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Physical Geography of South Asia. Arabian Sea Pakistan India Bay of Bengal Sri Lanka Indian Ocean Himalaya Mountains Ganges River New Delhi Bangladesh.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Geography of South Asia. Arabian Sea Pakistan India Bay of Bengal Sri Lanka Indian Ocean Himalaya Mountains Ganges River New Delhi Bangladesh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Geography of South Asia

2 Arabian Sea Pakistan India Bay of Bengal Sri Lanka Indian Ocean Himalaya Mountains Ganges River New Delhi Bangladesh Maldives Bhutan China Afghanista n Iran Oman Deccan Plateau Hindu Kush Mountains Indus River 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 1 15 14 13 12 11 9 17 16 18 19

3 Landforms and Resources Mount Everest is the world’s tallest mountain peak (29,035). Mount Everest and other peaks of the Himalaya Mountains have been a lure to mountain climbers around the world

4 Himalaya Mountains

5 Indian Subcontinent Includes seven countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives South Asia is sometimes called a subcontinent (a large land mass that is smaller than a continent) South Asia is ½ the size of the United States. It has more than one billion inhabitants – 1/5 world’s population Natural borders separate South Asia from rest of continent Asia – Himalayas to north, Arabian Sea to the west and Bay of Bengal to the east.

6 Mountains and Plateaus Northern Mountains The collision between two tectonic plates forced the land upward into mountain ranges (page 551) Himalayas-2 dozen peaks rising to 24,000 feet above, stretches for 1500 miles Contains Mt. Everest (29,035) Nestled high up in the mountains are two remote landlocked kingdoms Nepal and Bhutan. Hindu Kush Mountains lie at the west end of the Himalayans Form a rugged barrier between Pakistan and Afghanistan to the north Bloody battles have been fought over land routes through mountains including Khyber Pass 2 nd highest mountain peak is K2.

7 Mountains and Plateaus Southern Plateaus Deccan Plateau covers much of southern India. Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats flank plateau, separating it from coast These mountains block most moist winds and keep rain away causing the Deccan Plateau to be arid (dry)

8 Rivers, Deltas, and Plains Indo-Gangetic Plain lies between Deccan Plateau and northern mountain ranges

9 Great Rivers All these river originate from the melted snow of the Himalayas Indus River flows through Pakistan to Arabian Sea Ganges River Flow through India and empties into the Bay of Bengal Brahmaputra River Flows through India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal

10 Fertile Plains The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers support life in South Asia Provide irrigation In the spring they flood and carry rich soil, called alluvial soil When the rivers overflow their banks, they deposit soil on alluvial plains The Indo-Gangetic plain is one of most fertile farming areas in world and most populated Area contains 3/5 of India’s population The capital city of New Delhi and Kolkata are located here.

11 Offshore Islands Sri Lanka- called the “Tear drop” of India Sri Lanka is a large tear-shaped Lush tropical land of great natural beauty In center of islands are tall rugged mountains that reach 8000 feet Circling island is a coastal plains that includes long, palm-fringed beaches Maldives The Maldives are an archipelago – island group Made up of 1,200 small islands The islands are the low lying tops of submerged volcanoes. This is called an atoll

12 Natural Resources Water and soil South Asia relies heavily on its soil and water resources to provide food through farming and fishing Must feed a large population (1 billion) Many fish are found in South Asia in rivers including Mackerel, Sardines, Carp and Catfish Boats travel the rivers and coastlines carrying goods and people form town to town Governments are also trying to harness hydroelectric power

13 Forests Rain forests in India Produce hardwoods like sal and teak along with bamboo and sandalwood In the mountains of Nepal and Bhutan they have pine and fir trees. Deforestation is a big problem, it causes soil erosion, flooding, landslides and loss of wildlife

14 Minerals India is 4 th in the world in coal production and has enough petroleum to supply half its oil needs Also have natural gas Uranium deposits for nuclear energy Large iron-ore deposits Manganese, gypsum, chromium, bauxite, and copper India supplies most of world’s mica which is a key component in electrical equipment India and Sri Lanka both have substantial gemstone deposits (diamonds, sapphires, and rubies)

15 Climate zones Highland climate Himalayas and other northern mountains snow there year around Lower elevations including lush foothills and valleys of Nepal, Bhutan, and northern India are much warmer Humid Subtropical Indo Gangetic Plain Semiarid climate region of high temperatures is found at the western end of the Plain and in parts of the Deccan Plateau Desert Thar desert Driest part of the area. Average 10 inches of rain per year Tropical Wet climate Is found along western and eastern coasts of India and Bangladesh, temperature high and rainfall heavy

16 Monsoons seasonal winds that affect entire region October through February dry winds blow across south Asia from Northeast June through September, the winds blow in from the Southwest, bringing moist ocean air Monsoons are highly unpredictable Some areas get too little rain, some too much Sometimes beneficial, sometimes difficult KEY POINT #1: Monsoons are WIND systems that bring heavy rain to South Asia.

17 Cyclones Extreme weather pattern in Asia is a cyclone. Violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain. Destructive in Bangladesh

18 Vegetation Most forested areas lie in tropical wet zone with teak, ebony, bamboo trees In highland zone, there are forests of pine, fir, and other evergreens River valleys have forests of sal, oak, chestnut Only 1/5 of India’s original forests remains because of deforestation. In semiarid areas- desert shrubs and grasses In tropical wet and dry of northern Sri Lanka – grasses and trees

19 Human- Environment Interaction Hinduism religion of most Indians Ganges River is a holy, sacred river to the Hindu they wade in the river to wash away their sins.

20 A Sacred River Ganges River Provides water for drinking, farming and transportation Ganges is known in India as Gangamai which means river brings life Hindu’s worship the river as a goddess and they believe the river has healing powers Pilgrims come from are over the world to drink and bathe in water At Varansi, thousands gather everyday. When the sun rises, Hindus enter water for purification and prayer. They float baskets of flowers and burning candles KEY POINT#2: Ganges River is part of Indian Folklore and mythology, provides drinking and irrigation water, and also is believed to provide miracles to religious followers. KEY POINT #3: Calcutta is one of the worlds busiest seaports and is nicknamed the “City of Joy”

21 Polluted River After centuries of intense human use, it has become one of the most polluted in the world Millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste flow into the river everyday Dead animal and even human bodies are thrown into the river. Water is poisoned with toxic chemicals and deadly bacteria Hepatitis, typhoid, or cholera Since 1986, the Indian government has tried to restore the health of river Plans for sewage treatment plants Tougher regulations on industrial polluters


23 Controlling the Feni River The Feni River is a very important river in Bangladesh. The Feni floods yearly Flooding is caused by Monsoon rains Storm surges Sea water surges up the river and onto coastal plains Villages and fields are flooded

24 Building a Dam In 1980s, engineers in Bangladesh proposed building an earthen dam, but mouth is 1 mile wide and it would be expensive Using people power Country has large population available for construction work Project hired Dutch engineers to help Project emphasized the use of cheap materials and low-tech procedures Laid down Bamboo and reeds weighted with boulders, covered with clay- filled bags After 6 months they completed the dam 3 months later a cyclone hit the dam and it held back the storm surge

25 South Asia Pack What is the GDP Per Capita of the country of India in US dollars? Which country has the highest population density? KEY POINT#4: Bangladesh his the highest population density of all the countries within the region and is most crowded.

26 Human Geography of South Asia

27 India

28 Invasions, Empires and Independence India is an ancient land. Culture and history date back 4000 years The first civilization in India was in the Indus valley

29 Early History Aryans (1500 BC) a light-skinned people, crossed the mountains of the Hindu Kush and spread across northern India Aryans established small kingdoms on Ganges Plain, pushed darker-skinned Dravidians toward the south Persians and Greeks Invaded and occupied the Indus Valley Mauryan Empire (250 BC) Beginning in 321 BC, Mauryn empire arose in lower Ganges- Great Mauryn leader, Asoka helped spread Buddhism throughout Asia Gupta Empire (400 AD) ruled northern India Mughal Empire (1500 AD) Invaders from Central Asia and Southwest Asia began entering India Muslims conquered Indus

30 Europeans Arrived In the 1500s, European traders came to India, looking for spices, cloth, and other goods not available in Europe The British established the British East Indian Company. Through East India Company, British gained control of trade in 1757. In 1857, British put down revolt to establish direct rule for 90 years- called raj Mohandas Gandhi began nonviolent resistance and eventually Britain granted its independence in 1947. Independence brought division in India Pakistan and Bangladesh left India and formed their own countries based on Muslim rule. There is violence still today between Muslims and Hindu KEY POINT #5: Religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims caused India to be divided between two nations in 1947.

31 Governing the World’s largest democracy India is a democracy. Largest democracy in the world (over 1 billion people) India’s democracy reflects aspects of American and British system It is a federal government Shares power between states and federal government Parliamentary democracy Prime minister elected from the legislative branch. India has to manage relations between Muslims and other minorities

32 Economic Challenges India has one of the world’s largest economies, but per capita income is low. ½ of India’s population live in poverty. Dependence on Farming 2/3 of population depend on small farms and struggle to survive (subsistence farming) One solution would be to redistribute land from rich land owners to poor farmers. This is called land reform Green Revolution- more technology advanced farming techniques

33 Green Revolution KEY POINT #7: As farming practices become more advanced and genetically altered, insects and other bacteria will adapt and become harder to eliminate. KEY POINT #6: Green Revolution introduced hybrid crops to promote agricultural development.

34 Growing Industry India is big producer of textiles, iron, steel, chemicals, machinery and food products Mumbai (Bombay) – India’s leading commercial center. Many computer software companies are located there KEY POINT #8: India and less developed countries have huge supplies of cheap labor which causes many companies to outsource business there

35 Life in Modern India Daily Life Arranged marriages Large families Often generations of family live under one roof Divorce is rare, marriages are male-dominated Vegetarian Enjoy music, sports and movies Bollywood

36 Education Since the 1950’s India has placed education as a high priority. More people are finding work in factories and offices so there is a growing need for more education Most middle-class children attend school Literacy is rising

37 Indian Culture Many languages 18 major language groups are recognized in the constitution, Hindi is official language English spoken especially among government workers and businesses More than 1000 languages and dialects spoken

38 Hinduism Hindus make up 80% of population MONOTHEISTIC Believe in Reincarnation They believe in Karma According to Hindus, everyone is born into a particular moral caste with a specific duty or dharma and can move into different caste by reincarnation The Caste System is a Aryan system of social classes Brahmans- priests and scholars Kshatriyar ( rulers and scholars) Vaisyas ( farmers and merchants) Sudras ( artisans and laborers) Dalits (untouchables) KEY POINT #9: Images of people morphed with animals with multiple arms and legs are typical images of Hinduism KEY POINT #10: The caste system still continues to influence Indian society AND also promotes discrimination. DRAW THIS

39 CASTE KEY POINT #11: The caste system represents the rigid social structure of traditional India AND holds back social equality

40 Sikhism 5th largest religion in world Mostly practiced in northern India Monotheistic Believe in faith and justice

41 Pakistan and Bangladesh Pakistan Home to the ancient Indus valley civilization well-planned cities which had brick buildings It fell to Aryans in 1500 BC Later it became part of the Mauryan, Gupta, Nughal and British Empires

42 Partition and War After independence from Britain Two countries were created, Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India This separation caused conflict 1 million died Civil War then broke out between East and West Pakistan. East Pakistan won its independence from West Pakistan. India helped them. East Pakistan became Bangladesh (page574)

43 Military Rule Short periods of elected governments interrupted long periods of military rule for Pakistan and Bangladesh Political corruption was throughout government Pakistan has fought several wars over Kashmir (disputed land) with India (page 574)

44 Kashmir KEY POINT #12: The conflict over the disputed region of Kashmir has been a conflict between the nations of India and Pakistan.

45 Struggling Economies Bangladesh 8 th most populated country in the world. Pakistan 9 th most populated country in the world Per capita income is low/High poverty rate Subsistence Farming People struggle to grow enough crops to feed families (subsistence agriculture) People don’t use modern farm techniques and instead rely on less-productive, traditional ways In irrigated part of Indus valley in Pakistan, farmers grow enough cotton and rice to export In Bangladesh, rice is main crop, also jute (plant used for rope, carpets, and industrial-quality sacks). They also fish.

46 Small Industries Neither Pakistan or Bangladesh is highly industrial – lack capital and resources Growing textile industry Microcredit – small loans available for entrepreneurs. These have helped small businesses grow KEY POINT# 13: Microcredit helps improve the standard of living in specific areas of South Asia especially among women.

47 One religion, many people Islamic culture Both Pakistan and Bangladesh are Muslim Mosques can be found here Citizens celebrate Ramadan Both countries were key part of the Muslim Mughal that ruled the Indian subcontinent. Pakistan is stricter on imposing Islamic law on its citizens – prevents women from having contact with men who aren’t relatives, they must also wear veils in public KEY POINT #14: A range of beliefs always exists in most religions.

48 Ethnic Diversity Pakistan has 5 main ethnic groups with own language, (Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathans, Muhjirs, and Balochs) and they have own regional origins except Muhajirs who migrated to India after partition Urdu, language of Muhajirs used as official language People of Bangladesh are mostly Bengalis Bengalese speak Sanskrit- ancient Indo- Aryan language

49 Modern Life and Culture Arranged marriages are common, families are large, most people live in small villages Homes made of sun-baked mud, bamboo, or wood Cricket is a popular sport Love of poetry- poetry is special interest in Pakistan and Bangladesh Mushairas – poetry readings Rabindranath Tagore- most popular poet in Bangladesh, won Nobel Peace Prize Music and dance – folk music of various types are popular in cities and rural areas Qawwali- form of devotional singing

50 Nepal and Bhutan Mountain Kingdoms- located in Himalayas, strong religious traditions Geographic Isolation Mountainous landscape, isolated two countries throughout histories Landlocked (no access to the sea)and terrain made it hard to conquer China controlled and Britain influenced them, but most of the time the countries stayed independent and isolated

51 Evolving Monarchies For much of their history Nepal and Bhutan were split into small ruling states Hindu kings ruled Nepal, Buddhist priests controlled Bhutan Unified kingdoms emerged in both countries led by hereditary monarchs Today they are constitutional monarchies- rulers powers are limited by a constitution

52 Developing Economies Limited Resources Poor countries based on agriculture Because region is mountainous, not much land for cultivation so they create terraces on mountain sides Also have livestock like cattle, sheep, and yaks Also timber industry- although leads to deforestation

53 Increasing Tourism Fastest growing industries in Nepal Tourists come to visit valley of Kathmandu (capital of Nepal) and to climb Himalayas Hotels and restaurants have popped up Tourism has damaged the environment Bhutan regulates industry by limiting visitors and keeping parts of country off limits

54 Rich Cultural Traditions Nepal majority of people are Indo-Nepalese Hindus speak Nepali- version of Sanskrit Sherpas Ethnic group from the high Himalayas Serve as mountain guides in the Everest region Bhutan Main ethnic group is the Bhote live in two-story houses that they live on the top and have livestock on the bottom Bhutan also has a sizable Nepalese minority Bhutan government has tried to get them to assimilate but has not been successful

55 Religious customs Religion is a powerful force in Nepal and Bhutan Nepal are mostly Hindu Bhutan are mostly Buddhist In Bhutan they use Mandalas- geometric designs that are symbols of universe and aid in meditation Many monasteries are located in both Nepal and Bhutan

56 Sri Lanka and the Maldives Settlement of Sri Lanka Sinhalesi – came from the Indian subcontinent around the year 600 BC Tamils- Another group from southern Indian settled Sri Lanka around the year 400 AD. Europeans began to colonize Sri Lanka in 16 th century, Sri Lanka eventually got its independence from the British in 1948 After independence, tensions grew between Sinhalese and Tamil, 1980s - civil war broke out Main religion is Buddhism

57 A Muslim State in the Maldives Maldives Made up of 1,200 different islands Maldives was settled by Buddhists and Hindus Later it was conquered by Arabs and most of its people converted to Muslim 6 dynasties of Muslim rulers called Sultans governed Maldives In 1968, the Maldives declared itself a republic Maldives is multi-ethnic

58 Economic Activity in the Islands Sri Lanka Based on agriculture – leading tea- producer Small timber, fishing and mining industries Gem mining is important Maldives Farming is limited Fishing is big Tourism is big

59 Today’s issues in South Asia

60 Growing pains On May 11, 2000, India’s population officially hit 1 billion. Their population is growing so rapidly, many citizens lack basic necessities such as food, clothing and shelter Population Grows From 1947 – 2000, population tripled Unless growth rate slows down by 2045, India will have 1.5 billion people living in land 1/3 the size of the United States 3 out of 10 people in the world live in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. South Asia is home to 22 percent of the world’s population, but these people live on 3 percent of the land. KEY POINT#15: Traditional, social, and economic patterns are difficult to change within this region.

61 Demographics India Where is the bulk of India’s population located. (Pick from Below) 1) Top of Pyramid 2) Bottom of Pyramid 3) Middle of Pyramid According to this Population Pyramid, would India be classified as Developed, Newly Industrialized, or Developing India-2000

62 Inadequate Resources South Asia is struggling to govern and meet the needs of their people. Widespread poverty and illiteracy. Poor sanitation Lack of health education In order to keep up, every year India will have to: Build 127,000 new village schools Hire 400,000 new teachers Construct 2.5 million new homes Create 4 million new jobs Make 6 million more tons of food

63 Managing Population Growth South Asia has struggled for decades to find solutions to its population explosion Solution #1 Smaller families India spends $1 billion per year encouraging Indians to have smaller families Not working because Indian women marry before 18 Children can be source of income (beg for money/work in fields) People think more babies = more security when they get older Infant morality rate is very high (75 per 1000)so people have more babies to make up for it KEY POINT #16: Families in India continue to have large families because the infant mortality rate is very high!

64 World Population Comparison KEY POINT #17: South Asia, Europe and North Eastern North America all have high population densities.

65 Education is the key Solution #2 Education India has limited funds for education, only six dollars per pupil per year (US spends 6,300 per pupil). Education is essential to break the cycle of poverty Also gives women opportunities if they educate them Health education is also needed

66 KEY POINT#18: The percentage of the poor in India (relative to total population) has declined over the past decades.

67 Living with Extreme Weather South Asia is home to an annual cycle of powerful, destructive weather The Monsoon Seasons South Asia has two monsoon seasons Monsoon is a wind system not a rainstorm Summer monsoon- blows from SW across Indian Ocean – brings vast amounts of rain that can cause severe flooding Winter monsoon – blows from NE across the Himalayas – carry little moisture and drought can occur

68 KEY POINT #19: Winter monsoons can bring cold air from the mountains and destroy India’s crops.

69 Impact of the Monsoons Physical impact- Rains of summer monsoon help agriculture – nourish rain forests, irrigate crops, and produce floodwater that deposits layers of rich sediment to replenish the soil Summer monsoon also brings cyclones (hurricanes) Destroys villages Cause flooding Bangladesh is site of worst natural disaster in 20 th century Droughts in winter monsoon bring problems also Lush landscapes become arid (dry) wastelands

70 Economic Impact Agriculture is difficult because of the climate Flooding ruins crops Drought ruins crops People also lose homes to weather-related catastrophes People have taken positive steps: Building houses on silts Building concrete cyclone shelters Building dams to control floodwaters

71 Political Tensions Conditions caused by weather patterns have also caused political disputes India constructed Farokka Dam across Ganges to bring water to Kolkata. Because India and Bangladesh share water, it left little water for drinking and irrigation in southern Bangladesh Two countries settled dispute in 1997 when they signed treaty giving each country water rights to the Ganges

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