 # The Metric System, Conversions & Scientific Notation

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The Metric System, Conversions & Scientific Notation

The Metric System The metric system is an internationally standardized system of units of measurement. The metric system is based on a base unit and prefixes.

Prefixes Kilo - 1000 k Hecto - 100 h Deca - 10 da 1 Deci - 0.1 d
Centi c Milli m

Length The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m)
Metric Units of Length Kilometer (km) = 1000 m Hectometer (hm) = 100 m Decameter (dam) = 10 m Meter (m) = 1 m Decimeter (dm) = 0.1 m Centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m Millimeter (mm) = m

Mass Weight is a measure of how strongly gravity is pulling on an object (can change). Mass is the amount of matter an object has (doesn’t change). Note: On Earth, weight and mass are often used interchangeably.

Mass The basic unit of mass in the metric system is a gram (g)
Metric Units of Mass Kilogram (kg) = 1000 g Hectogram (hg) = 100 g Decagram (dag) = 10 g Gram (g) = 1 g Decigram (dg) = 0.1 g Centigram (cg) = 0.01 g Milligram (mg) = g

Capacity Metric Units of Capacity
Liquid substances are measured in units of capacity. The basic unit of mass in liquids is a liter (L) Metric Units of Capacity Kiloliter (kL) = 1000 L Hectoliter (hL) = 100 L Decaliter (daL) = 10 L Liter (L) = 1 L Deciliter (dL) = 0.1 L Centiliter (cL) = 0.01 L Milliliter (mL) = L

Conversions within the Metric System
To convert units within the metric system, write the prefixes in order from largest to smallest k h da d c m To convert from a smaller unit to a larger unit, move to the left To convert from a larger unit to a smaller unit, move to the right

Ex: Convert 1600 cm to m km hm dam m dm cm mm Move 2 places to the left to get from cm to m Therefore, move the decimal point in 1600 two places to the left to convert from cm to m 1600 cm = m

Ex: Convert 2 kL to L Move 3 places to the right to get from kL to L
kL hL daL L dL cL mL Move 3 places to the right to get from kL to L Therefore, move the decimal point in 2 three places to the right to convert from kL to L 2 KL = 2000 L

Conversions between the U.S. Customary System and the Metric System
Units of Mass 1 oz g 1 lb g 2.2 lb kg Units of Capacity 1.06 qt L 1 gal L Units of Length 1 in = 2.54 cm 3.28 ft m 1.09 yd m 1 mi km

Ex: Convert 130 lbs to kg (round to the nearest whole number)

Scientific Notation Scientific notation is the way that scientists handle very large numbers or very small numbers. Examples: 24327 = x 104 0.053 = 5.3 x 10-2