially regionally
82 Sustainability Focus p104 “The development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”Focus p104
83 Coastal Management: Internationally Coastal population 75% of world population by 2025!Protect marine environment against unbridled development
84 Coastal Management: Internationally UNCLOSCoastal countries can claim sovereign rights over the national area of the continental shelf for exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of all resources for 22,2km – 370km
85 Coastal Management: Internationally Marine Protected AreasBeach villages in the West Indies
86 Coastal Management: Internationally Blue Flag beachesGood managementSafetyGood facilitiesEducation for beach usersWater must meet minimum microbiological standards8 Beaches in South Africa