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Ergonomics Analysis Material Handling.

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1 Ergonomics Analysis Material Handling

2 Agenda/Objectives Case studies Statistics Other Control Examples
Resources Statistics Ergonomics Programs Risk Factors JSA This presentation will: Compare components between ergonomics programs and safety programs. Describe how risk factors that can be included in a JSA. Analyze two material handling scenarios and control methods.

3 MSD Rates 2013 In 2013, BLS reported for nonfatal injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work accounted for 33% Nursing assistants and laborers and freight, stock, and material movers are the two highest occupational classes for MSD. MSD account for 53 percent of all nursing assistant injuries. BLS, Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away From Work, 2013

4 What is Manual Material Handling?
Lift, lower, push, pull, or carry tools, materials, equipment or stock. Risk factor severity is increased with bending, reaching, or twisting of the body - awkward posture. Task design must consider strength needed to complete the task and strength capabilities of most workers. High Force Frequency Posture

5 Ergonomics VS Safety Programs
“An ergonomic process uses the principles of an Injury and Illness Prevention Program ” https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html Provide Management Support Involve Workers Provide Training Encourage Early Reporting of MSD Symptoms Implement Solutions to Control Hazards Evaluate Progress Ergonomics Programs and Safety Programs: Are they different?

6 Effective Program Written plan Endorsed by upper management
Specific to workplace Communicated to personnel Plan should outline goals and objectives Who should endorse the written plan? How do you ensure that the plan is understood by personnel? DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis

7 Ergonomics Program Audit
Ergo program audit. Two sections: program structure and process. DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis

8 Ergonomics Program Audit
DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis

9 Material Handling Risk Factors
Force: NIOSH Formula, 3D modeling, Snook Tables Repetition: Motion analysis observation and/or video Posture: Goniometer, observation (RULA, REBA) Fatigue: Energy expenditure, heart rate, etc Vibration: Observation, ACGIH, ISO and ANSI Weight + Awkward Posture = High Force Repetition and Fatigue increase probability of injury The 1991 equation biomechanical criteria for establishing the maximum lower back compression force of 770 lbs. Load constant 51 pounds. Increase the minimum horizontal distance from 6 inches to 10 inches (which is believed to be the minimum attainable horizontal distance as measured from the spine during lifting) in the 1991 equation.

10 NIOSH Lifting Equation
E&S Research Consultants, LLC Criteria for Recommended Weight Limit Compressive force LB Strength - 75% Female, 99% male NIOSH Lifting Formula RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AMx CM x FM. Load Constant is 51 LB. Load Index = Load Weight RWL

11 Example Load 44 pounds Reel 30 “ wide 23” feet to hand position
Destination 63” Origin LI: 44/16.3 = 2.7 Destination LI: 44/14.5 = 3.4 E&S Research Consultants, LLC

12 Reduce Weight and Encourage Neutral Posture
The 1991 equation biomechanical criteria for establishing the maximum lower back compression force of 770 lbs. Load constant 51 pounds. Increase the minimum horizontal distance from 6 inches to 10 inches (which is believed to be the minimum attainable horizontal distance as measured from the spine during lifting) in the 1991 equation. Reduced force to the L4/L5 Elbow, shoulder: Yellow Torso, hip knee ankle: Red

13 Awkward Posture Increases Force
10 10 lb at 25 inches is 250 lb of force to your back (plus torso weight). 10 lb at 10 inches is 100 lb of force to your back (plus torso weight).

14 Excessive Force = Injury
Causes lower back compression force of 770 lb Force impinges on the disc and nerves causing herniation and pain. Eastern Washington University Working Safely: Lifting in the Warehouse The acromion "impinges" on the rotator cuff and bursa causing pain. AAOS

15 Posture Assessment DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis
Awkward postures require increased muscle force; contribute to muscle fatigue, tendon fatigue, and joint soreness; and increase forces on the spine. Figure 2-2 identifies the optimal position and angle of various body parts during work activities. It also presents the angles at which body parts will experience minimum, moderate, and severe stress. DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis

16 Consult with “Observation-Based Posture Analysis”, NIOSH
Also consider REBA

17 Posture Assessment DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis 35 degrees flexion

18 Material Handling Assessment
Methods can include: JSA: Safety hazards plus ergonomic risk factors Observations and Video Recording Distance of the load from the spine. Lifting distance. Power zone. Twisting. Frequency and duration may increase fatigue NIOSH Lifting Formula/Snook Tables/3D Modeling Checklists Human factors Lighting Temperature OSHA logs, insurance records, medical records, near miss logs. Demographics. Demographic information should include: · Number of workers assigned to the area or job series. · Age and gender distribution of the workers. · Length of the workday and daily break schedule. · Any special administrative arrangements such as job rotation plans or flex schedules. · Length of time at a particular task or job.Tasks. Task-related information should include: · Description of the task. · Task objective. · Percentage of the day spent performing the task. · Task pacing (e.g., continuous or intermittent, machine-paced, or self-paced). Products. If a speDemographics. Demographic information should include: · Number of workers assigned to the area or job series. · Age and gender distribution of the workers. · Length of the workday and daily break schedule. · Any special administrative arrangements such as job rotation plans or flex schedules. · Length of time at a particular task or job.Tasks. Task-related information should include: · Description of the task. · Task objective. · Percentage of the day spent performing the task. · Task pacing (e.g., continuous or intermittent, machine-paced, or self-paced).Products. If a specific product is produced, the action team should identify: · Weight and dimensions. · Cost of producing a unit. · Production rate and quotas. · Error rate and any error penalties for the workers.cific product is produced, the action team should identify: · Weight and dimensions. · Cost of producing a unit. · Production rate and quotas. · Error rate and any error penalties for the workers.

19 JSA Hazards to Consider
Focus Four Ergonomic Risk Factors Physical Chemical Falls Force Vibration Corrosive Struck By/Struck Against Posture Noise Pressure Fire Electrical Repetition Radiation Toxic Caught Into Fatigue Temperature Explosion

20 Job Safety Analysis A technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. After uncontrolled hazards are identified, action can be taken to eliminate them or reduce risk.

21 JSA Prioritizing Jobs/Tasks
The number of workers affected. High incidence rates. Case severity. Exposure time of risk factors. Reported/unreported symptoms. Demographics Involve employees in the process OSHA logs, insurance records, medical records, near miss logs. Demographics. Demographic information should include: · Number of workers assigned to the area or job series. · Age and gender distribution of the workers. · Length of the workday and daily break schedule. · Any special administrative arrangements such as job rotation plans or flex schedules. · Length of time at a particular task or job. Tasks. Task-related information should include: · Description of the task. · Task objective. · Percentage of the day spent performing the task. · Task pacing (e.g., continuous or intermittent, machine-paced, or self-paced). Products. If a speDemographics. Demographic information should include: · Number of workers assigned to the area or job series. · Age and gender distribution of the workers. · Length of the workday and daily break schedule. · Any special administrative arrangements such as job rotation plans or flex schedules. · Length of time at a particular task or job.Tasks. Task-related information should include: · Description of the task. · Task objective. · Percentage of the day spent performing the task. · Task pacing (e.g., continuous or intermittent, machine-paced, or self-paced).Products. If a specific product is produced, the action team should identify: · Weight and dimensions. · Cost of producing a unit. · Production rate and quotas. · Error rate and any error penalties for the workers.cific product is produced, the action team should identify: · Weight and dimensions. · Cost of producing a unit. · Production rate and quotas. · Error rate and any error penalties for the workers.

22 Basic Task Components DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis
Conduct an in-depth assessment of the work environment once problem areas or job series have been identified and prioritized. The four basic components of the work environment— the workstation and physical environment; specific tasks; tools, equipment, and containers used in performing the tasks; and employee characteristics DOD Chapter 2:Worksite Analysis

23 JSA Tools and Task Information
Top and Side Tools Video Camera: Motion and stills Tape measurer Timer Force Gauge On Site Actions Log the task segment, date and time. Select views that maximize description of the movement. Observe and record several cycles and employees. Record Twisting Motion

24 Who Is Involved the JHA Process?
Safety personnel Department managers and supervisors Employees who perform the process Design engineers Maintenance personnel Slide Show Notes To be successful, JHAs must be a total team effort that involves nearly everyone in the workplace. Generally speaking, the following people are involved in each job hazard analysis we conduct: Safety personnel who are trained to identify hazards and know regulatory requirements; Department managers and supervisors who know production processes and schedules and have the authority to implement changes; Employees who perform the process and know them well; Design engineers who design the operation and help “design out” identified hazards; and Maintenance personnel who work on the equipment and are familiar with potential failure or risk scenarios in the work areas. If you’ve been involved in a JHA, you may remember all the different people who participated. Think about the information you have about your process that you can contribute to the next JHA. Identify the people involved in the JHA for the process performed by trainees, and discuss the need for cooperation and communication among all these people. 24

25 JSA Procedure Identify each major step of the job task
List the risk factors and hazard(s) to each major step Determine the control(s) that would prevent an accident for each hazard identified Develop safe procedures and checklists to train and evaluate task performance

26 Elimination: Most Effective
Hierarchy of Controls Eliminate the human component: Overhead cranes, vacuum systems, lift trucks, etc Elimination: Most Effective Substitution/Reduce Redesign/Engineer Admin/Work Practices PPE Least Effective Reduce the weight of the object or container. Add handles. Change the lift task to lowering, carrying, pulling or Pushing, Eliminate the human component of the material handling task by adding mechanical assists such as: Conveyors Lift trucks Hand trucks or carts Tables Overhead cranes Vacuum systems Reduce the weight of the object being handled: Reduce the weight of the object itself. Reduce the weight of the container. Reduce the size of the container. Specify quantity per container to suppliers. Make more than one trip. Share the load—ask for help! Rotate jobs Practices: Make more than one trip. Share the load. Lifting training. Wellness Use knee pads, wrist braces, floor mats, etc.

27 Examples: Eliminate and Substitute
Substitute and reduce the weight Plastic pallet weighs 20 lb instead of lb. Eliminate Use a vacuum lift and eliminate the human component.

28 Add Handles/Reduce the Container Size
E&S Research Consultants, LLC This shows the difference in lifting posture between picking up a box from the bottom, and picking it up using handles near the top of the box. Smaller Containers

29 Redesign Height adjustable platform allows the heavy box to slide.
The task is changed from a lifting task to a push-pull task.

30 Administrative Controls
Rotate to other jobs E&S Research Consultants, LLC List of principles to reduce duration of lifting

31 Best Practices Pivot Technique Avoid Twisting
E&S Research Consultants, LLC Avoid Twisting

32 Best Practices Prepare Yourself for work
E&S Research Consultants, LLC

33 Best Practices E&S Research Consultants, LLC

34 PPE Gloves to cushion hands and wrists
https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/electricalcontractors/installation/pulling.html Knee pad with built-in seat

35 Maintenance Reduce forces necessary to perform the material handling task: Properly maintain and lubricate wheels, bearings, etc., for material handling equipment. Replace small diameter wheels on carts and hand trucks with larger diameter wheels. Ensure the handhold or grips on the handles of boxes and carts allows for a secure grip. Reduce the occurrence of unsuspected forces: Maintain floors to eliminate cracks, holes, and bumps. Replace worn shoes, ensure shoe soles are suitable to increase the shoe grip on the floor surface. Maintain a clean work area to avoid trip and fall hazards.

36 Pulling Wire Grasping wire Posture -Bending forward -Arms overhead
Force : heavy gage wire Electrical Pulling wire Posture -Bending backward -Arms overhead Falling backwards Dismounting ladder Trip and fall on wire 3 point contact

37 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures 1.Position Ladder Ladder selection: too short for the task. Slip/falls - strains Ladder condition: slips/falls 2. Climb Ladder Fall: not holding on – lack of three point contact 3. Grasp wire Electrical Reaching overhead: neck, shoulder and back strain. 4. Pull wire Fall- Leaning backwards, unstable. Pull force increases strain. 5. Dismount Ladder Hanging wires – trip/fall Fatigue and loss of balance

38 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures 1.Position Ladder Ladder selection: too short for the task. Slip/falls - strains Ladder condition: slips/falls Proper ladder selection Ladder inspection 2. Climb Ladder Fall: not holding on – lack of three point contact Ladder safety training Supervision 3. Grasp wire Electrical Reaching overhead: neck, shoulder and back strain. Identify live conductors. LOTO Raise worker to improve posture 4. Pull wire Fall- Leaning backwards, unstable. Pull force increases strain. Fall protection Wire pullers 5. Dismount Ladder Hanging wires – trip/fall Fatigue and loss of balance Elevated platform/railings. 3 point contact

39 Controls Elevated platform Mechanical wire puller

40 Warehouse Picker 2. Crawl to/from load Stoop to reach load
Extreme back, neck and knee posture Struck by – head, shoulders, elbows contacting rack Struck by and contact force – knees and shins on pallets, sliver, bruises. Force – pulling box Stoop to reach load Extreme back and knee posture Struck by – head contacting rack Working Safely: Lifting in the Warehouse

41 Warehouse Picker 4. Carry to Pallet Hand position at box end.
Slip/fall – warehouse debris. Box could slip and cause fall. Force – carry distance increases strain and fatigue. 3. Lift from floor level Awkward posture: twisting, reaching and stooping. Force to back and knees from box. 5. Place on pallet Extreme posture of the shoulder, arms, and neck. Struck by boxes and pallets.

42 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures Stoop to reach load Extreme back and knee posture Struck by – head contacting rack 2. Crawl to/from load Extreme back, neck & knee posture Struck by – head, shoulders, elbows contacting rack Struck by and force – knees on pallets, sliver, bruises. Force – pulling box 3. Lift from floor level Awkward posture: twisting, reaching and stooping. Force to back and knees from box. Box weight unknown.

43 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures 4. Carry to Pallet Hand position at box end. Box could slip and cause fall. Slip/fall – warehouse debris. Force – carry distance increases strain and fatigue. 5. Place box on pallet Extreme posture of the shoulder, arms, and neck. Struck by boxes and pallets.

44 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures Stoop to reach load Extreme back and knee posture Struck by – head contacting rack Provide pick stick Place most picked items at power zone level 2. Crawl to/from load Extreme back, neck & knee posture Struck by – head, shoulders, elbows contacting rack Struck by and force – knees on pallets, sliver, bruises. Force – pulling box Lighter weigh boxes at the floor level. Only store boxes near aisle position. 3. Lift from floor level Awkward posture: twisting, reaching and stooping. Force to back and knees from box. Box weight unknown. Identify box weight. Ask suppliers to provide containers with cut out handles.

45 JSA Form Job Steps Potential Hazards Controls/ Safe Procedures
Focus 4, ergo, chemical, physical Controls/ Safe Procedures 4. Carry to Pallet Hand position at box end. Box could slip and cause fall. Slip/fall – warehouse debris. Force – carry distance increases strain and fatigue. Provide carts to move boxes. Inspect path before carrying box. Provide boxes with handles. 5. Place box on pallet Extreme posture of the shoulder, arms, and neck. Struck by boxes and pallets. Walk around pallet for better position. Consider pallet lift or turn table.

46 Controls Uline.com Walk around pallet Pallet stand or turntable
Pick Stick for high and low locations

47 Handling Drywall After small groups have met for 15 minutes, bring them back together to report on their task. Continue with handling drywall. Ask the class: Will the recorder for group #2 please report back their answers for handling drywall? After the handling drywall small group has reported, show the next slide to make sure the group has included all the points on that slide. State Building & Construction Trades Council of California, AFL-CIO, 2012 Photo Source: Ergonomic Interventions in Construction: Evaluation, Diffusion, and Adoption, Steve Hecker

48 Drywall Solutions Risks factors might include:
Pressure put on hands to grip and carry the drywall Carrying heavy material in an awkward position. Solutions might include: Using a strap or handles to carry drywall Using a cart to carry drywall Using a stand to lift and position the drywall in place Use the buddy system—get help to carry drywall. See handout: Drywall Installers: Prevent Back, Wrist, Neck and Shoulder Injuries, California Department of Health Services, California Department of industrial Relations. See handout: Back & Lifting Checklist, from Tailgate Meetings That Work: A Guide to Effective Construction Safety, LOHP and SBCTC. Photo Source: Ergonomic Interventions in Construction: Evaluation, Diffusion, and Adoption, Steve Hecker

49 Resident Lifting and Repositioning Solutions
Sit-to-Stand Lift E&S Research Consultants, LLC Floor-Based Sling Lift

50 Reducing Awkward Lifting and Bending
Rearrange storage E&S Research Consultants, LLC The cost of this solution will vary depending on how many items are stored and how much rearranging needs to be done to get them at a good height. This example assumes 30 hours of work (changing rack heights, using forklifts to move pallets) at $20 per hour for a total cost of $600. Lumberyard, moved of all heavy items on shelves between knee and shoulder level. The higher items can often be slid down to waist level before lifting them.

51 Benefits of JSAs Improves safety performance Reduces absences
Increases productivity Improves morale Assists in OSHA compliance Slide Show Notes JHAs have many benefits for you and for the organization as a whole. The main benefit of course is that JHAs reduce accidents, injuries, and illness, thereby improving safety performance. Because JHA reduces injuries and illness, it also reduces absences. This means we have more fully qualified people on the job every day, which means you don’t have to do extra work to cover for sick or injured co-workers. And it also means that each one of us is safer on the job. When we’re fully staffed, people aren’t stressed or overburdened, which means they can take their time and work safely. More people at work every day means increased productivity as well. It means we’re able to meet production schedules and keep our organization operating at peak performance. JHAs also help improve workplace morale. When people feel safe in the workplace, they’re happier and more satisfied with their job. And that means we can all do our best and contribute to the success of the organization. Another very important aspect of JHAs is that it helps us comply with OSHA and similar workplace regulations. When we know about all the hazards, we can take the necessary steps to protect everyone as the regulations require. 51

52 Resources OSHA site http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html
OSHA V-Tool Sprains and Strains in Construction: Pulling Cables Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) Observation-Based Posture Analysis Review of Current Practice and Recommendation for Improvement

53 Resources NIOSH Lifting Equations http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/94-110.html
Snook tools 3D Static Strength Prediction Program Eastern Washington University Working Safely: Lifting in the Warehouse ACGIH Ergonomic Toolkit https://www.aiha.org/get-involved/VolunteerGroups/Documents/ERGOVG-Toolkit_rev2011.pdf

54 Resources State Building & Construction Trades Council of California, AFL-CIO, 2012: OSHA grant number SH F-6 https://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/fy11/sh /PreventingSprainsStrains_RSI.pptx DoD Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Network and Information Exchange Ergonomic Guidelines for Manual Material Handling Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers


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