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Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Dr.Pushpa Raj Sharma Professor.

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Presentation on theme: "Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Dr.Pushpa Raj Sharma Professor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Audio / Visual Aids: definition, types, principles and its use. Dr.Pushpa Raj Sharma Professor of Child Health 5 th Feb. 2009

2 Objectives At the end of presentation we will be able to: –Define learning resources –List learning resources –Choose the most appropriate audio / visual aids.

3 Define Learning The process by which relatively permanent changes occur in behavioral potential as a result of experience. (Anderson) The process of acquiring knowledge, attitudes, or skills from study,instruction, or experience. (Miller &Findlay)

4 Define Resources The term, resources, is generally used to describe funds. "A source of supply or support; available means" (Webster’s). – 3 M In medical education it is used for supports that helps in learning.

5 What are learning resources? The inputs used in the process of acquiring knowledge, attitudes, or skills from study,instruction, or experience. They could be classified –as electronic or non electronic.

6 LIGHT Links: –Obvious and direct to our talk, discussion of presentation. Intellegibility: –Easy to understand and learn from. General style: –Consistent style. Highlighting: –Colour, text, underline Targeting: –Knowledge and skills what students already have

7 What are Audio-visual aids? The term audio-visual aid refers to anything that is used to help to convey the message when communicating audience. The spoken word is the teacher's main communication tool. Its impact and effectiveness can be greatly increased by the use of suitable audio-visual aids

8 When selected and used properly, how audio-visual aids help ? The interest of the audience can be maintained if the teacher varies the mode of presentation. When information is presented to more than one sense (sight and touch, for example, as well as hearing), more is taken in and it is better understood and remembered.

9 When selected and used properly, how audio-visual aids can help? Processes and concepts that are difficult to express in words alone can be explained. Pictures can have a more immediate impact on our emotions than words.

10 One picture is worth of ten thousand words: Old Chinese Proverb.

11 What are the types of AUDIO VISUAL AIDS? Non electric –Books –Handouts –Chalk/marker and board –Nankeens –Models –Flip charts Electric –Over head projector –Slide projector –Computer with LCD (Liquid Crystal Display ) Simulated patient

12 Can any one volunteer to use chalk board /marker board?

13 Chalkboards: fixed or free standing easel Its uses: setting down the main headings/ concept of a talk sketching simple drawings and diagrams noting points raised in questions and discussion no electricity is needed

14 Chalkboards/ marker board: Whiteboard / blackboard writing is large enough for someone at the back of the audience before cleaning be sure it is copied headings and phrases are kept short lot of time with back to audience while writing. drawing horizontal chalk lines for guidance coloured chalk emphasizes

15 Most people believe that a presentation with visual aids is more persuasive. improve communication effectiveness improve audience’s perceptions of presenter improve speaker’s confidence ( A Study of the Effects of the Use of Overhead Transparencies on Business Meetings, Wharton Applied Research Center, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 1981; Vogel, Douglas R., Gary W. Dickson, and John A. Lehman, Persuasion and the Role of Visual Presentation Support: The UM/3M Study, 1986) Support: 1986) ),

16 OVER HEAD PROJECTOR We all have used it and let us use it and see: -how it differs -how effective it is.

17 Overhead Projector  Face to face contact with audience Projector located in front of room and near speaker for easy access Can be used to focus audience's attention Effective in a fully-lighted room; audience can follow handouts or take notes Ability to modify transparencies during presentations

18  Sequence of material can be modified during presentation Unframed transparencies easy to store and transport; easily fit in file folder Overlays can be used to simplify complex information into layers Short lead time (minutes) for preparation of transparencies Low cost of transparency material Overhead Projector

19 Disadvantages of Overhead Projectors Continuous tone color transparencies are costly Overhead projector is bulky and heavy to transport Framed transparencies are bulky and difficult to store Pages from books cannot be used effectively without modification since text will usually be too small for audience to read. Overhead projection is perceived as being "less professional" than slides in a formal setting.

20 Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors Design it on a computer and print out ? Colour (avoid yellow, orange and red). Use ON - OFF switch to focus attention –ON to focus attention on visual –OFF to focus attention on speaker Turn the projector off when you're not using it for extended periods of time to reduce distraction for audience.

21 o Use projector stage like a chalkboard »Acetate sheet or roll »Water soluble transparency pen o Notes for presentation can be: »Projected with presentation »Added in conjunction with presentation »Revealed one point at a time o Points in group discussions can be: »Listed to verify communication »Used to focus further discussion Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors

22 Pointing for emphasis –Concentrate attention on message being covered –Use opaque shapes like pens, coins, arrows, etc. Highlighting –Use pen of different color from original. (Be sure to use water-soluble pen if you need to re-use the original transparency.) –Use underline, circle, arrow, check, bullet, star, etc. as emphasis codes for your audience Progressive disclosure with opaque cover –Reveal topics one point at a time –Direct attention to point being covered –Prevent distraction Presentation Techniques for Overhead Projectors

23 Preparing transparencies The rule of six: –Six lines per transparencies –Six words per line –Six mm smallest letter size –Six cm (3+3 on each side) margin

24 Overhead Projection Survival Kit Extension Cord Plug Adapter Spare Bulb Transparency Pen

25 Overhead Chalk board Costly Movable Transparencies prepared before Clean Needs electricity Face audience always Cheap Fixed Written during class Dusty Only day light Back facing during writing

26 यो के गरेको हो


28 The wonder of PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint is not synonymous with presenting or teaching, with visual aids or even with a computer projector. An effective presenter must be familiar with, as Aristotle put it 2500 years ago, “all the available means of persuasion.” (Rhetoric, 1355b, 25)Rhetoric, 1355b, 25

29 Things you can do with a computer projector. Demonstration. Discussion or analysis Animation or reference source. Quotation for discussion. You can project a white board that allows for more free form discussion.

30 PowerPoint, however, has notable weaknesses. It's too easy to create slides. It wastes time. It takes too much control away from the presenter. It makes for ugly presentations. It does not lend itself to spontaneous discussions

31 PowerPoint, however, has notable weaknesses. It too easily becomes a replacement for the presenter, not a reinforcement. Presenters rely too much on the slides for structure. Presenters fail to establish the connections necessary to make their message memorable. Presenters fail to establish ethos, their most powerful appeal.

32 Why do we need to use audio- visual aids in your lesson? a. To maintain a high level of interest in the lesson b. To get students to use the knowledge at the beginning stages c. To promote greater student participation d. They can be used at all levels of learning

33 Points to be considered Quality of material to be used. Appropriateness to the subject. Group to whom it is to be used. Availability of material Availability of facilities for its use. Manner in which it is to be used.

34 Audio & Video Equipment: –Load all speakers’ presentations onto hard drive of one computer –Have a back-up disk or CD-ROM of all presentations.

35 Layout and Design: View your presentation on your computer screen from a distance of 10 feet. If you are having trouble reading your monitor, the effect will be the same when projected. Text placement should be consistent Make sure there is good contrast between the text and background

36 Backgrounds: Stick with a single and simple background. Too many "busy" items distracts from the content.

37 Colours: Select colours that are easy on the eye for several minutes of viewing Keep intense colours to a minimum

38 These are the actual Text Size: Projected text should be large enough to be read by all viewers (even the people in the back of the room). –Headline text: 36-44 –Sub text: 34-36 –Second level text: 24-28 24 point is a minimum for most situations.

39 Remember, as text size decreases, it becomes more difficult to read For individual playback, text size can be reduced to no smaller than 12-14 points Try to keep sub text to 7 lines Text Size:

40 Font Style: Select simple bold styles Select a standard system font. This helps ensure visual consistency when the presentation is displayed from a different computer than the one it was created on. ALL CAPITALIZED LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED.

41 Images: DO use images to supplement your message DO use images to emphasize your point DO NOT use an image as a space filler DO NOT use redundant images

42 Animation: Animation can help focus the viewers attention. But it should be kept simple and used sparingly. Keep it in the same folder

43 Additional Presenter Tips: Arrive early Check out the equipment, lights, and set- up Get oriented to rooms, lighting, and A/V Brush up on giving your presentation Give yourself time to feel prepared and confident

44 Let us see another real audiovisual aid You can prepare it but you need –TO DEVELOP INTEREST –TAKE TRAINING TO PREPARE IT –HAVE TIME TO DEVELOP IT –HAVE EQUIPMENTS TO USE IT

45 Proficiency in using audio- visual aids cannot be learned from a book; it comes only with practice.

46 Types and uses of teaching materials Boards, flip charts Small groups, problem based learning tutorials, workshops Lecture notes Small and large groups; help to improve interactivity Overhead projector Small and large groups, workshops, and interactive sessions 35 mm slides and PowerPoint Generally large groups and lecture formats

47 Types and uses of teaching materials Videos Good for clinical teaching in larger groups (use film of patients); also for teaching communication skills and practical skills (students can keep films for self appraisal) Life and plastic models Anatomy teaching in small groups or for self directed learning

48 Types and uses of teaching materials Computer assisted learning packages Small groups with a tutor; large groups in computer laboratories; self directed learning Skills centres and simulators Small groups learning clinical skills

49 The final points: Select the aids most in accordance with your objective. Use the aids to reinforce your message. Make sure that the audience will be able to see and hear clearly Practice using the aids beforehand

50 Suggested further reading Farrow R. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine, Creating teaching materials. BMJ. 2003;326:921-923. Cannon R, Newble D. A handbook for teachers in universities and colleges. London: Kogan. NewbleDI, Cannon R. A handbook for medical teachers. Dordrecht, Netharlands: Kluwer Academic. Kemp JE, Dayton DK. Planning and producing instructional media. New York: Harper and Row. Hartley J. Designing instructional text. Londan: Kogan.

51 What we can do with easy electronics? Carry a digital camera (do not need high pixel) Download with history Make a file of different system. Learn one movie maker program. Use it and refine it. Learning by doing.

52 This presentation is freely available on

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